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MEMOIRS 


OF  THE 


NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES 


Volume   XY 


WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT  PRINTING  OFFICE 

1921 


NATIONAL    ACADEMY    OF    SCIENCES. 


Volume    XV. 


PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  ARMY 

Part  I. — History  and  Organization  of  Psychological  Examining  and  the 
Materials  of  Examination. 

Part  II. — Methods  of  Examining:  History,  and  Development,  Prelim- 
inary Results. 

Part  III. — Measurements  of  Intelligence  in  the  United  States  Army. 


EDITED    BY 


ROBERT  M.  YERKES. 


I    ttol 


Submitted  to  the  Surgeon  General  of  the  Army  as  the  Official  Report  of  the  Division  of 
Psychology  of  the  Office  of  the  Surgeon  General,  and  published  with  the  approval  of  the 
Department  of  War. 


PART  I.— HISTORY  AND  ORGANIZATION  OF  PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  AND  THE  MATERIALS 

OF  EXAMINATION. 

Page. 

Chapter  1.  Preofficial  period  of  preparation  for  national  service 7 

2.  Official  military  trial  of  psychological  examining , 11 

3.  Period  of  extension  of  examining 27 

4.  General  summary 91 

5.  Provision  of  materials  for  psychological  examining 120 

PART  II.— METHODS  OF  EXAMINING:  HISTORY,  DEVELOPMENT,  AND  PRELIMINARY  RESULTS. 

Chapter    1.  Work  of  the  committee  at  Vineland,  N.J 299 

2.  Unofficial  trial  of  methods 313 

3.  Acceptance  of  methods  by  the  War  Department  and  early  modifications  resulting  from  official  use.  325 

4.  Revision  of  group  examination  a 327 

5.  Methods  of  segregation 347 

6.  Development  of  a  substitute  group  test  for  illiterates  and  foreigners 363 

7.  Data  obtained  through  more  extensive  camp  trial  of  examination  beta  and  resulting  modifications.  379 

8.  Revision  of  methods  of  individual  examination 397 

9.  Effect  of  doubling  the  time  limits  in  the  alpha  and  beta  examinations 415 

10.  The  assignment  of  letter  ratings 421 

11.  Performance  in  intelligence  examinations  as  related  to  officers'  estimates  of  intelligence 425 

12.  Performance  in  intelligence  examinations  as  related  to  military  efficiency 453 

13.  Conditions  of  examining  and  procedure  adopted  during  the  initial  experiment 469 

14.  Summary  of  data  concerning  groups  examined 487 

15.  Additional  statistics  on  examination  a 533 

PART  III— MEASUREMENTS  OF  INTELLIGENCE  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  ARMY. 

Chapter    1.  Sampling  of  intelligence  records  and  mode  of  analysis 553 

2.  A  general  method  of  statistical  interpretation  of  the  principal  sample 573 

3.  Comparison  of  forms  of  examination  alpha 659 

4.  Camp  differences  in  intelligence  ratings 665 

5.  Intelligence  ratings  by  states 681 

6.  Relation  of  intelligence  ratings  to  nativity 693 

7.  Relation  of  intelligence  ratings  to  length  of  residence  in  United  States 701 

8.  Intelligence  of  the  negro 705 

9.  Literacy 743 

10.  Statistics  on  education  and  its  relation  to  intelligence  examinations 747 

11.  Intelligence  of  the  draft  in  relation  to  fitness  for  military  service 785 

12.  Disciplinary  cases 799 

13.  Influence  of  certain  physical  conditions  on  the  intelligence  score 809 

14.  Relation  of  intelligence  ratings  to  age 813 

15.  Intelligence  ratings  of  occupational  groups 819 

16.  Relation  of  ratings  to  arm  of  the  service 839 

17.  Relation  of  rank  to  intelligence 853 

18.  Officers'  training  camps  and  noncommissioned  officers'  schools 861 

19.  Data  from  colleges  and  the  Students'  Army  Training  Corps 869 

20.  Distribution  of  scores  on  the  tests  in  examinations  alpha  and  beta 873 

Subject  Index 877 

ni 


GENERAL  INTRODUCTION. 


In  the  organization  of  the  forces  of  the  United  States  for  participation  in  The  World  War, 
science  accepted  an  important  r61e.  Activities  which  during  days  of  peace  had  been  directed 
to  the  development  of  science  and  its  industrial  applications  were  suddenly  concentrated  on 
the  vital  problems  of  national  defense.  In  common  with  the  other  and  more  exact  sciences, 
psychology  demonstrated  its  preparedness  for  wholly  unexpected  practical  demands  and 
responsibilities. 

When,  on  April  6,  1917,  the  Nation  was  called  to  war  a  group  of  experimental  psychologists 
promptly  assembled  to  consider  means  of  psychological  service.  As  plans  of  action  developed 
the  size  of  this  group,  its  opportunities  and  responsibilities,  steadily  increased.  The  materials 
of  this  report  represent  the  methods  and  results  of  only  the  field  of  psychological  examining. 
Other  phases  of  psychological  service,  equally  important  with  that  of  psychological  examining, 
have  been,  or  will  be,  presented  elsewhere.1 

This  volume  constitutes  a  complete  account  of  the  history,  methods,  and  results  of  psy- 
chological examining  in  the  United  States  Army.  It  consists  of  three  parts.  Part  I  is  the 
official  history  of  the  development  of  the  service  and  of  its  conduct  during  the  war.  It  is 
supplemented  by  reproductions  of  the  printed  materials  which  were  devised  and  used.  Part 
II  is  devoted  to  a  complete  account  of  the  preparation  of  methods,  their  characteristics,  and 
their  evaluation  as  practical  procedures.  In  Part  III  the  results  of  examining  are  presented 
in  summary  fashion,  and,  for  reasons  which  are  indicated  below,  wholly  inadequately. 

The  report  was  prepared  xmder  extremely  trying  circumstances,  for  immediately  following 
the  armistice  of  November  11,  1918,  pressure  developed  within  the  War  Department  and 
among  the  emergency  personnel  for  early  discharge.  This  rendered  it  difficult  to  hold,  for  a 
sufficient  length  of  time,  a  competent  staff  of  psychologists  to  analyze  the  data  of  examinations 
and  to  prepare  materials  for  publication.  It  was  necessary  to  choose  between  the  preparation 
of  a  report  which  contained  a  maximum  of  material  and  one  which  expressed  a  maximum  of 
precision.  The  decision  rested  with  the  first  alternative.  Many  of  the  obvious  defects  of  this 
volume  must  be  charged  against  this  practical  decision. 

The  problem  of  publication  was  still  further  complicated  by  a  sense  of  responsibility  to 
two  important  agencies:  the  military  establishment  on  the  one  hand  and  the  science  of  psy- 
chology on  the  other.  This  dual  obligation  rendered  the  task  of  reporting  psychological  examin- 
ing peculiarly  difficult,  and  to  it  the  remaining  shortcomings  of  the  report  may  fairly  be  ascribed. 
The  report  supplies,  for  the  use  alike  of  soldier  and  scientist,  essential  information  concerning 
methods  and  results. 

The  three  parts  of  the  volume  are  interdependent.  No  one  of  them  can  be  used  satisfac- 
torily, either  for  military  purposes  or  in  scientific  research,  apart  from  the  others.  To  enable 
the  reader  to  obtain  immediately  a  comprehensive  view  of  the  entire  report,  a  list  of  the 
chapters  for  the  three  parts  is  presented. 

1  Yerkes,  Robert  M.    Psychology  in  relation  to  the  war.    Psych.  Rev.,  25  Mar.,  1918,  85-115. 

Manual  of  Medical  Research  Laboratory,  pp.  103-199.    War  Dept.,  1918. 

Medical  studies  in  aviation.    IV.  Psychological  observations  and  methods.    Journ.  Amer.  Med.  Asso.,  71,  Oct.,  1918, 1382-1400. 

Thorndike,  Edward  L.    Scientific  personnel  work.    Science,  n.  s.,  49,  Jan.,  1919,  53-61. 

Dunlap,  Knight.    Psychological  research  in  aviation.    Science,  n.  s.,  49,  Jan.,  1919,  94-97. 

The  measurement  and  utilization  of  brain  power  in  the  Army.    Science,  n.  s.,  44,  Mar.,  1919,  221-226;  251-259. 

The  personnel  system  of  the  United  States  Army.  Vol.  I,  The  evolution  of  the  personnel  system;  Vol.  II,  The  personnel  manual.  War 
Dept.,  Washington,  D.  C,  1919. 

Report  of  the  psychology  committee  of  the  National  Research  Council.    Psych.  Rev.,  20,  Mar.,  1919,  83-149. 

Air  Service  Medical,  pp.  293-330.    War  Dept.,  Govt.  Printing  Office,  1919. 

Intellectual  and  educational  status  of  the  medical  profession  as  represented  in  the  United  States  Army.  Bulletin  National  Research 
Council,  No.  8, 1921. 


VI  GENERAL  INTRODUCTION. 

Entire  responsibility  for  this  volume  rests  with  the  staff  of  the  Division  (later  Section)  of 
Psychology  in  the  office  of  the  Surgeon  General.  So  much  of  the  work  has  been  done 
cooperatively  that  no  formal  ascription  of  credit  is  possible.  The  chief  service  to  the  Army  was 
rendered  by  the  staffs  of  examiners  in  the  training  camps.  It  is  not  possible  to  do  full  justice 
even  to  those  psychologists  who  submitted  to  the  division  field  reports  of  special  merit  and 
value.  So  far  as  practicable,  responsibility  and  credit  for  the  immediate  preparation  of  this 
official  report  are  indicated  in  the  statements  prefatory  to  the  several  parts  of  the  volume. 

The  Chief  of  the  Division  of  Psychology  expresses  peculiar  obligation  to  three  staff  officers 
who  together  rendered  possible  the  completion  of  this  volume.  Maj.  Lewis  M.  Terman  assumed 
responsibility  for  the  preparation  of  the  account  of  methods;  Capt.  Edwin  G.  Boring  directed 
the  analysis  of  results,  and  after  the  separation  of  the  Chief  of  the  Division  from  the  service 
assumed  editorial  responsibility;  Maj.  Harold  C.  Bingham,  in  addition  to  assisting  in  important 
ways  throughout  the  preparation  of  the  volume,  became  responsible  as  Chief  of  the  Section 
of  Psychology  for  the  laborious  and  thankless  task  of  reading  proofs  and  preparing  an  index. 

Without  the  intelligent  interest  and  support  of  the  Secretary  of  War,  Newton  D.  Baker, 
and  of  his  assistant,  Dr.  Frederick  P.  Keppel  (later  Third  Assistant  Secretary  of  War),  and 
of  the  Chief  of  Staff,  the  establishment  of  the  service  of  psychological  examining  in  the  United 
States  Army  would  have  been  impossible. 

The  first  step  toward  the  introduction  of  psychological  service  was  taken  by  Cols.  Victor  C. 
Vaughan  and  William  H.  Welch,  of  the  Medical  Reserve  Corps,  who  as  members  of  the  National 
Research  Council  and  of  the  staff  of  the  Surgeon  General  recommended  to  Maj.  Gen.  William  C. 
Gorgas  that  the  methods  of  examining  presented  by  the  committee  for  psychology  of  the  National 
Research  Council  be  given  practical  trial.  This  recommendation  was  accepted,  and  the  Surgeon 
General,  with  the  assistance  of  his  chief  executive  officer,  Col.  Charles  L.  Furbush,  promptly 
arranged  for  official  trial  of  the  methods  and  subsequently  facilitated  their  introduction  through- 
out the  Army. 

Substantial  assistance  was  rendered  to  psychological  officers  during  the  early  period  of  the 
work  by  Col.  Pearce  Bailey  and  Lieut.  Col.  Edgar  King,  of  the  staff  of  the  Surgeon  General. 
From  the  beginning  of  his  service  as  Surgeon  General  of  the  Army  psychological  examining 
had  the  hearty  and  effective  support  of  Maj.  Gen.  Merritt  W.  Ireland  and  his  staff. 

Among  the  many  other  officers  who  furthered  in  important  ways  this  new  variety  of  per- 
sonnel service  special  mention  should  be  made  of  Col.  Henry  A.  Shaw,  Brig.  Gen.  E.  L.  Munson 
Col.  Roger  Brooke,  Brig.  Gens.  Robert  I.  Rees  and  R.  J.  Burt,  and  Col.  W.  D.  Scott. 

Robert  M.  Yerkes, 

Lieut.  Col,  U.  S.  R. 

Washington,  D.  O, 

May  17,  1920. 


NATIONAL    ACADEMY    OF    SCIENCES 


Volume    XV 


PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  ARMY 

Part  I 
HISTORY  AND  ORGANIZATION  OF  PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING 

AND  THE 

MATERIALS  OF  EXAMINATION 


TABLE  OF  CONTENTS. 


PART  I.— HISTORY  AND  ORGANIZATION  OF  PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  AND  THE  MATERIALS 

OF  EXAMINATION. 

Page. 

Introduction  to  Part  I 5 

HISTORY   AND    ORGANIZATION    OF   PSYCHOLOGICAL   EXAMINING. 

Chapter  1.  Preofficial  period  of  preparation  for  national  service 7 

Chapter  2.  Official  military  trial  of  psychological  examining 11 

Sec.  1.  Provision  of  professional  personnel 11 

Psychological  staffs  of  cantonments 13 

Sec.  2.  Conduct  of  examining  in  cantonments 17 

Sec.  3.  Special  investigations  and  reports  from  examining  stations 17 

Sec.  4.  Relation  of  psychological  examining  to  classification  of  personnel  in  the  Army 17 

Sec.  5.  Official  inspection  of  psychological  examining 18 

Sec.  6.  Recommendation  for  continuation  and  extension  of  psychological  examining 24 

Sec.  7.  Reports  of  company  commanders 25 

Sec.  8.  Decision  concerning  extension  of  examining 25 

Chapter  3.  Period  of  extension  of  examining 27 

Sec.  1.  Official  plan  and  its  approval 27 

Sec.  2.  Provision  of  psychological  personnel 30 

Staff  of  the  Division  of  Psychology 30 

Organization  of  a  school  for  military  psychology 31 

Personnel  of  the  Division  of  Psychology 36 

Sec.  3.  Appointments  and  promotions  in  the  Sanitary  Corps  for  psychological  sendee 41 

Sec.  4.  General  Orders  covering  psychological  examining 54 

Sec.  5.  Provision  of  buildings  for  psychological  service 57 

Sec.  6.  Organization  of  examining  in  camps 62 

Camp  organization 62 

Relations  of  psychological  to  psychiatric  service 87 

Relations  of  psychological  to  personnel  work 90 

Chapter  4.  General  summary 91 

Sec.  1.  Chronology 91 

Preofficial  action 91 

Official  action 91 

Sec.  2.  Favorable  and  unfavorable  influences 95 

Sec.  3.  Summary  of  examining 99 

Sec.  4.  Official  opinions  concerning  the  military  value  of  examining 104 

Sec.  5.  Varieties  of  psychological  service 114 

MATERIALS    OF   EXAMINATION. 

Chapter    5.  Provision  of  materials  for  psychological  examining 120 

Sec.    1.  Examiner's  Guide,  first  revision 123 

Sec.    2.  Directions  for  scoring  examination  a 148 

Sec.    3.  Instructions  for  scoring  and  combining  tests  of  individual  examination  series 149 

Sec.    4.  Examiner's  Guide,  second  revision 153 

Sec.    5.  Examiner's  Guide  for  Students'  Army  Training  Corps 200 

Sec.    6.  Examinations  a  and  b 201 

Sec.    7.  Examination  alpha 219 

Sec.    8.  Examination  beta,  preliminary  form 235 

Sec.    9.  Examination  beta,  form  0 250 

Sec.  10.  Stencils  for  scoring  group  examinations 259 

Sec.  11.  Individual  examinations 259 

Sec.  12.  Literacy  tests 279 

Sec.  13.  Report  blanks 286 

3 


4  TABLE  OF  CONTENTS. 

PLATES. 

Page. 

1.  First  company  of  commissioned  psychologists,  School  for  Military  Psychology,  Camp  Greenleaf 32 

2.  First  company  of  enlisted  psychologists,  School  for  Military  Psychology,  Camp  Greenleaf 33 

3A.  Morale  staff  at  Camp  Greenleaf 34 

3B.  Staff  of  the  School  for  Military  Psychology,  Camp  Greenleaf,  May,  1918 34 

4A.  Supply  company  barracks  assigned  to  Psychological  Examining  Board 76 

4B.  Supply  company  barracks  assigned  to  Psychological  Board  at  Camp  Grant,  showing  typical  psychological 

staff 76 

5A.  Group  examination  a  in  a  hospital  ward,  Camp  Lee,  October,  1917 90 

5B.  Scoring  group  examination  a,  Camp  Lee,  October,  1917 90 

6A.  Negro  recruits,  in  line  before  barracks  building,  waiting  for  alpha  and  beta  group  examinations 91 

6B.  Group  examination  alpha,  being  taken  by  negro  recruits 91 

7A.  Group  examination  beta,  with  negro  recruits 90 

7B.  Scoring  examination  papers 90 

8A.  Recruits  during  demonstration  in  examination  beta 91 

8B.  Demonstration  of  test  1  in  examination  beta 91 

8C.  Demonstration  of  test  2  in  examination  beta 91 

8D.  Demonstration  of  test  3  in  examination  beta 91 

9.     Individual  examination  of  enlisted  men  with  Stanford-Binet  scale 90 

10A.  Individual  examination  of  recruit  in  test  1  of  the  performance  scale,  the  ship  test 91 

10B.  Individual  examination  of  recruit  in  test  2  of  the  performance  scale,  the  manikin  test 91 

11A.  Individual  examination  of  recruit  in  test  4  of  the  performance  scale,  the  cube  construction  test 90 

11B.  Individual  examination  of  recruit  in  test  10  of  the  performance  scale,  the  picture  completion  test 90 

12A.  The  Stenquist  skill  test 91 

12B.  Enlisted  men  being  given  the  Stenquist  skill  test 91 

13.  Score  values  for  various  types  of  performance  with  Stenquist  materials 146 

14.  Score  values  for  various  types  of  performance  with  Stenquist  materials 147 

15.  Group  examination  beta,  blackboard  demonstrations,  tests  1  to  4 164 

16.  Group  examination  beta,  blackboard  demonstrations,  tests  5  to  S 165 

17.  Ship  test  with  pieces  arranged  for  subject  to  place  in  frame 182 

18.  Materials  for  performance  scale,  picture  arrangement  test  (test  9) 188 

19.  Materials  for  performance  scale,  picture  completion  test  (test  10),  blocks  for  insertion 190 

20.  Materials  for  performance  scale,  picture  completion  test  (test  10),  left  half  of  board 191 

21.  Materials  for  performance  scale,  picture  completion  test  (test  10),  right  half  of  board 190 


INTRODUCTION  TO  PART  I. 


The  story  of  the  introduction,  development,  and  conduct  of  psychological  examining  in  the 
Army  is  told  with  substantial  completeness  in  this  part  of  the  report.  Attempt  has  been  made 
to  indicate  the  novelty,  practical  success,  and  military  value  of  the  work  and  also  to  suggest 
the  educational,  industrial,  and  scientific  significance  of  the  methods  which  military  demands 
brought  into  use.  This  official  history  begins  with  the  inception  of  the  idea  of  the  psychological 
classification  of  recruits  and  ends  with  the  termination  of  the  military  emergency. 

In  order  that  all  of  the  printed  materials  of  military  psychological  examining  shall  be 
rendered  permanently  available,  they  are  reproduced  in  this  part  of  the  report.  Of  primary 
value  to  the  science  of  psychology  are  the  forms  of  the  Examiner's  Guide. 

In  the  preparation  of  Part  I  of  the  report  the  Chief  of  the  Division  of  Psychology  was 
assisted  editorially  by  Capt.  E.  G.  Boring. 

Robert  M.  Yebkes, 
Lieut.  Colonel,  V.  S.  R. 
Washington,  D.  C, 

May  15,  1920. 

5 


PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  AEMY. 


Part  I.— HISTORY  AND  ORGANIZATION  OF  PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING 
AND  THE  MATERIALS  OF  EXAMINATION. 


HISTORY  AND  ORGANIZATION  OF  PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING. 


CHAPTER  I. 


PREOFFICIAL  PERIOD  OF  PREPARATION  FOR  NATIONAL  SERVICE. 


On  April  6,  1917,  in  connection  with  a  meeting  of  a  group  of  experimental  psychologists 
which  was  at  that  time  being  held  in  Emerson  Hall,  Cambridge,  Mass.,  a  session  was  arranged 
by  Messrs.  Langfeld  and  Yerkes,  with  the  approval  of  the  chairman  of  the  meeting,  Mr.  Tit- 
chener,  for  discussion  of  the  relations  of  psychology  to  national  defense.  Capt.  W.  S.  Bowen, 
instructor  in  military  science  and  tactics,  Harvard  University,  attended  this  meeting  and  made 
valuable  suggestions  concerning  the  possible  role  of  psychology.  At  the  conclusion  of  the 
discussion  it  was  moved  by  Mr.  Warren  that  a  committee,  consisting  of  Messrs.  Yerkes,  Bingham, 
and  Dodge,  be  appointed  to  gather  information  concerning  the  possible  relations  of  psychology 
to  military  affairs  and  to  further  the  application  of  psychological  methods  to  mditary  problems. 

On  the  evening  of  the  same  day  at  an  informal  conference  of  the  members  of  this  committee 
(Mr.  Bingham's  place  was  taken  by  Mr.  Ogden)  it  was  decided  that  the  matter  should  be  placed 
before  the  councd  of  the  American  Psychological  Association,  so  that  the  national  organization 
rather  than  any  restricted  or  local  group  might  take  action.  Following  this  conference  the 
president  of  the  American  Psychological  Association  prepared  the  following  letter,  which,  on 
Aprd  7,  was  dispatched  to  the  members  of  the  council  of  the  association: 

Emerson  Hall, 
Cambridge,  Mass.,  April  6,  1917. 
To  the  Council  of  the  American  Psychological  Association. 

Gentlemen:  In  the  present  perilous  situation  it  is  obviously  desirable  that  the  psychologists  of  the  country-  act 
unitedly  in  the  interests  of  defense.  Our  knowledge  and  our  methods  are  of  importance  to  the  military  service  of  our 
country,  and  it  is  our  duty  to  cooperate  to  the  fullest  extent  and  immediately  toward  the  increased  efficiency  of  our 
Army  and  Navy.     Formalities  are  not  in  order.    We  should  act  at  once  as  a  professional  group  as  well  as  individually. 

As  president  of  the  American  Psychological  Association  I  apparently  have  choice  of  two  lines  of  action:  Either 
I  may  recommend  to  the  council  that  a  special  meeting  of  the  association  be  called  at  once  to  consider  the  general 
situation,  or  I  may,  instead,  ask  the  council  to  authorize  the  appointment  by  the  president  of  such  committee  or  com- 
mittees from  the  association  membership  as  seem  desirable. 

After  consultation  with  a  number  of  members  of  the  association,  I  have  chosen  the  second  alternative,  and  I  hereby 
request  the  council's  authorization  to  appoint  such  necessary  and  desirable  committee  or  committees. 

The  duties  of  any  group  or  groups  of  members  appointed  to  represent  and  act  for  us  would  evidently  consist,  first, 
in  gathering  all  useful  information  concerning  the  varied  aspects  of  the  actual  and  possible  practical  relations  of  psy- 
chology to  military  affairs;  second,  to  cooperate,  as  circumstances  dictate  with  governmental  agencies,  with  the  National 
Council  of  Defense,  with  local  psychological  groups  or  individuals,  and  with  such  other  agencies  as  may  develop; 
third,  to  further  the  development  and  application  of  methods  to  the  immediate  problems  of  military  selection. 

Already  many  of  us  are  working  for  national  defense  in  our  respective  communities.  It  is  my  thought  that  this 
action  by  our  council  should,  far  from  interfering  with  individual  initiative,  tend  to  unite  us  as  a  professional  group 
in  a  nation-wide  effort  to  render  our  professional  training  serviceable. 


8  MEMOIRS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES.  [vol.xv, 

I  urge  you,  gentlemen,  to  give  thia  matter  your  immediate  consideration,  and  I  trust  that  you  will  write  freely 
concerning  your  own  activities,  plans,  and  opinions,  for  your  advice  and  suggestions  concerning  all  aspects  of  the 
problem  will  be  quite  as  welcome  as  your  vote  on  the  above  recommendation. 
Yours,  faithfully, 

(Signed)        Robert  M.  Yerkes, 
President,  American  Psychological  Association. 

It  was  deemed  desirable  by  two  members  of  the  council  that  a  meeting  of  the  council  be 
called  immediately  for  consideration  of  the  situation  and  decision  concerning  desirable  action. 
Such  a  meeting  was  called  by  the  president  in  Philadelphia  for  the  evening  of  April  21. 

In  the  meantime  the  president,  in  order  to  obtain  pertinent  information  concerning  actual 
and  possible  applications  of  psychology  to  military  problems,  and,  by  request,  to  advise  the  mili- 
tary hospitals'  commission  of  Canada  concerning  the  use  of  psychological  methods,  proceeded  to 
the  Dominion  of  Canada  and  made  careful  inquiry  concerning  psychological  activities  in  Montreal, 
Ottawa,  and  Toronto.  Information  obtained  from  the  Canadian  authorities  indicated  the 
urgent  desirability  of  the  application  of  psychological  methods  in  the  selection  of  recruits  and 
in  the  studying  of  incapacitated  soldiers. 

While  in  Ottawa  a  telegram  was  received  from  Dr.  George  E.  Hale,  chairman  of  the  National 
Research  Council,  requesting  a  conference  in  Philadelphia  on  April  14.  In  accordance  with 
this  request  the  president  of  the  association  met  Dr.  Hale  and  briefly  reported  to  him  the  action 
which  had  been  taken  by  American  psychologists  and  the  results  of  observation  in  Canada. 
Chairman  Hale  requested  that  a  psychological  committee  be  organized  in  connection  with  the 
National  Research  Council  and  that  the  president  of  the  American  Psychological  Association 
act  as  chairman  of  the  committee,  and  as  a  member  of  the  council.  He  further  invited  the 
president  of  the  association  to  attend  the  semiannual  meeting  of  the  National  Research  Council 
in  Washington,  on  April  19,  as  a  representative  of  psychological  interests. 

At  the  special  meeting  of  the  council  of  the  American  Psychological  Association,  which  was 
held  on  the  evening  of  April  21  and  the  morning  of  April  22  in  Philadelphia,  the  president  of  the 
association  reported  the  action  taken  in  Cambridge  and  the  results  of  his  observations  in  Canada. 
After  thorough  discussion  of  the  relations  of  psychology  to  the  military  situation  it  was  voted  by 
the  council  that  the  president  be  instructed  to  appoint  committees  from  the  membership  of  the 
American  Psychological  Association  to  render  to  the  Government  of  the  United  States  all  pos- 
sible assistance  in  connection  with  psychological  problems  arising  in  the  military  emergency. 
Twelve  committees  were  subsequently  appointed.  It  was  further  voted  that  the  secretary  of 
the  psychological  association  be  instructed  to  communicate  the  action  of  the  council  to  the  mem- 
bers of  the  association  and  to  suggest  that  individuals  and  institutions  offer  their  professional 
services  to  the  Government  in  suitable  manner. 

The  council  made  certain  suggestions  concerning  the  presentation  to  the  proper  government 
authorities  of  a  plan  for  the  psychological  examination  of  recruits  and  authorized  the  president 
to  proceed  with  such  presentation. 

Following  this  council  meeting,  and  by  authorization  already  indicated,  a  psychological 
committee  of  the  National  Research  Council  was  organized  with  the  following  membership: 
Messrs.  Cattell,  Hall,  and  Thorndike  from  the  National  Academy  of  Sciences;  Messrs.  Dodge, 
Franz  and  Whipple,  from  the  American  Psychological  Association;  and  Messrs.  Seashore,  Wat- 
son, and  Yerkes  from  the  American  Association  for  the  Advancement  of  Science.1 

At  the  first  meeting  of  this  committee  it  was  voted — 

that  whereas  psychologists  in  common  with  other  men  of  science  may  be  able  to  do  invaluable  work  for  national  service 
and  in  the  conduct  of  the  war,  it  is  recommended  by  this  committee  that  psychologists  volunteer  for  and  be  assigned 
to  the  work  in  which  their  service  will  be  of  the  greatest  use  to  the  Nation.  In  the  case  of  students  of  psychology  this 
may  involve  the  completion  of  the  studies  on  which  they  are  engaged. 

It  was  the  function  of  this  general  committee  to  organize  and,  in  a  general  way,  supervise 
psychological  research  and  service  in  the  present  emergency.  Problems  suggested  by  military 
officers  or  by  psychologists  were  referred  by  the  committee  to  appropriate  individuals  or  institu- 
tions for  immediate  attention. 

1  Subsequently  Mr.  Cattell  resigned  from  this  committee  and  Messrs.  Angell,  Baird  and  Scott  were  added  to  the  membership. 


no.  i.]  PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  ARMY.  9 

Several  of  the  committees  originally  appointed  by  the  council  of  the  American  Psychological 
Association  were  subsequently  accepted  as  subcommittees  of  the  committee  on  psychology  of  the 
National  Research  Council. 

After  the  meeting  of  the  National  Research  Council  which  the  president  of  the  American 
Psychological  Association  attended  in  Washington,  and  at  which  he  made  a  brief  statement 
concerning  the  possible  service  of  psychology  to  the  military  organizations,  a  circular  letter  was 
addressed  to  the  members  of  the  American  Psychological  Association  in  which  their  cooperation 
with  the  Government  in  the  interest  of  national  defense  was  suggested.  It  was  indicated  that 
psychological  laboratories  might  be  made  available  and  that  offers  of  personal  service  would 
materially  assist  the  council  in  formulating  and  furthering  plans  for  the  development  of  national 
service. 

During  the  last  week  in  April,  in  pursuance  of  the  suggestions  of  the  council  of  the  American 
Psychological  Association,  the  president,  acting  as  chairman  of  the  committee  on  methods  for  the 
psychological  examining  of  recruits,  prepared  for  transmission  to  the  proper  military  authorities 
a  plan  for  the  examining  of  recruits,  in  which  the  function  of  the  psychologist  in  dealing  with 
intellectual  deficiency  and  psychopathic  tendencies,  and  his  limitation,  as  an  assistant  of  the 
military  medical  examiner,  to  the  purely  psychological  aspects  of  the  work  was  emphasized.  A 
definite  proposal  for  the  administration  of  the  work  of  examining  in  the  camps  was  made. 
Since  the  details  of  this  proposal  differ  considerably  from  the  plan  that  was  finally  adopted  it  is 
unnecessary  to  give  them  here. 

Early  in  May  this  plan  was  submitted  to  the  chairman  of  the  National  Research  Council, 
who  in  turn  referred  it  to  the  chairman  of  the  committee  on  medicine  and  hygiene  of  the  council, 
Dr.  Victor  C.  Vaughan.  With  Dr.  Vaughan's  support  and  cooperation  the  plan  was  promptly 
placed  before  the  Surgeon  General  of  the  Army. 

The  evident  necessity  for  developing  methods  of  psychological  examining  especially  adapted 
to  military  needs  stimulated  the  chairman  of  the  committee  on  methods  of  examining  recruits 
to  seek  such  financial  aid  as  should  render  possible  the  organizing  of  an  active  committee  for 
this  special  task.  About  the  middle  of  May  this  need  and  opportunity  were  brought  to  the  at- 
tention of  the  committee  on  provision  for  the  feeble-minded  (Philadelphia),  whose  secretary,  Mr. 
Joseph  P.  Byers,  immediately  presented  the  matter  to  his  board.  It  was  promptly  voted  by  this 
organization  to  offer  the  committee  on  methods  facilities  for  work  at  The  Training  School, 
Vineland,  N.  J.,  and  to  meet  the  expenses  of  the  work  to  an  amount  not  to  exceed  $500.  This 
sum  was  later  increased  to  $700.  On  the  basis  of  this  offer  of  assistance,  a  committee,  consisting 
of  Messrs.  Bingham,  Goddard,  Haines,  Terman,  Wells,  Whipple,  and  Yerkes,  was  assembled  at 
The  Training  School,  Vineland,  N.  J.,  on  May  28.  It  remained  in  session  until  June  9  when  it 
adjourned  for  two  weeks  to  make  trial  of  methods  which  had  been  devised. 

During  the  first  two  weeks  it  was  decided  to  arrange  a  method  of  examining  recruits  in 
groups  of  25  to  50,  as  an  initial  psychological  survey.  The  group  method,  as  finally  agreed  upon 
and  printed  for  preliminary  trial,  consists  of  10  different  measurements. 

From  June  10  to  23  the  various  members  of  the  committee  conducted  examinations  by  the 
above  method  in  several  parts  of  the  country.  In  all,  about  400  examinations  were  made,  chiefly 
upon  United  States  marines  and  candidates  in  officers'  training  camps.  These  measurements 
were  analyzed  by  the  committee  and  used  as  a  basis  for  revision  and  the  devising  of  methods 
of  scoring. 

On  June  25  the  committee  resumed  its  sessions  at  Vineland  and  continued  its  work  until 
Saturday,  July  7,  when  it  adjourned,  on  the  completion  of  tentative  methods  of  group  and  in- 
dividual examining.  At  this  time  the  committee  had  in  press  five  forms  of  group  examination 
record  blanks ;  an  individual  examination  record  blank,  which  provides  special  forms  of  measure- 
ment for  illiterates,  those  who  have  difficulty  with  the  English  language,  those  who  exhibit 
irregularities  suggestive  of  psychopathic  condition,  those  who  are  intellectually  subnormal  or 
inferior,  and,  finally,  those  who  are  distinctly  supernormal ;  an  examiners'  guide,  which  contains 
directions  for  the  conduct  of  examinations ;  and  various  types  of  special  record  sheet. 

Before  its  adjournment  the  committee,  through  a  joint  committee  of  psychiatrists  and 
psychologists,  consisting  of  Drs.  Copp,  Meyer,  Williams,  Terman,  Haines  (Bingham,  alternate), 
121435°— 21 2 


10  MEMOIRS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES.  [Vol.xv, 

and  Yerkes,  received  assurance  from  the  committee  (National  Committee  for  Mental  Hygiene) 
on  furnishing  hospital  units  for  nervous  and  mental  disorders  to  the  United  States  Government 
that  this  committee  would  finance  to  the  extent  of  $2,500  the  trial  of  the  above  methods 
of  psychological  examining  in  various  army  and  navy  organizations — the  work  to  be  so  planned 
as  to  test  thoroughly  the  reliability  and  serviceableness  of  the  methods,  and  to  supply  materials 
for  their  improvement,  and  for  the  development  of  satisfactory  methods  of  scoring  and  reporting 
data  of  examinations. 

This  offer  of  assistance  resulted  in  the  prompt  formulation  of  the  following  plan,  which  was 
successfully  carried  out. 

"Five  groups  of  three  men  each  are  to  be  organized  for  immediate  work  in  four  different  mili- 
tary establishments,  each  group  to  consist  of  a  chief  examiner  and  two  assistants.  The  fifth 
group  to  be  organized  for  statistical  work. 

"The  four  examining  groups  are  to  work  for  one  month  in  naval  stations,  army  re- 
organization camps,  or  officers'  training  camps.  It  is  proposed  that  approximately  1,000  men  be 
examined  at  each  place  by  the  group  method  and  approximately  200  by  the  individual  method; 
further,  that,  so  far  as  possible,  the  results  of  these  examinations  be  correlated  with  industrial 
and  military  records  or  histories. 

"This  work  is  to  begin  as  soon  after  July  15  as  possible.  Records  for  examinations  are  to  be 
shipped  to  the  statistical  unit  in  New  York  City  as  rapidly  as  possible,  so  that  they  may  be  scored 
and  the  results  evaluated  and  correlated  with  a  view  to  determining  the  best  methods  of  scoring 
and  desirable  changes  in  methods  of  examining." 

PERSONNEL  OF  UNITS. 

Examining  unit,  Fort  Benjamin  Harrison,  Indianapolis,  Ind. :  Chief  examiner,  G.  M.  Whipple,  succeeded  by  T.  H. 
Haines;  assistant  examiners,  J.  E.  Anderson,  W.  K.  Layton. 

Examining  unit,  Camp  Jackson,  Nashville,  Tenn. :  Chief  examiner  E.  K.  Strong;  assistant  examiners,  B.  R.  Simp- 
son, D.  G.  Paterson. 

Examining  unit,  reorganization  camp,  Syracuse,  X.  Y. :  Chief  examiner,  J.  W.  Hayes;  assistant  examiners,  J.  C. 
Bell,  W.  S.  Foster. 

Examining  unit,  naval  training  base  No.  6,  Brooklyn,  N.  Y. :  Chief  examiner,  R.  S.  Woodworth ;  assistant  examiners, 
N.  J.  Melville,  G.  C.  Myers. 

Statistical  unit:  Statistician,  E.  L.  Thorndike;  assistants,  A.  S.  Otis,  L.  L.  Thurstone. 

The  examining  of  approximately  4,000  soldiers  in  accordance  with  the  plan  described  above 
and  the  comparison  of  the  results  with  officers'  ratings  of  the  men  revealed  a  correlation  of  about 
0.5,  and  in  general  justified  the  belief  that  the  new  methods  would  prove  serviceable  to  the 
Army. 

On  July  20,  after  the  adjournment  of  the  committee  on  methods  and  as  a  direct  result  of  its 
work,  a  substitute  plan  for  the  psychological  examining  of  recruits  was  forwarded  to  the  Surgeon 
General  of  the  Army.  This  plan  proposed  the  commissioning  of  six  qualified  experts,  to  be  desig- 
nated chief  psychological  examiners,  each  to  be  in  charge  of  the  work  of  a  single  camp,  and 
the  appointing,  under  the  Civil  Service  Commission,  of  18  men  as  assistant  psychological 
examiners.  It  was  pointed  out  that  a  list  of  available  appointees  had  already  been  prepared. 
Specific  recommendations  for  apparatus  and  equipment  and  for  the  mode  of  procedure  in  ex- 
amining were  also  made.  It  was  further  submitted  "that  all  recruits,  on  the  results  of  the 
group  examination,  be  tentatively  classified  as  mentally  (a)  low,  (6)  high,  (c)  average,  (d)  irreg- 
ular; and  that  as  time  permits  the  lowest  10  per  cent,  the  highest  5  per  cent,  and  irregular  in- 
dividuals shall  be  subjected  to  more  searching  individual  examination." 

Early  in  August  report  of  the  trial  of  methods  of  psychological  examinations  in  army  and 
navy  stations  was  prepared  and  on  the  basis  thereof  it  became  possible  definitely  to  recommend 
to  the  medical  department  of  the  Army  official  trial  in  the  drafted  Army  of  the  methods  pre- 
pared by  the  committee. 

The  chairman  of  the  committee  was,  upon  recommendation  of  Drs.  Vaughan  and  Welch, 
of  the  National  Research  Council,  appointed  with  the  rank  of  major  in  the  Sanitary  Corps, 
National  Army,  to  organize  and  direct  psychological  examining  for  the  medical  department. 


CHAPTER  2. 

THE  OFFICIAL  MILITARY  TRIAL  OF  PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING. 

Section  1. — Provision  of  professional  personnel. 

The  decision  of  the  Surgeon  General  thoroughly  to  investigate  the  relations  of  methods  of 
psychological  examining  to  military  needs  was  followed  by  systematic  effort  to  discover  suitable 
ways  of  providing  the  necessary  professional  personnel  for  psychological  service  in  tbe  Army. 
It  was  shortly  discovered  that  the  recently  created  Sanitary  Corps  offered  opportunity  for  the 
military  appointment  of  psychologists.  The  Surgeon  General  decided  that  for  preliminary  trial 
of  psychological  methods,  a  number  not  to  exceed  16  qualified  psychologists  might  be  recom- 
mended for  appointment  in  the  grade  of  first  lieutenant  in  the  Sanitary  Corps,  National  Army. 

It  seemed  desirable,  however,  to  secure  the  services  of  psychologists  under  civd  appoint- 
ment, in  order  that  the  necessity  of  commissioning  a  relatively  large  number  of  men  for  this 
service  should  be  avoided  until  the  practical  value  of  the  methods  had  been  demonstrated.  The 
chairman  of  the  committee  on  psychology  of  the  National  Research  Councd  acting  under  the 
direction  of  Maj .  Pearce  Bailey,  responsible  head  of  the  work  in  neurology  and  psychiatry  in  the 
Surgeon  General's  Office,  proceeded  to  investigate  for  the  Surgeon  General  the  possibilities  of 
civil  appointment.     His  inquiries  led  to  the  preparation  of  the  following  letter: 

August  3,  1917. 
From:  The  Surgeon  General. 
To:  The  Secretary  of  War. 
Subject:  Eligibles  for  employment  as  psychological  examiners. 

1.  It  is  respectfully  requested  that  the  Secretary  of  War  obtain  from  the  Civil  Service  Commission,  in  accordance 
with  the  needs  and  qualifications  stated  herein,  a  list  of  eligibles  for  the  position  of  psychological  examiner  in  the  Army. 

2.  These  men  are  needed  to  serve  as  expert  psychological  examiners  under  the  direction  of  medical  officers,  to 
the  end  that  a  ' '  first  line  "  army  may  be  organized  speedily. 

3.  The  requirements  for  appointment  are  thorough  training  in  psychology  and  special  training  and  experience  in 
the  use  of  methods  of  psychological  examining.  Men  holding  the  degree  of  Ph.D.  in  psychology  or  of  M.  D.,  or  both, 
who  are  professionally  engaged  in  psychological  work,  are  to  be  preferred. 

4.  The  work  will  be  done  in  the  military  camps  under  the  direction  of  officers  of  the  medical  department  detailed 
to  supervise  this  work  of  examining  and  classifying  according  to  ability. 

5.  The  period  of  employment  probably  will  not  exceed  six  months. 

6.  Eighteen  men  are  needed  for  immediate  service.    More  may  be  required  later. 

7.  The  salary  should  be  at  the  rate  of  $2,400  per  annum. 

W.  C.  Gorgas, 
Surgeon  General,  United  States  Army. 
[First  indorsement.] 

War  Department,  August  7,  1917. — To  the  Civil  Service  Commission. 

The  department  requests  authority  for  appointment  without  competitive  examination  unless  the  commission  has 
a  register  of  eligibles  available  for  these  temporary  positions. 

John  C.  Scofield, 
Assistant  and  Chief  Clerk. 

August  IE,  1917. 
The  honorable  the  Secretary  of  War. 

Sir:  In  compliance  with  the  department's  request  of  August  7,  indorsed  on  the  Surgeon  General's  recommenda- 
tion of  August  3,  the  appointment  of  18  or  more  men  as  expert  psychological  examiners,  at  $2,400  per  annum  under 
the  Surgeon  General  of  the  Army,  is  hereby  authorized  under  section  4  of  Civil  Service  Rule  VIII,  which  provides 
for  job  employment,  as  the  probable  period  of  employment  is  mentioned  as  not  more  than  six  months. 
By  direction  of  the  commission: 
Very  respectfully, 

I.I.  McIlhenny, 
President,  Civil  Service  Commission. 
(11) 


12  MEMOIRS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES.  [vol.xv, 

[First  indorsement.) 

War  Department,  August  25,  1917. — To  the  Surgeon  General. 

August  20,  1917. 
Memorandum  for  the  Surgeon  General: 
Subject:  Psychological  examiners. 

With  reference  to  the  communications  herewith,  the  Secretary  of  War  directs  me  to  inform  you  that,  due  to  lack 
of  data  as  to  the  exact  nature  of  the  duties  to  be  performed  by  the  proposed  psychological  examiners,  he  is  unable  to 
act  upon  your  recommendations.  Information  should  be  furnished  as  to  the  plan  of  employment  of  the  personnel, 
the  necessity  therefor,  and  the  basis  which  fixes  the  number  required . 

Tasker  H.  Bliss, 
Major  General,  Acting  Chief  of  Staff. 

August  21,  1917. 
From:  The  Surgeon  General  of  the  Army. 
To:  The  Chief  of  Staff. 
Subject:  Psychological  Examining. 

Relative  to  your  inquiry  of  August  20  for  information  concerning  psychological  examining,  I  desire  to  offer  the 
following: 

1.  It  is  deemed  important  that  a  special  method  of  psychologically  examining  recruits  which  has  been  prepared 
under  the  direction  of  Maj.  R.  M.  Yerkes  for  the  detection  of  mental  defectives  be  used. 

2.  The  psychological  examining  must  be  done  by  special  examiners,  who  will  work  under  the  direction  of  the 
medical  staff,  and  whose  results  will  supplement  those  of  the  physical  examiner. 

3.  Until  the  value  of  the  methods  has  been  definitely  established  by  Army  use  it  appears  desirable  to  authorize 
psychological  examining  in  only  four  National  Army  cantonments.  Thus  far,  under  the  authority  of  commanding 
officers  in  various  camps,  about  4,000  men  have  been  examined  by  volunteer  workers.  The  results  correlate 
highly  with  officers' judgments  of  their  men  and  justify  the  further  and  official  trial  of  the  new  psychological 
examining. 

4.  The  general  plan  of  work,  and  staff  organization  for  each  cantonment  are  briefly  described  in  the  accompany- 
ing memorandum  prepared  for  your  information  by  Maj.  Yerkes. 

5.  It  is  not  anticipated  that  the  services  of  contract  psychological  examiners  will  be  required  for  more  than  four 
months  in  any  single  cantonment. 

6.  It  is  further  provided  that  if  after  the  first  four  weeks  of  work  the  reports  are  not  satisfactory,  psychological 
examining  may  be  discontinued  and  the  examiners  discharged. 

7.  A  few  psychologists  are  being  recommended  for  commissions  in  the  Sanitary  Corps.  These  men  will  organize 
and  direct  the  examining  in  the  cantonments.  In  each  cantonment  either  four  or  five  contract  employees  are  needed 
to  assist  the  commissioned  psychologist.    There  are  therefore  needed  for  immediate  use  18  civil-service  appointees. 

W.  C.  Gorgas, 
Surgeon  General,  United  States  Army. 
Approved  August  23,  1917. 

(Signed)      Newton  D.  Baker, 

Secretary  of  War. 

[First  indorsement.) 

War  Department,  A.  G.  O.,  August  24,  1917 — To  the  Surgeon  General. 

Inviting  attention  to  the  approval  of  the  Secretary  of  War  indorsed  hereon,  and  with  the  request  that  he  rec- 
ommend the  cantonments  in  which  he  wishes  to  begin,  and  the  form  of  instruction  to  be  given  the  cantonment 
commander. 

By  order  of  the  Secretary  of  War: 

H.  G.  Leonard, 

Adjutant  General. 
[Second  indorsement.) 

War  Department,  S.  G.  O.,  September  1,  1917 — To  the  Adjutant  General. 

It  is  recommended  that  the  following  instructions  be  given  to  the  division  commanders  at  Camp  Lee,  Va.,  Camp 
Taylor,  Ky.,  Camp  Dix,   N.  J.,  and  Camp  Devens,  Mass.: 

1.  A  staff  of  10  psychological  examiners,  either  as  first  lieutenants  of  the  Sanitary  Corps  or  civilians  employed  by 
the  Civil  Service  Commission,  will  report  to  you,  prior  to  October  5,  1917,  for  the  purpose  of  conducting  psychological 
examinations  of  enlisted  men. 

2.  Arrangements  will  be  made  to  conduct  the  examination  of  six  companies  per  day  (if  double  companies,  250 
men,  otherwise  a  corresponding  number  of  men),  four  days  per  week — Monday,  Tuesday,  Thursday,  and  Friday. 
In  this  way  a  regiment  will  lose  not  more  than  two  days  from  work  and  the  company  not  more  than  one  day.  It  is  not 
intended  that  headquarters,  supply,  and  machine-gun  companies  shall  be  examined. 

3.  It  is  believed  that  suitable  rooms  for  the  examination  can  be  found,  either  at  the  hospital  wards,  barracks 
rooms,  or  other  large  buildings. 

4.  The  method  of  examination  will  be  substantially  as  follows:  Six  psychological  examiners  with  their  assistants 
will  work  simultaneously  in  different  rooms.   At  8  a.  m.,  or  thereabouts,  company  shall  be  reported  in  sections  of  not 


no.i.]  PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  ARMY.  13 

more  than  80  men  (two  sections  for  regular  companies,  three  sections  for  companies  of  250  men)  to  the  examining  rooms. 
Each  company  section  should  report  in  charge  of  a  commissioned  officer,  who  should  remain  to  assist  with  the  examina- 
tion, and  should  detail  a  sufficient  number  of  noncommissioned  officers  to  be  distributed  among  the  group  to  keep  order 
and  assist  in  carrying  out  instructions  of  the  examiner. 

5.  It  is  desired  that  the  psychological  examiner  have  interviews  prior  to  the  examination  of  organizations  with 
the  commanding  officer  of  the  organization  in  order  to  explain  to  him  the  methods  and  objects  of  the  examination. 

6.  The  following  clerical  assistants  detailed  from  enlisted  men  will  be  needed:  (1)  Two  men  to  prepare  typewritten 
examination  lists  and  reports;  (2)  50  men  to  serve  as  scoring  clerks  four  mornings  a  week,  from  8  to  12  o  'clock;  (3)  20 
men  to  serve  as  scoring  clerks  four  afternoons  a  week,  from  1  to  5  o  'clock;  (4)  12  men  to  serve  daily  as  copying  clerks 
for  the  keeping  of  individual  record  cards. 

7.  It  is  not  planned  to  conduct  examinations  on  Sunday.  It  is  expected  that  the  work  will  be  completed  within 
six  weeks. 

8.  As  this  work  has  been  carefully  considered  and  planned,  and  as  it  is  believed  to  hold  possibilities  of  great  good 

for  the  service,  it  should  be  expedited  and  assisted  in  every  possible  way  consistent  with  the  general  interests  of  the 

service. 

H.  P.  Birmingham, 

Colonel,  Medical  Corps. 

[With  this  indorsement  a  detailed  program  for  psychological  examining  was  submitted. 
The  object  of  the  work,  the  specific  functions  of  the  personnel,  and  a  daily  schedule  for  the  re- 
porting of  men  from  companies  were  included.] 

[Third  indorsement.. 

War  Department.  S.  G.  0.,  September  4,  1917— To  the  Adjutant  General  of  the  Army. 

1.  Requested  that  necessary  orders  and  instructions  be  given  to  the  cantonment  commanders  as  given  in  the 
second  indorsement  hereon. 

C.  L.  Furbush, 

Major,   Medical  Reserve  Corps. 
[Fourth  indorsement.] 

War  Department,  A.  G.  O.,  September  6,  1917 — To  the  Surgeon  General. 

With  the  information  that  copies  of  the  second  indorsement  have  been  transmitted  to  the  commanding  general, 
eightieth  division,  Camp  Lee,  Va.;the  commanding  general,  eighty-fourth  division,  Camp  Taylor,  Ky.;  the  com- 
manding general,  seventy-eighth  division,  Camp  Dix,  N.  J.;  and  the  commanding  general,  seventy-sixth  division, 
Camp  Devens,  Mass.,  for  action  as  recommended  in  that  indorsement. 
By  order  of  the  Secretary  of  War: 

John  S.  Johnston, 
Adjutant  General. 

From  August  17,  1917,  Maj.  Yerkes  acted  for  the  Surgeon  General  as  responsible  head  of 
psychological  work,  which  was  at  first  administered  in  connection  with  the  neurological  and 
psychiatric  service. 

As  soon  as  the  Surgeon  General  had  decided  to  make  trial  of  psychological  methods,  plans 
for  the  conduct  of  camp  surveys  were  prepared,  examining  equipment  and  printed  materials 
were  ordered,  and  necessary  provision  was  made  for  the  prompt  and  efficient  conduct  of  the  work. 

PSYCHOLOGICAL    STAFFS    OF   CANTONMENTS. 

At  Maj.  Yerkes'  request  24  psychologists  were  appointed  as  civilian  examiners.  Simul- 
taneously 16  men  were  recommended  for  appointment  as  first  lieutenants  in  the  Sanitary  Corps. 
The  stations  at  which  these  several  military  and  civil  appointees  reported  are  indicated  below: 

Camp  Lee,  Va. :  First  Lieuts.  Clarence  S.  Yoakum  (chief  psychological  examiner),  George 
O.  Ferguson,  jr.,  Walter  S.  Hunter,  Edward  S.  Jones,  and  the  following  civilians:  Leo  J.  Brueck- 
ner,  Donald  G.  Paterson,  Austin  S.  Edwards,  Rudolph  Pintner,  Benjamin  F.  Pittenger,  Ben  D. 
Wood. 

Camp  Taylor,  Ky. :  First  Lieuts.  Marion  R.  Trabue  (chief  psychological  examiner),  Karl  T. 
Waugh,  Heber  B.  Cummings,  Edgar  A.  Doll,  and  the  following  civilians:  James  W.  Bridges,  J. 
Crosby  Chapman,  John  K.  Norton,  Eugene  C.  Rowe,  J.  David  Houser,  Calvin  P.  Stone. 

Camp  Dix,  N.  J. :  First  Lieuts.  Joseph  W.  Hayes  (chief  psychological  examiner) ,  Harold  A. 
Richmond,  Herschel  T.  Manuel,  Carl  C.  Brigham,  and  the  following  civilians :  Thomas  H.  Haines, 
Norbert  J.  Melville,  Howard  P.  Shumway,  Thomas  M.Stokes,  John  J.  B.Morgan,  Charles  C.  Stech. 


14  MEMOIRS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES.  tvouxv. 

Camp  Devens,  Mass.:  First  Lieuts.  William  S.  Foster  (chief  psychological  examiner),  John 
E.  Anderson,  Horace  B.  English,  John  T.  Metcalf,  and  the  following  civilians:  Raymond  H. 
Wheeler,  Harold  C.  Bingham,  Carl  R.  Brown,  Chester  E.  Kellogg,  Ralph  S.  Roberts,  and  Charles 
H.  Toll. 

The  section  of  Psychology  within  the  Division  of  Neurology  and  Psychiatry  was  organized 
during  November,  with  the  following  staff:  Maj.  Robert  M.  Yerkes,  S.  O,  N.  A.,  in  charge  of  sec- 
tion, appointed  August  17,  1917;  Lieut.  Arthur  S.  Otis,  statistician,  appointed  October  3,  1917; 
Dr.  Lewis  M.  Terman,  appointed  advisory  member  October  18,  1917;  Capt.  Charles  Scott  Berry, 
appointed  November  21,  1917. 

Section  2. — Conduct  of  examining  in  cantonments. 

The  progress  of  psychological  work  in  the  stations  in  which  it  was  first  tried  and  certain  of 
the  most  important  conditions  affecting  it  are  indicated  below: 

Camp  Devens. — Beginning  September  16,  1917,  the  psychological  staff,  which  was  quartered 
in  the  base  hospital,  worked  with  the  personnel  officer  of  the  camp  for  the  double  purpose  of 
assisting  him  and  of  gaining  insight  into  the  methods  and  results  of  the  qualification  card  system. 
The  chief  psychological  examiner  was  advised  on  September  19  by  the  division  surgeon  that  it 
would  be  unwise  to  attempt  to  initiate  psychological  examining  until  at  least  40  per  cent  of 
the  soldiers  expected  in  the  camp  had  been  assigned  to  organizations.  It  was  further  stated  that 
this  would  probably  delay  examining  until  October  15. 

During  the  last  week  of  September  examinations  were  made  for  the  training  of  the  staff 
The  following  week  certain  preliminary  investigations  were  conducted  in  compliance  with  direc- 
tions from  the  Office  of  the  Surgeon  General.  The  purpose  of  these  investigations  was  to  perfect 
methods  and  to  secure  tentative  norms.  Numerous  conferences  were  held  early  in  October  to 
acquaint  the  officers  of  Camp  Devens  with  the  methods  and  purposes  of  the  psychological 
service. 

On  October  15  psychological  survey  of  the  camp  was  initiated  by  the  examination  of  475 
men.  The  following  day  1 ,000  men  were  examined.  A  conference  with  company  commanders 
was  held  on  October  17  and  thereupon,  in  order  that  psychological  records  might  be  scored 
promptly  and  the  results  properly  reported  to  medical  and  line  officers,  about  sixty  enlisted  men 
were  assigned  to  the  psychological  staff  for  clerical  duty. 

During  the  first  week  of  the  survey  work,  one  regiment  was  examined.  Each  company 
was  taken  in  two  sections.  The  average  number  of  individuals  per  section  was  100.  The  staff 
at  this  time  experienced  difficulty  in  making  the  requested  number  of  individual  examinations. 
During  the  second  week  of  the  survey,  increase  of  the  force  of  scoring  clerks  to  90  made  possible 
the  examination  of  three  regiments. 

On  November  9  a  total  of  14,091  men  had  been  examined,  and  on  November  20  the  total 
had  reached  20,085. 

Maj.  Yerkes  reported  at  Camp  Devens  on  November  22  for  inspection  of  psychological 
examining  and  conference  with  the  commanding  general  concerning  the  f easibility  and  desirability 
of  examining  the  officers  of  the  camp. 

Satisfactory  arrangements  were  promptly  made  for  the  examination  of  officers,  and  on 
November  26  this  work  was  initiated  by  the  examination  of  180  medical,  dental,  and  veterinary 
officers.  On  November  28  it  was  reported  by  the  chief  psychological  examiner  that  830  officers 
had  been  examined.  On  the  same  date  a  total  of  1 ,059  individual  examinations  was  reported. 
From  this  group  of  cases  about  200  had  been  referred  to  the  neuro-psychiatric  officer  for  special 
examination. 

As  the  survey  of  the  camp  was  well  advanced,  the  attention  of  the  staff  was  directed  early 
in  December  to  special  study  of  the  military  status,  prospective  value  to  the  service,  and  general 
behavior  of  men  who  received  unsatisfactory  grades  in  the  psychological  examination.  Effort 
was  made  to  ascertain  the  attitude  of  company  commanders,  as  well  as  of  regimental  and  other 
officers,  toward  the  psychological  service.  To  this  end  a  simple  questionary  was  sent  to  each 
officer. 


no.  l.]  PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  ARMY .  15 

Official  report  of  December  6  gives  the  following  totals  for  groups  examined:  Enlisted  men, 
18,021;  officers,  1,197;  individual  examinations,  1,148. 

From  this  time  the  strength  of  the  psychological  staff  was  rapidly  reduced  because  of  needs 
elsewhere,  and  attention  was  devoted  primarily  to  the  preparation  of  reports  on  special  aspects 
of  methods  and  results  and  to  the  completion  of  the  study  of  the  status  and  military  value  of 
men  reported  as  "E"  (mentally  low  grade)  or  as  "m"  (medical  attention)  cases.  Lieut.  Wm.  S. 
Foster,  chief  psychological  examiner,  was  ordered  to  the  Office  of  the  Surgeon  General,  Wash- 
ington, on  December  13,  for  special  duty  in  connection  with  the  revision  of  methods  and  Lieut. 
John  E.  Anderson  was  designated  acting  chief  psychological  examiner  in  his  place. 

In  all  approximately  20,000  soldiers  were  examined  at  Camp  Devens  between  October  15 
and  December  1.  The  work  was  facilitated  in  every  possible  way  by  the  commanding  generals, 
the  division  surgeon,  and  the  commanding  officer  of  the  base  hospital;  but  it  was  nevertheless 
conducted  under  seriously  adverse  conditions  which  at  once  lessened  its  value  to  the  division  and 
made  it  extremely  difficult  for  the  psychological  staff. 

Psychological  service  in  this  camp  was  officially  inspected  for  the  medical  department  late 
in  November  by  Col.  Henry  Alden  Shaw,  M.  C. 

Camp  Dix. — Although  the  psychological  staff  reported  for  duty  at  Camp  Dix  late  in  Septem- 
ber, 1917,  survey  of  the  camp  could  not  be  initiated  until  late  in  November.  This  delay  was  due 
to  the  desire  of  the  commanding  general  to  have  organizations  brought  to  full  strength  before 
being  examined  and  to  the  delay  in  the  completion  of  the  hospital  wards  in  which  the  examinations 
were  to  be  made.  During  November,  while  awaiting  the  opportunity  to  make  examination  of 
all  available  soldiers,  the  psychological  staff  busied  itself  with  individual  examining,  with  efforts 
to  perfect  methods,  and  with  the  intensive  study  of  a  single  regiment — the  Three  hundred  and 
third  Engineers.  Nine  days  were  devoted  to  this  organization  alone,  and,  as  a  result,  excep- 
tionally detailed  and  valuable  reports  were  made  to  the  Surgeon  General. 

The  first  week  of  December  Maj.  Yerkes  reported  at  Camp  Dix  to  inspect  psychological 
work.  At  this  time  almost  no  examinations  had  been  made  aside  from  individual  cases  and 
the  Three  hundred  and  third  Engineers.  Arrangements  were  then  made,  with  the  approval  of 
the  commanding  general  of  the  division,  for  the  immediate  examination  of  officers.  All  those 
below  the  rank  of  field  officer  were  ordered  to  report  for  examination,  and  the  remainder  were 
invited  also  to  attend. 

On  December  15  the  chief  psychological  examiner,  Lieut.  Joseph  W.  Hayes,  reported 
that  1,151  officers  had  been  examined,  and  in  addition  5,462  enlisted  men.  There  were  in  the 
camp  at  this  time  19,000  soldiers. 

Between  December  10  and  December  22,  when  suitable  facilities  for  examining  had  been 
secured,  the  psychological  survey  was  rushed.  More  than  160  groups  were  examined  and  the 
number  of  examinations  per  day  reached  1,500.  By  January  1,  1918,  about  14,000  men  had 
been  examined  in  this  camp. 

Apart  from  the  unfortunate  delay  of  examining  at  Camp  Dix,  conditions  were  favorable 
to  the  service. 

Both  the  division  surgeon  and  the  commanding  officer  of  the  base  hospital  exhibited  keen 
interest  in  the  work  and  effectively  facilitated  it.  The  delay  of  the  general  survey  until  organi- 
zations were  well  filled  undoubtedly  greatly  lessened  the  value  of  psychological  reports  to 
company  commanders.  Consequently  the  results  obtained  in  this  camp  are  not  of  comparable 
significance  with  those  obtained  in  Camp  Devens. 

Camp  Lee. — From  the  very  first  the  psychological  service  succeeded  in  Camp  Lee.  The 
success  was  due  in  the  main  to  the  appreciation  of  the  possible  value  of  psychological  examining 
by  the  division  surgeon,  the  commanding  officer  of  the  base  hospital,  and  the  commanding 
general  of  the  division.  There  was  practically  no  delay  in  the  initiation  of  work  and  the  survey 
of  the  camp  was  completed  according  to  schedule. 

Examining  was  initiated  most  fortunately  on  officers.  On  September  30, 1917,  all  regimental 
medical  officers  were  ordered  to  report  for  psychological  examination,  and  the  following  week 
practically  all  officers  of  the  division  and  camp  took  the  examination.     The  psychologists  were 


16  MEMOIRS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES.  ivol.xv, 

requested  to  examine  all  nurses  at  the  base  hospital  and  to  make  comparison  of  the  psychological 
ratings  of  the  50  best  and  the  50  poorest  men  in  each  of  several  companies. 

By  the  middle  of  October  the  survey  of  enlisted  men  was  progressing  rapidly;  as  many 
as  1,100  were  given  group  examination  in  a  single  day.  When,  on  November  5,  the  work  of 
this  camp  was  inspected  by  Maj.  Yerkes,  the  organization  of  the  staff,  its  relations  to  the 
activities  of  the  medical  department,  to  the  personnel  office,  and  to  the  headquarters  staff, 
were  eminently  satisfactory  and  in  all  directions  work  was  progressing  rapidly  and  with 
maximal  serviceableness. 

One  member  of  the  psychological  staff  was  detailed  during  November  to  serve  with  the 
psychiatrists  of  the  division  in  order  that  cases  requiring  intelligence  examination  might  be 
reported  on  promptly.  The  chief  psychological  examiner,  primarily  for  educational  purposes, 
held  many  conferences  with  regimental  and  company  officers  as  well  as  with  officers  of  the 
staff  and  members  of  the  Medical  Corps.  The  need  was  early  recognized  in  this  camp  for  the 
organization  of  service  battalions,  to  which  might  be  referred  men  of  very  low  grade  intelligence 
who,  although  undesirable  for  regular  military  service  because  of  slowness  in  learning,  might 
yet  be  used  to  advantage  as  common  laborers. 

The  survey  of  this  camp  had  been  practically  completed  by  December  1  and  except  for 
the  uncertainty  concerning  the  future  conduct  of  psychological  work  the  greater  part  of  the 
staff  would  have  been  transferred  at  once  to  some  other  station. 

The  total  of  examinations  in  Camp  Lee  to  December  8,  1917,  was  31,520.  This  covers 
the  examination  of  1,317  officers,  19,913  white  enlisted  men,  and  3,285  negro  enlisted  men. 
Individual  examination  was  made  of  339  men.  When  the  psychological  survey  in  Camp  Lee 
was  progressing  at  maximum  speed,  approximately  5,000  men  were  examined  each  week. 

In  this  camp  the  division  surgeon  appreciated  the  possibilities  of  improving  his  service 
by  obtaining  reliable  information  concerning  the  professional  training,  the  intellectual  ability, 
and  the  military  value  of  every  individual.  He  therefore  developed  a  qualification  card  on 
which  the  several  important  bits  of  information  might  be  recorded  and,  with  the  assistance 
of  the  personnel  officer  and  the  chief  psychological  examiner,  made  systematic  study  of  the 
medical  officers  of  the  camp.  This  information  was  later  used  most  effectively  for  purposes 
of  reorganization.  Incompetent  officers  were  tried  out  in  new  positions  in  order  to  discover 
whether  they  were  misfits  or  all-round  incompetents.  Many  were  transferred,  some  discharged, 
and  the  divisional  medical  service  was  markedly  improved.  The  commanding  general  of  the 
division  also  took  pains  to  inquire  into  the  possible  values  of  ratings  of  officers  and  enlisted  men. 
His  sympathetic  and  intelligent  interest  in  the  work  of  the  personnel  bureau  and  of  that  of 
the  psychological  staff  facilitated  these  lines  of  inquiry  and  rendered  their  results  unusually 
valuable  to  the  division. 

Col.  Henry  Alden  Shaw,  M.  C,  officially  inspected  psychological  service  at  Camp  Lee  on 
November  7,  1917. 

Camp  Taylor. — The  commanding  officer  of  the  base  hospital,  Camp  Taylor  on  September 
27,  1917,  assigned  seven  wards  to  the  psychological  staff  for  conduct  of  its  work.  During  the 
next  two  weeks  necessary  equipment  was  secured  and  installed.  On  October  29  the  chief 
psychological  examiner,  Lieut.  Marion  R.  Trabue,  in  conference  with  the  commanding  gen- 
eral of  the  division  endeavored  to  secure  the  assignment  of  enlisted  men  to  serve  as  clerks. 
It  developed  in  connection  with  this  conference  that  the  commanding  general  had  never  seen 
the  official  instructions  concerning  psychological  examining  issued  by  The  Adjutant  General 
of  the  Army.  Search  failed  to  reveal  a  copy  of  these  instructions  in  the  camp.  Telegraphic 
request  for  same  was  therefore  sent  to  The  Adjutant  General.  This  miscarriage  of  information 
cost  the  psychological  staff  nearly  two  weeks.  It  was  not  until  November  15  that  group  examin- 
ing was  arranged  for,  and  even  then,  instead  of  arrangements  in  accordance  with  the  program 
of  the  Office  of  the  Surgeon  General,  the  psychological  staff  was  instructed  by  camp  authorities 
to  examine  men  in  connection  with  the  Tuberculosis  Board.  Subsequently  Maj.  Yerkes, 
in  connection  with  inspection  of  psychological  examining  at  Camp  Taylor,  succeeded  in  arrang- 
ing with  the  commanding  general  for  the  conduct  of  examinations  in  accordance  with  the 


No.  i.]  PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  ARMY.  17 

program  followed  in  the  other  camps.     Thereafter  several  companies  were  given  group  exam- 
ination each  day.     The  largest  number  examined  in  a  single  day  was  1,700  on  November  22. 

Early  in  December  the  officers  of  this  camp  were  examined,  and  before  Christmas  the 
survey  of  organizations  of  the  division  was  completed.  To  January  1,  1918,  approximately 
17,000  enlisted  men  and  1,274  officers  had  been  given  psychological  examination. 

Section  3. — Special  investigations  and  reports  from  examining  stations. 

In  each  of  the  four  National  Army  cantonments  where  psychological  examining  was 
originally  tried,  the  staff  conducted  special  investigations  as  opportunity  offered,  for  the 
purpose  of  improving  and  standardizing  methods  and  of  securing  reliable  bases  for  the 
evaluation  of  results.  Results  of  these  investigations  were  promptly  reported  to  the  Surgeon 
General  so  that  the  data  received  from  the  several  stations  might  be  compared  and  used  to 
advantage  for  the  improvement  of  procedures. 

It  is  impracticable  in  connection  with  this  historical  statement  to  attempt  asummaryof  these 
reports  or  even  a  list.  Beit  said,  however,  that  it  was  this  work  and  the  spirit  which  prompted 
it  that  rendered  possible  the  development  and  the  final  stabilization  of  methods.  The  actual 
examining  of  soldiers  in  the  cantonments  occupied  not  more  than  half  of  the  time  of  most  mem- 
bers of  the  staff.  The  remainder  they  devoted  systematically  to  work,  the  importance  of 
which  for  the  Army  was  doubtless  greater  even  than  the  examining  of  thousands  of  men.  These 
40  psychologists,  who  worked  early  and  late  under  conditions  which  were  almost  invariably 
trying  and  sometimes  utterly  discouraging,  deserve  unlimited  praise  for  the  quality  and  amount 
of  the  original  work  which  they  did  over  and  above  the  performance  of  their  routine  duties. 

During  this  period  of  trial  examining  approximately  100,000  men  were  reported  on.  The 
total  of  group  and  individual  examinations,  since  many  individuals  were  given  two  or  three 
examinations,  approached  200,000.  At  the  same  time  there  were  received  from  Camp  Devens, 
36  special  reports ;  from  Camp  Dix,  30 ;  from  Camp  Lee,  32 ;  from  Camp  Taylor,  1 1 . 

Section  4. —  The  relations  of  psychological  examining  to  classification  of  personnel  in  the  Army. 

In  August,  1917,  a  committee  on  the  classification  of  personnel  in  theArmy  was  organized 
to  engage,  under  the  direction  of  The  Adjutant  General,  in  the  development  and  applica- 
tion of  methods  suitable  for  classifying  soldiers  in  accordance  with  occupation,  and  in  the  prepa- 
ration of  a  reliable  classification  of  enlisted  men  and  commissioned  officers.  The  informa- 
tion which  this  committee  gathered  was  recorded  on  a  "qualification  card."  It  soon 
became  evident  that  the  "intelligence  rating"  of  a  soldier  may  be  of  great  importance  in  con- 
nection with  assignment  to  military  duty.  The  committee  therefore  made  provision  on  its 
qualification  card  for  brief  statement  of  the  result  of  psychological  examinations. 

In  view  of  the  obvious  relations  of  the  psychological  service  to  the  work  of  the  Commit- 
tee on  Classification  of  Personnel  on  the  one  hand,  and  to  that  of  the  Division  of  Neurology  and 
Psychiatry  of  the  Medical  Department  on  the  other,  the  following  recommendations  concerning 
the  conduct  of  the  psychological  service  were  made  by  the  chief  of  the  Section  of  Psychology 
after  conference  with  Majs.  Bailey  and  Salmon,  of  the  Office  of  the  Surgeon  General,  and  with 
their  hearty  approval: 

November  5,  1917. 
From:  Maj.  Robert  M.  Yerkes. 
To:  The  Surgeon  General,  U.  S.  Army. 
Subject:  Plans  for  conduct  of  psychological  examining. 

1.  The  psychological  examining  as  conducted  at  present  has  two  immediate  references — (a)  military,  (6)  medical 

2.  It  appears  logical  and  in  a  variety  of  respects  desirable  that  the  portion  of  the  work  which  has  purely  military 
significance  be  done  under  The  Adjutant  General  and  in  connection  with  the  personnel  committee;  that  the  medical 
portion  of  the  work  be  done  under  the  immediate  supervision  of  the  psychiatric  boards. 

3.  It  is  therefore  recommended  that  this  department  request  the  personnel  committee  of  the  War  Department  to 
provide  in  its  organization  for  the  psychological  examining  of  enlisted  men  as  they  report  in  the  draft  and  for  such 
examining  of  officers  as  is  requested. 


18  MEMOIRS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES.  [vol.xv, 

4.  The  accompanying  plan  and  diagram  indicate  the  relations  which  would  be  established  in  case  the  above  recom- 
mendations were  adopted  by  the  Medical  Department. 

5.  This  plan  is  especially  recommended  because  a  large  part  of  the  information  gained  in  the  psychological 
examining  must  in  any  event  be  referred  immediately  to  the  personnel  office,  whereas  only  a  few  individuals  exam- 
ined are  strictly  medical  problems. 

Robert  M.  Yerkes, 
Major,  Sanitary  Corps. 

[The  plan  referred  to  outlined  specifically  a  feasible  mode  of  assignment  of  personnel  under 
the  two  alternative  conditions,  viz:  (a)  With  all  work  organized  under  the  Medical  Depart- 
ment; (b)  with  work  divided  between  the  Medical  Department  and  The  Adjutant  General's 
Office.] 

[First  indorsement.] 

War  Departmemt,  S.  G.  O., 

November  7,  1917. 
To  The  Adjutant  General  of  the  Army. 

Referring  the  above  plans  for  conduct  of  psychological  examining  to  The  Adjutant  General  with  request  that  they 
be  considered  by  the  Committee  on  Classification  of  Personnel  of  the  Army  and  that  the  Medical  Department  be  ad- 
vised concerning  them. 

'  W.  C,  Gorgas, 

Surgeon  General,  United  States  Army. 

The  matter  was  referred  to  the  committee  on  classification  of  personnel  in  the  Army.  The 
replies  follow: 

November  14,  1917. 
From:  Walter  Dill  Scott. 
To:  Surgeon  General  of  the  U.  S.  Army. 
Subject:  Plans  for  conduct  of  psychological  examining  as  presented  in  letter  from  Maj.  Yerkes,  November  5,  1917. 

1.  The  psychological  examining  is  now  being  carried  forward  in  Camps  Devens,  Dix,  Lee,  and  Taylor.  Reports 
of  this  work  are  not  as  yet  complete.  Personally  I  am  convinced  of  the  value  of  this  work,  and  beg  to  assure  you  that 
the  committee  will  be  glad  to  give  careful  consideration  to  the  plan  proposed  by  Maj.  Yerkes  as  soon  as  reports  have 
been  secured  from  the  cantonments  regarding  the  usefulness  of  this  work  in  organizing  the  divisions. 

Walter  Dill  Scott, 
Director,  Committee  on  Classification  of  Personnel. 

December  8, 1917. 
From:  The  Committee  on  Classification  of  Personnel  in  the  Army. 
To:  The  Surgeon  General,  U.  S.  Army. 
Subject:  Extension  of  psychological  testing  in  the  division. 

In  response  to  Gen.  Gorgas's  letter  of  November  12  and  in  elaboration  of  W.  D.  Scott's  letter  under  date  of  Novem- 
ber 14,  and  in  response  to  the  request  of  Maj.  Yerkes,  the  following  resolution  was  voted  unanimously  by  the  committee: 

The  Committee  on  Classification  of  Personnel  in  the  Army  believes  that  the  interests  of  The  Adjutant  General's 
Department  and  of  the  Surgeon  General's  Department  would  best  be  served  by  permitting  the  committee  simply  to 
continue  its  hearty  cooperation  with  the  Surgeon  General's  Department  in  developing  psychological  tests  and  in  mak- 
ing use  of  the  results  of  the  tests. 

The  committee  respectfully  begs  leave  to  call  to  the  attention  of  the  Surgeon  General  the  advisability  of  extending 
the  work  of  psychological  testing  to  all  the  Army  cantonments.  The  results  of  such  testing,  if  obtained  within  48  hours 
of  the  recruits  arrival  in  camp,  would  be  of  decided  value  to  The  Adjutant  General's  Office  in  classifying  the  enlisted 
men. 

Walter  Dill  Scott, 

Director  of  the  Committee. 
Section  5. — Official  inspection  of  psychological  examining. 

On  the  basis  of  careful  study  of  psychological  examining  in  Camps  Devens,  Dix,  Lee,  and 
Taylor,  Maj.  Yerkes  from  time  to  time  made  report  to  the  Surgeon  General  on  the  progress, 
status,  and  significance  of  the  work.  These  statements  were  made  usually  in  connection  with 
regular  daily  or  weekly  reports  or  as  reports  of  special  detail.  Since  they  obviously  demanded 
confirmation  or  correction  as  well  as  supplementation  by  a  regular  medical  inspector,  the  chief 
of  the  Section  of  Psychology  requested  in  November,  1917,  that  a  medical  officer  be  ordered  to 
inspect  psychological  examining  in  Camps  Lee  and  Devens.  These  stations  were  selected  be- 
cause in  them  work  was  furthest  advanced.  Thus,  as  soon  as  the  status  of  the  service  justified 
it,  the  first  step  was  taken  toward  decision  concerning  the  future  of  psychological  examining 
in  the  Army. 


No.i]  PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  ARMY.  19 

Official  inspection  of  the  service  was  made  during  November  by  Col.  Henry  Alden  Shaw, 
M.  C.  His  report  on  Camp  Lee  is  reproduced  in  full  below  because  it  proved  to  be  of  the  greatest 
importance  to  the  service.  Maj.  Yerkes  was  informed  that  Col.  Shaw's  observations  at  Camp 
Devens  were  wholly  confirmatory  of  the  statements  and  recommendations  contained  in  the 
Camp  Lee  report  and  that  for  this  reason  detailed  official  report  was  not  prepared. 

November  16.    1917. 
From:  Col.  Henry  A.  Shaw,  M.  C. 
To:  The  Surgeon  General,  U.  S.  Army. 
Subject:  Psychological  tests,  Camp  Lee,  Va. 

1.  Pursuant  to  instructions  from  the  Secretary  of  War  dated  War  Department.  Washington,  November  5,  1917,  I 
proceeded  to  Camp  Lee,  Va.,  November  7  and  reported  to  the  commanding  general. 

I.     GENERAL   STATEMENT. 

2.  Camp  Lee  is  one  of  the  four  divisional  cantonments  selected  by  the  War  Department  to  try  out  certain  psycho- 
logical tests  upon  drafted  men.  Lieut.  Yoakum,  Sanitary  Corps,  N.  A.,  had  been  placed  in  charge  of  this  work  as  chief 
psychological  examiner  and  reported  for  duty  on  September  18,  1917,  under  direction  of  the  division  surgeon,  Lieut. 
Col.  Thomas  L.  Rhoads.  After  familiarizing  himself  with  the  purposes  and  methods  of  the  examinations,  Col.  Rhoads 
directed  that  the  tests  be  first  made  upon  all  medical  officers  in  camp.  The  results  were  quite  remarkable,  as  they  cor- 
roborated in  a  striking  way  the  estimates  of  these  officers  already  formed  by  the  division  surgeon  and  his  personal  staff. 
In  his  own  words,  "we  found  that  those  (medical  officers)  who  had  made  the  higher  marks  in  the  psychological  tests 
were  the  very  ones  who  had  been  doing  good  work,  developing  their  infirmaries,  making  careful  recruit  examinations 
and  complying  with  instructions,  while  those  who  had  received  the  lower  rating  had  not  been  doing  as  good  work." 

3.  In  view  of  the  important  bearing  of  this  work  upon  the  question  of  rating  and  promotion  of  officers,  Col.  Rhoads 
decided  to  take  up  the  whole  matter  with  the  commanding  general.  To  that  end  a  conference  was  arranged,  at  which 
Lieut.  Yoakum  was  present.  Gen.  Cronkhite  was  so  favorably  impressed  with  the  results  that  had  been  obtained 
by  the  examination  of  the  relatively  few  medical  officers  that  he  determined  to  have  the  tests  applied  to  the  entire 
commissioned  personnel  of  the  division. 

II.  THE   PURPOSE    OP  THE   TESTS. 

4.  The  purpose  of  these  tests  has  been  outlined  by  Maj.  Robert  M.  Yerkes,  S.  C,  Chief  of  the  Section  of  Psy- 
chology, Office  of  the  Surgeon  General,  as  follows: 

(a)  To  aid  in  segregating  and  eliminating  the  mentally  incompetent. 

(6)  To  classify  men  according  to  their  mental  ability. 

(c)  To  assist  in  selecting  competent  men  for  responsible  positions. 

III.  METHODS    OP   EXAMINATION. 

5.  Very  briefly  the  scheme  for  examination  is  as  follows: 

(a)  The  men  are  assembled  at  8  o'clock  a.  m.  by  companies  in  unoccupied  wards  of  the  base  hospital,  reporting  in 
groups  of  from  80  to  130  to  one  of  three  psychological  examiners.  Three  groups  are  thus  handled  simultaneously  and 
half  a  regiment  is  disposed  of  each  morning. 

(b)  Each  recruit  is  given  a  form  (copy  inclosed)  for  the  group  intelligence  examination  and  is  directed  to  fill 
in  the  information  at  the  top  of  the  sheet.  This  first  test  determines  whether  or  not  he  is  illiterate,  and  thus  accom- 
plishes the  object  of  the  literary  test  (copy  inclosed),  which  has  in  consequence  been  abandoned. 

(c)  Men  who  are  unable  to  fill  in  the  headings  on  their  forms  are  at  once  taken  out  of  the  group  and  sent  to  the 
room  arranged  for  the  mechanical  skill  test.  The  remainder  of  the  group  continue  with  the  intelligence  examination 
for  three  or  four  prescribed  tests  when  a  recess  for  a  few  minutes  is  announced ,  during  which  the  examiner  and  his  assist- 
ants pick  out  those  men  who  are  showing  evident  nervous  or  mental  disturbance  as  a  result  of  the  strain  of  the  ordeal. 
This  procedure  was  adopted  by  suggestion  of  Maj.  Moore,  consulting  neurologist  of  the  hospital,  with  a  view  of  segre- 
gating as  quickly  as  possible  cases  of  doubtful  mental  and  nervous  stability.  Suspected  cases  are  sent  at  once  to  the 
neurologist  for  special  examination;  the  rest  of  the  group  finish  the  intelligence  test.  Three  groups  of  men  are  thus 
handled  by  each  of  the  three  examiners  between  8  o'clock  and  11,  or  a  little  later,  the  intelligence  examination  pro- 
ceeding simultaneously  with  the  mechanical  tests. 

(d)  The  papers  are  scored  in  the  afternoon  or  on  the  day  following.  Recruits  who  have  been  rated  in  the  E  class 
(receiving  less  than  80  points  out  of  a  possible  414)  return  for  a  special  individual  examination  to  determine  their  mental 
age.  The  scoring  is  done  by  40  men  and  their  work  carefully  supervised  and  checked.  It  is  purely  mechanical, 
being  accomplished  by  an  ingenious  series  of  stencils  made  to  fit  over  each  form,  showing  at  a  glance  the  proper  answer 
to  the  questions,  so  that  nothing  is  left  to  the  personal  equation  of  the  scorer. 

(e)  As  a  result  of  the  tests,  a  report  (form  inclosed)  is  made  by  the  chief  psychological  examiner  to  the  company 
commander  showing  the  rating  of  each  man  on  the  following  scale:  A,  very  superior  ;B,  superior;  C,  average;  D,  inferior; 
and  E,  very  inferior.  The  total  number  in  each  class  is  shown,  as  well  as  the  number  of  illiterates.  All  men  in  the 
E  class  and  all  in  the  S  class  (illiterates  who  have  taken  the  mechanical-skill  test)  are  at  once  reported  to  the 
neurologist  for  special  examination. 


20  MEMOIRS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES.  [vol.  xv. 

(f)  These  tests  have  been  so  systematically  and  expeditiously  carried  out  and  have  been  conducted  with  so  little 
interference  with  routine  company  and  regimental  duties  that  I  heard  not  one  word  of  criticism  on  this  score.  The 
commanding  general  remarked  to  me  that  the  time  lost  was  neglible,  and  added  that  if  the  examination  took  10  times 
as  long,  he  would  still  be  in  favor  of  it. 

(g)  Regular  psychological  examinations  began  on  October  8 ;  up  to  November  10, 1, 182  officers  and  22,226  men  (white) 
had  been  examined,  more  than  90  per  cent  of  the  white  strength  of  the  command,  in  numbers  ranging  from  1,083  to 
6,633  each  week. 

IV.    RESULTS   OP  THE   TESTS. 

6.  Viewed  from  the  standpoint  of  the  purpose  of  the  tests,  the  results  may  be  outlined  as  follows: 

A.  Identification  of  the  mentally  incompetent: 

(a)  All  men  rated  in  the  B  and  S  classes  have  been  carefully  examined  by  Maj.  Moore,  consulting  neurologist 
at  the  base  hospital.  A  complete  report  of  these  cases  is  not  yet  available,  but  it  is  reasonably  certain  that  about  one- 
half  of  the  E  class  and  somewhat  less  of  the  S  class  will  be  found  disqualified  for  military  service;  and  it  is  probable 
that  further  observation  and  longer  service  of  these  men  will  result  in  further  discharges  for  disability. 

(6)  It  is  recognized  by  both  the  psychologist  and  the  psychiatrist  that  these  tests  do  not  discover  certain  not  un- 
common neurotic  types.  To  assist  in  bringing  these  cases  to  light  Maj.  Moore  has  circulated  the  following  bulletin 
among  company  officers: 

The  personality  traits  named  below  are  of  such  importance  as  to  be  indicative  of  possible  underlying  mental 
conditions.  Line  officers  are  requested  to  refer  to  the  psychiatrist  recruits  under  their  observation  who  exhibit  them. 
These  traits  are:  Irritable  jseclusive;  sulky;  depressed;  shy;  timid;  overboisterous;  sleepless;  persistent  violators  of  dis- 
cipline; "queer  sticks"  (cranks);  "goats"  (butts  of  practical  jokes);  "boobs"  (those  who  have  difficulty  in  compre- 
hending orders);  dull;  stupid;  marked  emotional  reaction  (such  as  vomiting  and  fainting  at  bayonet  drill);  peculiarities 
of  attitude,  speech,  or  behavior  sufficiently  marked  to  attract  attention  of  associates;  those  resentful  of  discipline; 
suspicious;  sleepwalkers;  bed  wetters;  those  persistently  slovenly  in  dress;  those  who  have  difficulty  in  executing  mus- 
cular movements  in  setting-up  exercises;  those  who  are  generally  restless. 

B.  Classification  according  to  mental  ability: 

(a)  The  testimony  of  unprejudiced  officers  is  to  the  effect  that  in  most  instances  the  ratings  given  by  the  psycholo- 
gist are  confirmatory  of  the  estimates  found  after  frequent  and  intimate  observation.  The  testimony  of  the  division 
surgeon  lias  already  been  quoted.  Col.  Rhoads  had  occasion  recently  to  estimate  the  qualifications  of  about  30  officers 
in  his  department.  To  assist  him  in  this  work,  he  called  into  conference  Maj .  Schmitter,  Maj .  Carter,  and  Maj .  Williams. 
The  findings  were  closely  in  accord  with  the  ratings  as  given  by  the  psychologists. 

(6)  I  took  occasion  to  interview  certain  line  officers  who  had  been  furnished  psychological  ratings  of  their  men. 
There  was  a  general  agreement  that  these  ratings  corresponded  in  most  instances  with  estimates  previously  formed  as 
to  the  mental  capacity  of  the  men.  Those  at  the  top  of  the  list  correspond  closely  with  the  noncommissioned  officers, 
company  clerks,  and  other  men  of  more  than  average  ability,  while  at  the  bottom  the  list  invariably  showed  many 
of  the  indifferent,  stupid,  and  intractable  men  of  the  company. 

(c)  Maj.  Carter,  division  sanitary  inspector,  who  has  had  unusual  opportunities  to  measure  up  the  mental  capacity 
of  medical  officers  of  the  camp,  says: 

"Relative  to  my  observations  of  the  psychological  tests,  I  wish  to  say  that  the  ratings  awarded  to  the  men  conform 
very  closely  to  my  personal  estimation  of  the  men  examined." 

(rf)  Maj.  Williams,  M.  R.  C,  assistant  to  the  division  surgeon,  believes  that  with  the  assistance  given  by  the  psy- 
chological tests  "battalion  and  organization  commanders  can  quicker  give  ratings  and  opinions  on  medical  officers.'' 

(e)  Maj.  Schmitter,  commanding  the  base  hospital,  is  firmly  convinced  of  the  value  of  the  test  as  an  aid  in  sizing 
up  the  capabilities  of  his  men.  He  told  me  of  a  number  of  instances  where  the  psychological  scores  gave  an  accurate 
index  as  to  practical  worth.  Nearly  all  of  the  200-odd  men  in  his  detachment  were  new  to  him  and  their  records  un- 
known. When  the  report  of  the  psychological  examiners  came  in  he  noticed  that  the  man  who  had  been  given 
the  highest  rating  had  been  sidetracked  in  the  assignments  and  had  been  detailed  to  some  very  insignificant  duty. 
He  sent  for  this  man,  questioned  him  as  to  his  previous  training,  and  then  placed  him  in  a  position  of  considerable 
responsibility.  The  recruit  immediately  made  good  and  fully  justified  Maj.  Schmitter's  faith  in  him  and  in  the  trust- 
worthiness of  the  psychological  rating.  Some  time  previous  to  this  occurrence  Maj.  Schmitter's  attention  had  been 
called  to  a  young  man  of  excellent  appearance  and  address  and  apparently  better  educated  than  the  ordinary  soldier. 
He  decided  to  make  him  a  corporal.  Soon  after  this  man  got  into  serious  trouble,  left  his  post  of  duty,  and  involved 
himself  in  all  sorts  of  difficulties.  When  the  psychological  ratings  came  in  it  was  found  that  his  score  was  81, 
far  below  the  noncommissioned-officer  grade,  and  almost  approaching  the  feeble-minded.  Further  acquaintance 
with  this  man  showed  that,  in  Maj.  Schmitter's  words,  he  was  an  out-and-out  "bonehead." 

C.  Selection  for  responsible  positions: 

(a)  Observations  in  this  line  are  illuminating,  and  although,  with  one  exception  noted  in  the  last  paragraph, 
men  have  not  been  selected,  so  far  as  I  know,  for  important  jobs  solely  by  reference  to  their  psychological  scores,  many 
instances  have  occured  where  men  so  selected  were  found  to  stand  high  on  the  psychological  lists.  A  division  order 
was  recently  issued  requiring  each  company  to  report  its  best  50  men  and  its  poorest  50;  in  most  instances  the  individuals 
on  these  lists  corresponded  very  closel)  with  the  highest  and  lowest  of  the  psychological  scores.  As  one  captain 
expressed  it,  "We  believe  there  must  be  something  in  these  tests  because  they  agree  with  our  estimates  of  our  men"; 


>      no.  i.]  PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  ARMY.  21 

and  it  is  said  that  Gen.  Cronkhite  has  suggested  tnat  the  reports  of  company  commanders  (on  the  50  best  and  50  poorest 
men  in  their  companies)  when  checked  with  the  psychological  scores  will  furnish  a  vaulable  index  as  to  the  officers' 
ability  to  size  up  men. 

(6)  The  following  instances  have  been  reported  as  showing  the  concurrence  of  high  mental  rating  with  proved 
military  capacity: 

The  headquarters  troop  at  Camp  Lee  is  a  selected  group.  In  the  tests  they  all  scored  high  in  comparison  with  other 
companies.  In  order  to  prevent  unfairness  to  some  of  these  men  when  it  came  time  to  select  men  for  the  third  officers' 
training  camp,  it  was  ordered  that  a  number  of  them  be  distributed  over  the  camp  to  other  companies  and  organi- 
zations. One  of  the  officers  of  this  troop  requested  the  scores  of  these  men  in  order  to  check  the  men  selected  for 
this  distribution  with  their  scores.  He  reported  to  us,  after  going  over  the  list,  that  the  15  men  selected  because  of 
their  excellent  chances  for  the  training  camp  were  at  the  top  of  our  list  of  scores  ranked  in  accordance  with  the 
mental  capacity  indicated  by  the  tests. 

About  15  promotions  to  noncommissioned  ranks  appeared  in  the  local  newspapers  one  morning.  The  score  of 
each  of  these  men  was  looked  up.  It  was  found  that  every  man  in  the  list  had  a  score  which  would  have  justified 
the  promotion  so  far  as  mental  capacity  is  concerned.  At  the  personnel  office  we  find  similiar  confirmations.  The 
correlation  here  can  not  be  expected  to  be  exact,  since  circumstances  of  life  do  not  permit  exact  correspondence  between 
mental  capacity  alone  and  success  in  occupations  to  occur  frequently. 

One  lieutenant  in  charge  of  a  company,  after  examining  our  score  sheet  of  his  company,  stated  that  the  50  men 
he  had  finally  picked  were  almost  without  exception  at  the  top  of  our  lists. 

A  third  officer  states  that  he  was  requested  to  select  five  men  for  especially  high  grade  work.  When  he  received 
his  list  of  Bcores  he  found  that  these  men  were  at  the  top  of  the  list. 

(c)  The  following  instances  show  the  opposite  conditions: 

On  the  recommendation  of  his  associates  and  on  his  appearance,  a  man  in  a  certain  company  was  made  a  corporal. 
As  soon  as  he  began  his  work  his  commanding  officer  reports  that  things  began  to  go  wrong.  As  corporal  of  the  guard 
he  could  not  keep  his  men  on  duty  and  seemed  unable  to  carry  out  instructions  properly.  When  the  report  of  scores 
came  to  this  officer  he  found  that  the  corporal  had  a  low  mental  capacity  rating.  One  man  who  showed  lack  of 
interest  and  decided  tendency  to  disobey  instructions  in  the  group  testing,  proved  on  inquiry  to  be  causing  similiar 
trouble  in  his  company.    His  score  was  147 — entirely  too  low  a  score  in  mental  capacity  for  the  rank  he  is  holding. 

Another  officer  reported  that  his  corporals  and.  sergeants  were  among  the  C  men  on  our  list.  We  found  afterwards 
that  the  selection  of  these  officers  had  been  made  on  the  basis  of  previous  military  experience. 

V.      COMMENTS. 

7.  The  time  when  the  test  should  be  made  with  reference  to  the  date  of  arrival  of  the  recruit  is  important.  In  one 
way  it  would  be  desirable  to  have  this  examination  over  as  soon  as  possible,  and  it  might  be  held  in  connection  with 
the  physical  examination  immediately  upon  arrival.  There  is,  however,  one  objection  to  this  scheme  which  I  believe 
is  vital.  At  Camp  Upton  a  neurologist  of  experience  observed  that  nearly  every  recruit  was  suffering  during  his  first 
physical  examination  from  an  anxiety  neurosis;  hence  a  psychological  test  at  this  time  would  be  manifestly  unfair. 
For  similar  reasons,  it  should  not  be  made  until  after  the  effect  of  protective  innoculations  and  vaccination  has  worn  off. 
Another  good  reason  for  postponing  it  is  that  the  specialist,  before  coming  to  a  definite  conclusion  as  to  mental  and 
nervous  defects,  desires  a  history  covering  the  observation  of  company  officers,  and  obviously  the  longer  the  period 
of  observation,  within  limits,  the  better.  In  my  opinion  the  psychological  examination  should  not  be  held  with- 
in three  weeks  of  arrival  at  camp,  and  the  neurological  or  mental  examination  by  the  medical  specialist  not  sooner 
than  three  or  four  weeks  thereafter. 

8.  An  interesting  and  important  problem  arises  as  to  what  mental  age  should  be  adopted  as  a  minimum  for  military 
service.  Recruits  in  the  E  class,  a  majority  of  whom  are  probably  mentally  defective,  are  examined  by  Dr.  Rudolph 
Pintner,  who  has  had  a  very  large  experience  in  civil  life  in  handling  these  cases.  His  belief  is  that  any  man  of  the 
mental  age  of  10  or  over  is  qualified  for  military  service;  men  of  8  or  9  years  might  be  used  for  special  service,  and 
picked  men  of  7  years;  these  latter  would,  however,  be  a  drag  on  other  brighter  men  and  should,  if  used  at  all,  be 
placed  in  units  composed  of  men  of  their  own  age.  This  is  a  matter  which  deserves  further  consideration  and  the 
adoption  of  a  definite  and  uniform  policy. 

9.  In  view  of  the  fact  that  these  ratings  will  be  used  for  reference  in  the  cases  of  officers  and  men  for  promotion, 
I  believe  that  stringent  orders  should  be  issued  requiring  that  individual  scores  be  considered  confidential.  The 
very  fact  that  in  some  instances  a  consideration  of  the  rating  may  turn  the  scale  for  or  against  a  candidate,  while 
in  other  instances  the  psychological  report  will  be  given  no  weight  whatever — these  are  obvious  reasons  for  keeping 
secret  this  important  record. 

VI.    RESUME. 

10.  Psychological  tests  began  on  October  8;  up  to  November  10,  about  90  per  cent  of  the  command,  officers  and 
men,  had  been  examined. 

11.  Men  are  rapidly  handled  in  company  groups  by  four  examiners,  who  conduct  simultaneously  both  the  in- 
telligence and  the  mechanical  skill  tests.    About  half  a  regiment  is  examined  each  day. 

12.  Certain  types  of  mental  and  nervous  instability  are  identified  at  once  and  the  mentally  defective  as  soon 
as  the  scores  are  known. 

13.  There  was  a  general  concurrence  of  opinion  among  officers  who  had  been  furnished  psychological  ratings  of 
men  in  their  commands  that  previous  estimates  of  mental  capacity  correspond  in  a  very  striking  way  with  the  scores 
made  by  these  men  at  the  examination. 


22 


MEMOIRS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES. 


[Vol.  XV, 


14.  Neurological  examinations  are  made  of  all  suspicious  cases  and  of  all  men  in  the  E  and  S  classes.  About  halt 
of  each  class  are  found  unfit  for  military  service. 

15.  The  value  of  these  psychological  tests  as  an  indication  of  mental  capacity  can  not  be  definitely  determined 
at  present;  further  comparison  must  be  made  of  officers'  estimates  and  of  the  performance  of  the  men  with  psycholog- 
ical scores.  The  general  opinion  at  Camp  Lee  is  distinctly  favorable,  and  I  am  confident  that  the  results  obtained 
by  Lieut.  Yoakum  and  his  co-workers  amply  justify  the  extension  of  the  examinations  to  include  all  enlisted  and 
drafted  men  and  newly  appointed  officers. 

16.  There  is  nothing  novel  or  experimental  in  the  principle  of  applying  psychological  tests  as  a  means  of  determin- 
ing practical  every-day  mental  capacity.  It  has  been  repeatedly  made  use  of  heretofore  among  big  business  concerns 
with  results  indicated  in  dollars  and  cents  saved.  The  value  of  the  work  of  Maj.  Yerkes  and  his  assistants  consists  in 
devising  mental  tests  of  such  a  nature  as  to  serve  as  a  practical  index  of  the  intelligence  of  men  in  the  military  service. 
If  the  results  of  the  work  at  Camp  Lee  are  borne  out  at  other  places,  it  must  be  admitted  that  Maj.  Yerkes  has  been 
eminently  successful. 

17.  The  following  extract  from  an  interview  with  Gen.  Cronkhite,  published  in  The  Bayonet  of  October  26,  1917, 
shows  the  opinion  of  the  division  commander  in  regard  to  value  of  the  psychological  examinations: 

It  may  be  revolutionary,  but  the  psychiatric  board 's  intelligence  tests  will  play  a  great  part  in  this  division.  These 
tests  are  virtually  conclusive ;  they  have  proved  so  in  thousands  of  cases.  And  men  who  show  a  high  intelligence  rating 
will  be  watched  closely;  will  be  given  every  chance  for  advancement.  Their  daily  work  will  be  taken  into  consider- 
ation, and  if  they  deserve  promotion  they'll  get  it.    This  is  the  program  from  top  to  bottom — officers  and  privates. 

VII.      RECOMMENDATIONS. 

18.  In  view  of  the  successful  results  of  the  psychological  examinations  at  Camp  Lee  and  of  the  high  opinion  of  the 
value  of  the  tests  by  all  unprejudiced  observers,  including  the  commanding  general,  the  chief  of  staff,  the  ranking  medi- 
cal officers  and  many  company  officers,  I  recommend  that  the  scheme  be  extended  to  include  all  enlisted  and  drafted 
men  and  all  newly  appointed  officers,  provided  competent  psychologists  can  be  found  to  take  charge. 

19.  In  my  opinion  the  work  should  be  prosecuted  under  the  direction  of  the  division  surgeon,  inasmuch  as  the 
medical  department  is  vitally  interested  in  the  prompt  identification  and  elimination  of  the  mentally  unfit. 

Henry  A.  Shaw, 
Colonel,  Medical  Corps. 

Col.  Shaw  prepared  also  the  following  special  report  on  the  significance  of  psychological 

ratings  for  the  Medical  Corps : 

November  19,  1917. 
Prom:  Col.  Henry  A.  Shaw,  Medical  Corps. 
To:  The  Surgeon  General  of  the  Army. 
Subject:  Psychological  rating  of  medical  officers,  Camp  Lee,  Va. 

1.  The  psychological  examinations  of  officers  and  drafted  men  are  now  nearing  completion  at  Camp  Lee,  Va. 
Through  the  courtesy  of  First  Lieut.  Clarence  S.  Yoakum,  S.  C,  chief  psychological  examiner  at  that  camp,  I  am 
able  to  present  certain  information  and  data  in  regard  to  them  which,  in  my  opinion,  have  a  very  direct  bearing  on  the 
present  condition  and  future  policy  of  the  medical  department. 

2.  The  statistics  which  are  here  reported  are  based  upon  psychological  tests  of  1,166  officers,  including — Infantry, 
227;  Artillery,  169;  Engineers,  63;  Quartermaster  Corps,  72;  medical  officers,  236  (of  whom  188  were  Medical  Corps, 
36  Dental  Corps,  and  12  Veterinary  Corps).  The  ratings  of  these  officers  as  a  body  were  as  follows :  In  the  A  class  (very 
superior;  intellectually  competent  to  command),  44  per  cent;  in  the  B  class  (superior ;  officer  type),  32  per  cent;  in  the 
C  class  (average  private  type),  24  per  cent.  Analyzing  these  ratings  according  to  corps  or  arm  of  the  service  we  find  the 
following  percentages  in  each  grade: 

Table  1. — Showing  by  corps  and  arm  of  service  percentages  of  officers  and  men  in  each  grade. 


Range  of  scores 


Letter 
grade. 


Average 
officer 
group. 


Medical 
Corps. 


Engineers. 


Artillery. 


Infantry. 


Quarter- 
master 
Corps. 


Drafted 
men. 


350-414.. 
300-349.. 
250-299.. 
200-249.. 
150-199. 
100-149. 
50-99... 
0-50... 


Iliteratc  and  foreign. 


D 

E 


0.9 
3.0 
5.7 
11.0 
16.0 
18.0 
15.6 
9.2 


19.5 


No.i.]  PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  ARMY.  23 

3.  It  will  be  noted  that  the  officer  group  as  a  whole  is  represented  by  44  per  cent  in  the  A  grade ;  the  Engineers  con- 
tribute 66  per  cent  of  their  total  to  this  grade;  the  Artillery,  57;  Infantry,  44;  Quartermaster,  30;  while  the  Medical  Corps 
shows  only  27  per  cent.  In  the  B  grade  the  representation  of  the  Medical  Corps  is  a  trifle  above  the  average,  while  the 
Engineers  and  Artillery  are  slightly  below.  In  the  C  grade  the  average  is  represented  by  24  per  cent;  the  Engineers  give 
only  5  per  cent  of  their  strength;  the  Artillery,  13;  the  Infantry,  18;  the  Quartermaster,  28;  and  the  Medical  Corps,  40. 
In  other  words,  in  the  A  grade,  which  contains  44  per  cent  of  all  officers,  the  Medical  Corps  is  17  per  cent  short  of  the 
average  and  has  a  smaller  representation  than  any  other  group,  the  Engineers  being  two  and  one-half  times  as  numerous 
proportionally,  in  the  B  grade,  the  Medical  Corps  is  about  equal  to  the  average,  while  in  the  C  grade  ("average  private 
type"),  which  contains  only  24  per  cent  of  the  total  officers,  the  Medical  Corps  is  represented  by  40  per  cent  of  its 
Btrength,  a  far  larger  proportion  than  any  other  group,  the  Engineers  showing  only  5  per  cent  of  their  number;  the  Artil- 
lery, 12;  Infantry,  18;  and  Quartermaster,  28.  Comment  on  these  figures  is  unnecessary.  They  speak  for  themselves. 
The  only  question  is  whether  or  not  they  represent  a  true  state  of  affairs. 

4.  With  reference  to  the  comparative  efficiency  of  the  officers  of  the  various  arms  of  the  service  I  am  not  in  a  position 
to  judge.  I  am  of  the  opinion,  however,  that  the  order  of  mentality  as  shown  by  the  psychological  scores  is  fairly  close 
to  the  truth. 

It  is  reasonable  to  believe  that  the  Engineers  have  succeeded  in  attaching  to  their  corps  a  larger  number  of  techni- 
cally trained  young  men  than  any  other  branch  of  the  service.  It  is  also  probable  that  the  officers'  training  camps  have 
drawn  into  the  commissioned  grades  a  larger  number  of  college-trained  men  than  either  the  Quartermaster  or  the  Medical 
Corps. 

5.  As  to  the  question  of  whether  these  low  ratings  of  the  officers  of  the  Medical,  Dental,  and  Veterinary  Corps  are 
borne  out  by  the  records  of  the  officers  as  a  group,  I  should  say  that  on  the  average  they  are,  and  this  without  the  slightest 
disparagement  to  certain  officers  of  the  very  best  professional  type  whose  services  deserve  the  highest  praise.  I  gained 
the  impression  by  talking  with  the  division  surgeon  and  the  base-hospital  commander  that  there  was  a  fairly  large  class 
of  medical  men  who  were  so  incompetent  professionally  that  they  could  never  become  efficient  medical  officers;  and  I 
believe  that  this  same  state  of  affairs  is  true  of  most  other  cantonments.  There  is  a  sprinkling  of  medical  officers  of  the 
highest  character  and  finest  professional  attainments  in  every  military  camp ;  a  fairly  large  group  of  medical  men  of  average 
ability,  and  another  group,  altogether  too  large,  of  men  who  are  lacking  in  early  education,  in  medical  training,  and  in 
professional  skill,  who  were  unable  to  earn  a  livelihood  before  the  war  and  who  welcomed  the  opportunity  to  receive  the 
stipend  of  a  first  lieutenant.  These  are  the  men  who  are  bringing  down  the  ratings  of  the  Medical  Corps.  If  continued 
in  the  service  they  will  cripple  its  efficiency  and  will  seriously  affect  its  prestige  with  the  line. 

6.  In  my  opinion  the  medical  department  must  immediately  take  steps — first,  to  weed  out  the  undesirables,  and, 
second,  to  prevent  the  entrance  of  such  into  the  corps.  With  reference  to  the  first  consideration  there  are  three  methods 
by  which  this  may  be  accomplished: 

(a)  Relegation  to  the  inactive  list. 

(6)  Discharge  from  the  service  on  recommendation  of  a  board  of  officers  appointed  by  division  commander.  (Bulle- 
tin No.  32,  War  Dept.,  1917.) 

(c)  Resignation. 

The  first  method  should  not  be  resorted  to  except  after  the  failure  of  the  other  two;  but  if  an  incompetent  medical 
officer  can  not  be  gotten  rid  of  by  discharge,  or  if  he  can  not  be  induced  to  resign,  he  should  be  put  on  the  inactive 
list,  even  if  such  a  procedure  unduly  increases  the  length  of  that  list.  The  main  object  is  to  rid  the  Medical  Corps  of 
its  incompetents. 

7.  With  reference  to  the  other  two  methods  I  recommend  that  the  attention  of  division  surgeons  be  invited  to 
the  necessity  of  adopting  means  to  separate  from  the  service  all  members  of  the  Medical,  Dental,  and  Veterinary  Corps 
whose  records  indicate  that  they  will  not  make  efficient  officers.  The  quickest  method  is  resignation.  Every  possible 
means  to  this  end  should  be  attempted,  and  if  all  fail  the  officer  should  be  brought  before  a  board,  and  the  division 
surgeon  should  insist  on  the  right  to  name  the  members. 

8.  As  to  what  means  should  be  adopted  to  keep  undesirables  out  of  the  service,  I  believe  that  the  time  has  come 
when  we  must  insist  on  a  higher  standard  of  professional  ability  and  must  exercise  greater  care  in  the  selection  of 
candidates.  In  my  opinion  every  medicalofficer  before  being  commissioned  should  be  required  to  produce  evidence 
that  he  has  spent  a  year  as  house  officer  in  an  approved  hospital,  or  has  had  equivalent  practical  experience.  At 
training  camps  some  means  must  be  adopted  to  subject  candidates  to  more  rigid  scrutiny  as  to  their  general  intelli- 
gence and  professional  attainments.  They  should  be  accepted  only  on  probation,  the  right  being  reserved  by  the  War 
Department  to  discharge  them  upon  the  recommendation  of  the  commandant  at  the  expiration  of  the  probationary 
period.  Judging  from  the  results  of  the  psychological  examinations  at  Camp  Lee,  the  adoption  of  this  scheme  at  med- 
ical officers'  training  camps  would  give  the  commandant  a  ready  and  reliable  guide  and  would  furnish  information 
on  which  further  observation  could  be  made.     I  recommend  that  steps  be  taken  to  initiate  some  such  scheme. 

Henry  A.  Shaw, 
Colonel,  Medical  Corps. 


24  MEMOIRS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES.  ivol.xv, 

Section  6. — Recommendation  for  continuation  and  extension  of  psychological  examining. 

Because  of  the  importance  of  early  decision  as  to  the  continuation  of  psychological  service 
in  the  Army,  the  chief  of  the  Section  of  Psychology  addressed  to  the  Surgeon  General  immedi- 
ately after  official  inspection  of  examining  in  two  of  the  four  cantonments  in  which  it  had 
been  authorized  a  letter  requesting  an  early  decision  concerning  the  continuation  of  psycho- 
logical work.     It  was  forwarded  by  the  Surgeon  General  with  the  following  letter  to  The 

Adjutant  General: 

December  7,  1917. 
From:  The  Surgeon  General  U.  S.  Army. 
To:  The  Adjutant  General  of  the  Army. 
Subject:  Continuance  of  psychological  work. 

1.  Inclosed  with  this  communication  is  a  report  from  Maj.  Robert  M.  Yerkes,  S.  C,  chief  of  the  Section  of  Psy- 
chology, Office  of  the  Surgeon  General,  with  reference  to  the  psychological  examinations  which  have  been  practically 
completed  at  three  of  the  National  Army  cantonments;  also  a  copy  of  report  by  Col.  Henry  A  Shaw,  M.  C,  concerning 
the  examinations  of  one  of  the  cantonments — Camp  Lee,  Va. 

2.  The  purpose  of  these  tests  as  outlined  by  Maj.  Yerkes  is  as  follows: 
(a)  To  aid  in  segregating  and  eliminating  the  mentally  incompetent. 
(6)  To  classify  men  according  to  their  mental  capacity. 

(c)  To  assist  in  selecting  competent  men  for  responsible  positions. 

3.  In  the  opinion  of  this  office  these  reports  indicate  very  definitely  that  the  desired  results  have  been  achieved. 
Scores  of  drafted  men,  mentally  incompetent,  have  been  identified  by  the  psychological  tests  much  earlier  in  their 
military  careers  than  would  have  otherwise  occurred.  The  classification  of  men  according  to  mental  ability,  as 
determined  by  these  examinations,  has  corresponded  in  general,  in  a  very  striking  way  with  the  estimates  previously 
made  by  officers  familiar  with  them;  and  many  instances  could  be  mentioned  where  men  selected  for  responsible 
positions,  solely  on  their  psychological  records,  had  fully  justified  that  selection. 

4.  The  success  of  this  work  in  a  large  series  of  observations,  some  5,000  officers  and  80,000  men,  makes  it  reasonably 
certain  that  similar  results  may  be  expected  if  the  system  were  extended  to  include  the  entire  enlisted  and  drafted 
personnel  and  to  all  newly  appointed  officers. 

5.  There  appears  to  be  no  objection  on  the  part  of  commanding  officers  to  the  prosecution  of  this  work  at  divisional 
cantonments  on  the  ground  that  the  time  of  the  men  is  being  unduly  sacrificed,  and  I  am  of  the  opinion  that  these 
examinations  can  be  continued  without  just  criticism  whatsoever  on  this  score. 

6.  In  view  of  these  considerations  I  recommend  that  all  company  officers,  all  candidates  for  officers'  training  camps, 
and  all  drafted  and  enlisted  men  be  required  to  take  the  prescribed  psychological  tests.  I  recommend  also  that  the  work 
be  prosecuted  by  psychological  examiners  under  the  control  of  Maj.  Yerkes,  S.  C,  and  at  divisional  camps  under  the 
general  direction  of  the  division  surgeon.  I  recommend  further  that  the  division  commanders  be  directed  to  furnish 
the  necessary  facilities  for  carrying  out  of  this  work. 

7.  The  extension  of  the  examinations  will  involve  considerable  preliminary  work  on  the  part  of  the  Section  of 
Psychology.     I  therefore  request  that  a  decision  on  this  point  be  rendered  as  early  as  possible. 

For  the  Surgeon  General : 

H.  P.  Birmingham, 
Brigadier  General,  National  Army. 

The  matter  was  referred  by  The  Adjutant  General  to  the  Chief  of  Staff  and  by  the  Chief 
of  Staff  to  the  training  committee  of  the  War  College  Division  of  the  General  Staff  for  investi- 
gation and  report.  In  connection  with  the  investigation  conducted  by  this  committee,  Maj. 
Yerkes  appeared  before  the  committee  for  a  hearing  and  described  at  length  the  methods  of 
psychological  examining,  the  results  obtained,  and  the  plans  and  purposes  of  the  Surgeon 
General's  Office  in  connection  with  continuation  and  extension  of  the  service. 

At  the  conclusion  of  this  hearing  the  training  commit'tee  requested  information  concerning 
the  reactions  of  line  officers  to  psychological  examining.  It  was  stated  by  Maj.  Yerkes  that 
chief  psychological  examiners  in  the  several  cantonments  had  already  been  instructed  to  obtain 
statements  from  company  commanders  to  whom  reports  had  been  made  of  the  psychological 
ratings  of  their  men.  Maj.  Yerkes  further  offered  to  request  by  telegram  that  the  four  chief 
psychological  examiners  forward  directly  to  the  training  committee  of  the  War  College  the 
responses  of  officers.     The  committee  accepted  this  offer  and  appropriate  telegrams  were  sent. 

Pending  receipt  of  statements  from  company  commanders  and  final  decision  of  the  training 
committee  concerning  the  extension  of  psychological  work,  Maj.  Yerkes  presented  to  the  com- 
mittee memoranda  bearing  on  the  residts  and  success  of  the  examinations  in  the  camps.     He 


No.  1.] 


PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  ARMY. 


25 


further  emphasized  at  this  time  the  disadvantages  under  which  the  work  had  progressed  thus 

far  and  the  opportunity  for  securing  even  greater  value  hy  the  establishment  of  more  favorable 

conditions. 

Section  7. — Reports  of  company  commanders. 

As  a  result  of  the  special  request  for  the  opinions  of  company  commanders  relative  to  the 
value  of  psychological  ratings,  322  reports  were  received.  They  are  distributed  as  follows: 
Camp  Devens,  102;  Camp  Lee,  147;  Camp  Dix,  63;  Camp  Taylor,  10. 

Analysis  indicates  four  types  of  judgment  concerning  the  value  of  psychological  ratings: 
(1)  Favorable;  (2)  favorable  with  qualifications;  (3)  unfavorable  with  qualification;  (4)  unfavor- 
able without  qualifications. 

The  distribution  of  these  judgments  is  indicated  by  the  accompanying  table,  from  which 
have  been  omitted  three  Camp  Dix  reports  from  officers  who  state  that  they  feel  incompetent 
to  judge  of  the  results  because  of  limited  opportunity  to  observe,  and  the  10  reports  received 
from  Camp  Taylor  because  they  are  not  comparable  with  reports  received  from  other  camps. 

Table  2. 


Camp. 

Favorable. 

Unfavorable. 

Without  qualification. 

With  qualification. 

With  qualification. 

Without  qualification. 

Number. 
77 
43 
59 

Per  cent. 
75 
72 
40 

Number. 
18 
10 
44 

Per  cent. 
IS 
17 
30 

Number. 

5 

5 

32 

Per  cent. 
5 
8 
22 

Number. 
2 
2 
12 

Per  cent. 
2 

Dix 

3 

8 

Total 

179 

58 

72 

23 

42 

14 

16 

5 

In  all,  slightly  more  than  250  of  the  reports  (82  per  cent)  are  favorable;  about  60  (18  per 
cent),  unfavorable. 

A  considerable  number  of  the  reports  indicated  more  or  less  serious  misunderstanding  of 
the  nature  and  purposes  of  psychological  examining,  as  well  as  of  the  significance  of  the  results. 
Except  for  this,  however,  reports  of  commanding  officers  in  the  several  cantonments  would 
have  been  favorable  in  more  than  85  per  cent  of  the  cases.  This,  in  view  of  the  facts  that  the 
work  is  entirely  new,  that  it  was  done  under  extremely  unfavorable  conditions,  and  that  the 
reports  were  made  in  many  instances  after  the  results  had  lost  value  for  assignment,  is  a  re- 
markably favorable  showing. 

Section   8. — Decision  concerning  extension   of  examining. 

The  training  committee  of  the  General  Staff,  on  the  basis  of  the  reports  of  commanding 
officers  described  above,  the  materials  supplied  by  the  Section  of  Psychology,  and  the  state- 
ments of  the  chief  of  that  section,  voted  to  concur  in  the  recommendation  of  the  Surgeon  General 
that  all  company  officers,  candidates  for  officers'  training  camps,  and  all  drafted  and  enlisted 
men  be  required  to  take  psychological  tests.  It  was  further  recommended  by  the  committee 
that  this  action  be  taken  by  the  War  Department. 

The  following  paragraphs  from  the  report  of  the  committee  have  peculiar  significance: 

Intelligence  tests  do  not  measure  the  educational  status;  they  measure  the  intelligence  status  and  the  latter  has 
an  important  bearing  in  estimating  military  sendee  ability.  It  is  recognized  that  intelligence  ratings  alone  should 
not  determine  a  man's  selection  for  promotion,  but  must  be  supplemented  by  a  knowledge  of  personality,  appearance, 
energy,  resourcefulness,  military  zeal,  initiative,  tact,  and  ability  to  command  men.  The  record  charts  herewith 
show  very  clearly  that  the  intellectual  capacity  as  measured  by  the  psychological  examination  has  a  large  bearing  on 
the  man's  position  in  the  service. 

This  subj  ect  of  psychology  in  its  relation  to  military  efficiency  is  an  entirely  new  one,  and  the  War  College  Division 
approached  it  with  a  good  deal  of  doubt  as  to  its  value.     A  very  thorough  study  of  the  reports  submitted,  however, 
has  firmly  convinced  it  that  this  examination  will  be  of  great  value  in  assisting  and  determining  the  possibilities  of 
newly  drafted  men  and  all  candidates  for  officers'  training  camps. 
121435°— 21 3 


26  MEMOIKS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES.  [Vol.  xv. 

The  recommendations  of  the  Surgeon  General  for  the  extension  of  psychological  examining 
were  approved  by  the  War  Department  on  December  24,  1917,  and  to  the  Surgeon  General's 
letter  of  December  7,  was  appended  the  following  second  indorsement: 

War  Department,  A.  G.  0.,  Dec.  24,  1917.— To  the  Surgeon  General,  U.  S.  Army. 

With  the  information  that  the  scheme  of  psychological  examinations  of  company  officers  and  all  newly  drafted 
and  enlisted  men  is  approved,  and  that  he  submit  a  plan  to  secure  the  services  of  the  necessary  psychologists  and  put 
this  Bystem  of  examination  into  effect. 
By  order  of  the  Secretary  of  War: 

John  S.  Johnston, 

Adjutant  General. 

This  favorable  decision  concerning  the  psychological  service  was  pecidiarly  fortunate  as 
well  as  gratifying  to  the  men  who  were  responsible  for  the  work,  because  it  came  just  before 
the  annual  meetings  of  the  American  Psychological  Association.  Announcement  of  the  action 
was  made  at  the  meetings  and  the  prospective  need  of  a  large  increase  in  psychological  personnel 
was  strongly  emphasized. 


CHAPTER  3. 

PERIOD  OF  EXTENSION  OF  EXAMINING. 


Section  1 — Official  'plan  and  its  approval. 

In  compliance  with  the  request  of  the  Secretary  of  War,  dated  December  24,  1917,  that  the 
Surgeon 'General  submit  a  plan  for  the  extension  of  psychological  examining,  the  section  of  psy- 
chology prepared  the  following  as  the  third  indorsement  on  the  original  recommendation  for 
extension : 

[Third  Indorsement.] 

War  Department,  S.  G.  O.,  January  3,  1918 — To  The  Adjutant  General  of  the  Army. 

With  a  plan  for  the  psychological  examining  of  company  officers  and  all  newly  drafted  and  enlisted  men  as  per 
request  of  second  indorsement. 

PLAN  FOR  PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  ARMY. 

1.  Provision  of  personnel. 

(a)  Staff  organization. — The  following  personnel  will  be  required  for  each  divisional  training  camp  or  other 
examining  station  of  equal  size. 

(1)  Officers  in  Sanitary  Corps,  4  men.  Chief  of  psychological  service,  captain  or  major;  clinical  psychologist, 
first  lieutenant,  captain,  or  major;  assistant  psychologist,  first  lieutenant  or  captain ;  assistant  psychologist,  first  lieu- 
tenant or  captain. 

(2)  Noncommissioned  officers,  4  men.     Sergeants,  2;  corporals,  2. 

(3)  Enlisted  men  (from  medical  or  sanitary  enlisted  groups),  20  men. 

All  enlisted  men  will  be  on  psychological  duty  only  during  periods  of  psychological  group  examining.  At  other 
times  they  will  be  on  regular  military,  sanitary,  or  medical  duty.  The  number  of  enlisted  men  needed  will  depend 
wholly  upon  the  necessary  speed  of  examining.  If  more  than  400  soldiers  are  to  be  examined  per  day  there  will  be 
needed  four  additional  enlisted  men  for  each  additional  hundred  soldiers  examined. 

It  is  desired  that  commissioned  and  noncommissioned  officers  and  enlisted  men  be  specially  assigned  to  psycho- 
logical duty  and  be  organized  as  a  special  psychological  unit  under  the  command  of  the  chief  of  the  psychological  service. 

Total  estimated  personnel  for  31  divisional  training  camps  and  special  staff,  Office  of  the  Surgeon  General,  and  med- 
ical training  camp : 

Officers,  Sanitary  Corps,  National  Army. — Majors,  27;  captains,  51;  first  lieutenants,  54. 

Noncommissioned  officers. — Sergeants,  62;  corporals,  62;  enlisted  men,  620. 

Officers,  Sanitary  Corps,  132;  noncommissioned  officers,  124;  enlisted  men,  620. 

(6)  Sources  of  personnel — 

(1)  Men  over  31  years  of  age  to  be  recommended  for  appointment  in  the  Sanitary  Corps  as  rapidly  as  possible,  50 
(approximately). 

(2)  Men  within  draft  age,  qualified  by  professional  training  for  psychological  work  and  imperatively  needed,  75 
(approximately). 

(3)  Men  already  in  the  military  service  especially  qualified  for  psychological  examining  by  their  professional  train- 
ing and  transferable  to  the  Sanitary  Corps,  20  (approximately). 

(4)  Existing  personnel  for  psychological  service,  commissioned  officers,  19  (recommendations  pending,  3). 
Totals:  Major,  1;  captains,  4;  first  lieutenants,  14. 

(c)  Provision  for  special  training  of  men  in  military  psychology. — It  is  desired  to  establish  a  two  months'  training 
course,  covering  military  and  psychological  topics  of  importance,  under  the  general  direction  of  a  qualified  instructor 
with  the  rank  of  captain  or  major,  in  connection  with  the  training  camp  of  the  medical  department  at  Fort  Oglethorpe, 
Ga.  The  program  of  such  a  course  has  been  prepared  and  submitted  for  necessary  modification  and  approval  to  the 
training  camp  division,  Office  of  the  Surgeon  General.  It  is  provided  that  approximately  one  month  be  devoted  to 
military  and  military  medical  training  and  an  equivalent  period  to  psychological  methods  as  applied  in  the  Army. 

It  is  further  provided  that  at  least  150  officers  of  the  Sanitary  Corps  shall  be  trained  in  this  course  for  psychological 
service  during  the  next  six  months;  that  at  least  125  enlisted  men  be  similarly  trained  during  the  same  period.  It  is 
further  desired  that  at  least  50  commissioned  officers  be  ordered  to  Fort  Oglethorpe  for  this  special  course  of  training  as 
soon  as  possible. 

(d)  In  accordance  with  section  150  (induction  into  the  military  service  out  of  order)  of  the  Selective  Service  Regu- 
lations, it  is  desired  to  have  certain  qualified  psychologists,  not  to  exceed  100  in  number,  apply  immediately,  on  the 

(27) 


28  MEMOIKS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES.  [vol.  xv, 

approval  of  this  plan,  to  their  local  boards  for  induction  into  the  enlisted  reserve  corps  of  the  medical  department  (either 
medical  or  sanitary  service)  in  order  that  they  may  be  ordered  to  Fort  Oglethorpe  for  special  training  in  psychological 
examining.  A  list  or  lists  of  such  men  will  be  supplied  to  The  Adjutant  General,  in  advance  of  action  by  the  regis- 
trants, with  requests  that  he  instruct  the  proper  local  boards  to  have  the  men  report  direct  to  the  commandant  of  the 
medical  training  department,  Fort  Oglethorpe,  Ga.,  instead  of  to  the  nearest  mobilization  camp. 

Before,  during,  or  after  the  special  course  of  training  for  psychologists  at  Fort  Oglethorpe  it  is  desired  to  recom- 
mend men  within  the  draft  age  as  well  as  those  above  that  age  for  appropriate  commissions  in  the  Sanitary  Corps. 
Unless  it  is  permissible  so  to  recommend  professional  psychologists  between  the  ages  of  21  and  31 ,  the  psychological  serv- 
ice will  be  seriously  hampered,  if  not  rendered  practically  ineffective. 

2.  Provision  of  proper  buildings  for  psychological  examining: 

(a)  General  plan. — It  is  deemed  essential,  in  view  of  the  relatively  complex  character  of  the  work  and  the  need  of 
the  rapid  examining  of  hundreds  of  men  per  day  both  by  groups  and  individually,  and  also  because  of  the  large  quanti- 
ties of  apparatus,  printed  materials,  and  confidential  records  and  report  materials  to  be  safely  stored,  that  a  special 
building  be  provided  in  each  divisional  training  camp  for  the  conduct  of  psychological  work  and  for  the  housing  of  the 
psychological  staff. 

The  psychology  building  should  be  located  conveniently  near  or  in  connection  with  the  proposed  group  of  quar- 
antine barracks  or  tents  in  which  for  a  period  of  two  weeks  after  their  arrival  at  camp  men  are  to  be  held  under  medical 
observation.  So  far  as  possible  it  is  desired  that  the  building  be  in  proximity  also  to  either  the  base  hospital  or  division 
headquarters. 

The  building  should  provide,  as  per  rough  sketch  attached1 — (1)  On  the  first  floor,  (a)  an  examining  hall,  approx- 
imately 30  by  60  feet,  for  the  examining  of  groups  of  150  to  200  men;  (6)  an  examining  hall,  approximately  30  by  50feet, 
for  the  examining  of  groups  of  50  to  80  men;  (c)  a  Btoreroom  approximately  12  by  20  feet,  for  record  materials  of  various 
sorts.  (2)  On  the  second  floor,  (d)  a  room  approximately  30  by  40  feet,  for  the  scoring  of  records;  (c)  a  record  room  and 
executive  office;  (/)  a  storeroom  for  apparatus  and  miscellaneous  supplies;  (g)  three  rooms  for  individual  examining 
(h)  four  rooms  for  officers'  quarters;  (i)  wash  room,  toilet,  and  shower. 

The  estimated  cost  of  the  required  housing  facilities,  including  necessary  furnishing  of  benches,  tables,  and  chairs 
is  $10,000  to  $12,000. 

(b)  Special  furniture  and  other  equipment  by  rooms — Room  (a),  plain  benches  to  seat  at  least  150  men;  (6),  high 
work  benches  or  tables  to  accommodate,  standing,  at  least  60  men;  room  (c),  shelving  on  two  sides;  room  (rf),  tables  and 
chairs  to  accommodate  30  scoring  clerks;  other  rooms  furnished  with  shelving,  tables,  and  chairs.  The  building  will 
require  approximately  50  chairs  and  25  tables. 

3.  Materials  for  psychological  work.     The  following  are  the  chief  materials  for  psychological  work: 

(a)  Apparatus  and  materials  other  than  printed  matter:  Pencils,  paper,  stop  watches,  lapboards,  blackboards, 
charts,  Stanford  outfits,  Point  Scale  outfits,  performance  outfits,  stencils,  Stenquist  sets,  typewriters,  adding  machines. 
Estimated  cost  of  above  equipment  per  camp,  $500  to  $750. 

(b)  Printed  materials:  Literacy  test  blanks,  alpha  examination  blanks,  beta  examination  blanks,  individual 
examination  blanks,  individual  record  and  report  blanks,  examiners'  guides,  and  miscellaneous  blanks. 

Estimated  cost  of  printed  material  per  man  examined,  if  the  total  number  provided  for  be  1,000,000  or  more,  2  to 
3  cents. 

4.  Schedule  or  program  of  psychological  work:  It  is  provided  that  men  shall  be  examined  at  the  rate  of  400  per 
day,  but  if  desired  that  number  may  be  increased  to  800  per  day  without  additional  space  or  materials.  From  the  deten- 
tion quarters  men  would  be  reported  in  groups  of  100  to  200  at  examining  room  a,  according  to  prearranged  schedule. 
The  following  is  the  examining  procedure : 

I.  Literacy  test  to  divide  the  original  group  reported  into  (a)  men  who  speak  and  write  English  fairly  well,  (6) 
those  who  do  not;  5  to  40  per  cent  of  the  entire  group.    Time  for  this  segregational  test,  10  minutes. 

II.  The  a  group  remains  in  examining  room  a  for  alpha  examination,  on  the  basis  of  which  intelligence  rating  is 
given.    Time  for  alpha  examination,  40  to  50  minutes. 

III.  The  6  group,  after  literacy  test  of  I,  is  transferred  to  examining  room  b,  where  it  is  immediately  given  the 
beta  examination  for  the  purpose  of  assignment  of  an  intelligence  rating.  Time  for  beta  examination,  approximately 
60  minutes. 

IV.  All  individuals  receiving  intelligence  ratings  of  E  (very  poor)  in  either  alpha  or  beta  examinations  are  to  be 
given  careful  individual  examination  as  promptly  as  is  feasible. 

In  accordance  with  the  results  of  individual  examining,  E  men  will  be  (a)  recommended  to  medical  officer  for 
discharge,  or  (6)  recommended  for  assignment  to  Service  Battalion  of  the  Depot  Brigade,  because  of  mental  inferiority, 
or  (c)  reported  as  suitable  for  regular  assignment  in  training  organizations. 

In  this  connection  it  i3  deemed  especially  desirable  that  a  service  battalion  be  organized  for  each  division  within 
the  Depot  Brigade  to  which,  pending  individual  examination  or  execution  of  recommendation,  men  rated  as  E  in 
mental  ability  may  be  assigned.  It  is  further  deemed  desirable  that  service  organizations  be  created  for  the  effective 
use  within  the  Army  of  men  who  by  reason  of  inferior  intelligence  can  not  be  satisfactorily  used  in  regular  training 
organizations. 

So  far  as  can  be  predicted  at  present  the  average  time  per  man  for  psychological  examination  will  be  about 
70  minutes,  the  average  time  given  by  psychological  examiner  to  each  man  will  be  approximately  5  minutes. 
This  moderate  demand  is  conditioned  chiefly  by  the  examining  of  men  in  large  groups. 

1  These  sketches,  as  revised  for  constructional  use,  are  reproduced  on  pp.  197f. 


No.  l.]  PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  ARMY.  29 

5.  Use  of  results  of  psychological  examination:    The  principal  purposes  of  psychological  examination  will  be: 

(a)  Discovery  of  men  of  inferior  mentality  who  should  either  be  discharged  from  the  Army  or  assigned,  in  the  light 
of  their  mental  characteristics,  to  special  organization. 

(6)  To  discover  men  of  superior  or  special  abilities  who  should  be  assigned  to  regular  organizations  or  special 
branches  of  the  service  in  accordance  with  psychological  findings. 

(c)  To  furnish  approximate  measurement  of  mental  capacity  which  may  be  used  in  connection  with  the  assignment 
of  men  to  organizations  to  the  end  that  companies  and  regiments  within  a  given  arm  of  the  service  may  be  of  approxi- 
mately equal  strength  mentally  and  therefore  actively. 

In  order  that  the  above  purposes  may  be  achieved  it  is  proposed  that  report  be  prepared  of  psychological 
examination  of  every  enlisted  man  and  every  newly  appointed  officer  and  made  available  in  connection  with  such 
other  official  papers  concerning  him  as  are  utilized  in  connection  with  assignment.  That  further  special  report  of 
all  men  of  very  low  intelligence  or  of  abnormal  mental  constitution  be  made  to  the  proper  medical  officer. 

It  is  clearly  desirable  that  the  results  of  psychological  examination  be  properly  correlated  with  those  of  other 
medical  examinations  and  with  the  occupational  and  other  inquiries  conducted  under  the  jurisdiction  of  The  Adjutant 
General  by  the  Committee  on  Classification  of  Personnel  in  the  Army. 

\V.  ('.  Gorgas, 
Surgeon  General,   United  States  Army. 

This  plan  was  submitted  to  the  Surgeon  General  for  approval  on  January  3,  1918;  was 
forwarded  by  him  to  the  Chief  of  Staff,  and  by  him  to  the  Training  Committee  of  the  War 
College  Division  of  the  General  Staff  for  consideration  and  report.  Upon  favorable  report 
of  this  committee  was  based  a  fifth  indorsement: 

[Fifth  Indorsement.] 
War  Department,  A.  G.  O.,  January  19,  1918. — To  the  Surgeon  General. 

With  the  information  that  in  accordance  with  directions  given  him  under  date  of  December  24, 1917,  he  is  hereby 
authorized  to  establish  in  his  office  a  division  in  psychology  for  the  purpose  of  making  psychological  exami- 
nations of  all  company  officers  and  candidate  officers  in  officers'  training  camps,  and  also  of  all  the  newly  drafted  and 
enlisted  men.  The  commissioned  personnel  for  this  service  will  be  secured  by  recommending  for  commission  in 
the  Sanitary  Corps  selected  men  skilled  in  psychology.  Where  possible,  men  over  the  draft  age  will  be  recom- 
mended, but  authority  is  hereby  granted  also  to  recommend  men  within  the  draft  age,  provided  a  sufficient  number 
cannot  be  secured  over  the  draft  age. 

The  enlisted  personnel  will  be  secured  in  accordance  with  section  150  of  the  Selective  Service  Regulations, 
providing  for  the  induction  into  the  military  service  out  of  order  of  specially  qualified  men. 

Authority  is  granted  for  the  establishment  of  a  school  for  special  training  in  psychology  in  connection  with  the 
Medical  Department  Training  School  at  Port  Oglethorpe,  Ga. 

The  Quartermaster  General  will  construct  the  necessary  building  at  each  cantonment  for  the  examining  board 
in  psychology,  and  furnish  the  necessary  plain  furniture  for  these  buildings,  in  accordance  with  plana  and  speci- 
fications submitted  by  you. 

By  order  of  the  Secretary  of  War: 

John  S.  Johnston, 

Adjutant  General. 

On  the  basis  of  this  approval  the  Division  of  Psychology,  which  had  been  created  by  the 
Surgeon  General  in  accordance  with  authorization  of  the  fifth  indorsement,  initiated  on  Jan- 
uary 20,  1918,  the  necessary  preparations  for  the  proposed  extension  of  psychological  examin- 
ing. This  was  done  on  the  assumption  that  the  War  Department  had  unconditionally  approved 
such  necessary  provisions  for  work  as  the  essential  personnel,  suitable  housing  in  camps  and 
required  examining  materials.  It  was  further  taken  for  granted  by  the  staff  of  the  Division  of 
Psychology  that  The  Adjutant  General  would  issue  to  commanding  officers  all  orders  necessary 
for  their  guidance  and  for  the  free  and  effective  conduct  of  psychological  exarnining.  It  is  to 
be  noted  at  this  point  that  no  general  orders  were  issued  until  August,  1918,  and  that  in  conse- 
quence this  new  service  was  attempted  in  divisional  training  camps  and  in  various  other 
stations  under  decidedly  disadvantageous  conditions.  The  chief  of  the  Division  of  Psychology 
has  especially  inquired  of  officers  of  the  General  Staff  as  to  whether  the  division  should  have 
requested  the  issuance  of  orders  by  The  Adjutant  General  and  has  been  informed  that  it 
was  not  the  duty  of  the  Surgeon  General  to  formulate  or  request  the  necessary  orders,  but 
that  The  Adjutant  General  of  the  Army  should  have  prepared  and  issued  them  with  the  ad- 
vice of  the  Surgeon  General  and  in  accordance  with  the  expectations  properly  aroused  by  the 
fifth  indorsement. 


30  MEMOIRS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES.  tvouxv, 

This  is  but  one  important  instance  of  the  difficulties  in  the  psychological  service  which 
resulted  from  lack  of  coordination,  misunderstanding,  or  ignorance  of  the  nature  and  require- 
ments of  the  work.  No  individual  was  at  fault.  Everyone  was  doing  his  utmost  to  facilitate 
military  preparations  and  it  is  not  surprising  that  in  various  directions  important  actions  were 
overlooked. 

Since  preparations  for  the  extension  of  psychological  examining  were  varied  in  character 
and  covered  a  period  of  several  weeks,  it  is  desirable  that  they  be  described  under  a  number  of 
categories.  Of  these,  the  most  important  are:  Provision  of  personnel,  provision  of  build- 
ings, the  revision  of  methods  of  examining  and  the  preparation  of  new  supplementary 
methods,  the  requisition  and  manufacture  of  necessary  examining  equipment,  and  the  organi- 
zation of  examining  in  army  camps. 

Section  2. — Provision  of  psychological  personnel. 

STAFF   OF   THE   DIVISION    OF   PSYCHOLOGY,    OFFICE    OF   THE    SURGEON    GENERAL. 

The  principal  tasks  of  the  staff  of  the  Division  of  Psychology  were  the  organization  and 
administration  of  psychological  examining  throughout  the  Army;  the  preparation,  revision, 
and  standardization  of  methods  of  examining;  the  securing  of  reliable  standards  of  judgment; 
the  formulation  of  suitable  instructions  for  the  guidance  of  examiners  and  of  officers  who  de- 
sired to  use  psychological  ratings;  the  accumulation  of  data  concerning  the  relation  of  psycho- 
logical ratings  to  military  value;  and  the  analysis  of  results  for  the  preparation  of  official  and 
scientific  reports. 

The  personnel  of  the  staff  necessarily  varied  both  in  numbers  and  hi  special  professional 
training  and  interest.  During  certain  periods  the  staff  was  considerably  augmented  to  facili- 
tate the  preparation  of  methods  or  of  reports. 

On  March  5,  1918,  the  plan  for  the  reorganization  of  the  staff  of  the  division  to  meet  the 
requirements  of  the  extension  of  work  was  presented  to  the  Surgeon  General.  This  plan  pro- 
vided for  the  following  officers: 

(1)  Head  of  division:  Responsible  for  general  organization  of  work,  direction  of  staff, 
and  field  activities  (Rojert  M.  Yerkes). 

(2)  Assistant  administrative  officer  and  personnel  officer:  To  be  acting  head  of  division  in 
absence  of  the  head  (Charles  S.  Berry). 

(3)  Inspector  of  camp  examining:  To  have  general  charge  of  conduct  of  psychological 
examining  in  stations,  so  far  as  reports  to  the  Surgeon  General's  Office,  Division  of  Psychology, 
are  concerned  (Clarence  S.  Yoakum  and  William  S.  Foster). 

(4)  Reconstructional  psychological  officer:  To  be  charged  with  psychological  aspects  of 
reconstructional  work  and  assigned  to  the  Division  of  Special  Hospitals.  For  purposes  of 
organization  and  administration  of  personnel,  to  be  considered  a  member  also  of  the  staff  of 
the  Division  of  Psychology  (Melville  E.  Haggerty). 

(5)  Officer  responsible  for  revision  of  methods  and  analysis  of  reports:  It  will  be  the  task 
of  this  officer  to  conduct  inquiries  concerning  the  value  of  psychological  examining,  and  to 
improve  methods  of  work  as  well  as  to  direct  the  statistical  handling  of  results  in  cooperation 
with  the  statistical  department  of  the  office  (Lewis  M.  Terman) . 

(6)  Officer  responsible  for  preparation  of  reports  for  the  Surgeon  General  and  other 
officials:  This  officer  shall  also  be  responsible  for  publicity  in  connection  with  psychological 
work  (administrative  officers  and  Harold  C.  Bingham). 

(7)  Statistical  expert,  who  shall  be  charged  with  the  solution  of  such  statistical  prob- 
lems as  arise  in  connection  with  the  handling  of  methods  and  results. 

(8)  Trained  and  experienced  psychological  examiner  who  shall   conduct,  or   supervise, 
such  individual  or  group  examinations  as  are  made  by  the  Division  of  Psychology  on  request  of 

individuals  and  bureaus,  within  the  War  Department,  either  in  or  about  Washington   (Harold 
C.  Bingham). 

(9)  A  filing  clerk. 

(10)  Statistical  clerk. 
(11-12)  Stenographers. 


no.i.]  PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  ARMY.  31 

The  following  list  indicates  assignments  to  the  staff  to  July  1,  1919: 

I.  Military  appointees  assigned  to  the  staff. — Maj.  R.  M.  Yerkes,  August,  1917,  to  April,  1919;  Maj.  K.  T.  Waugh, 
October,  1917,  to  March,  1918;  Maj.  M.  E.  Haggerty,1  January,  1918,  to  August,  1918;  Maj.  C.  S.  Yoakum,  August, 
1917,  to  May,  1919;  Maj.  W.  S.  Foster,  December,  1917,  to  January,,  1918;  August,  1918,  to  October,  1918;  Maj.  C.  S. 
Berry,  November,  1917,  to  November,  1918;  Maj.  L.  M.  Terman,  May,  1918,  to  March,  1919;  Maj.  H.  C.  Bingham, 
December,  1917,  to  November,  1920;  Capt.  W.  S.  Hunter,  January,  1918;  Capt.  E.  G.  Boring,  November,  1918,  to 
July,  1919;  Capt.  C.  H.  Toll,  January,  1918,  to  February,  1918;  Capt.  D.  G.  Paterson,  January,  1919;  Capt.  R.  M. 
Elliott;2  Capt.  E.  S.  Jones,  January,  1918,  to  February,  1918;  Capt.  G.  C.  Myers,  June,  1919,  to  November,  1919;  First 
Lieut.  C.  C.  Brigham,  January,  1918,  to  April,  1918;  First  Lieut.  A.  S.  Otis,  September,  1917,  to  March,  1918; 
First  Lieut.  L.  Marcus,  February,  1918,  to  March,  1918;  First  Lieut.  M.  A.  May,  November,  1918;  to  July,  1919, 
First  Lieut.  P.  A.  Mertz,  April,  1919,  to  July,  1919;  First  Lieut.  E.  A.  Lincoln,  April,  1919,  to  March,  1920;  Sergt. 
W.  C.  Trow,  September,  1918,  to  November,  1918;  Pvt.  E.  C.  Ward,  September,  1918,  to  December,  1918;  Sergt.  B. 
M.  Oppenheim,  November,  1918,  to  July,  1919;  Pvt.  R.  F.  Bird,  March,  1918;  Pvt.  H.  A.  Hildreth,  March,  1918; 
Pvt.  J.  J.  Hudson,  March,  1918;  Pvt.  H.  S.  Leach,  April,  1918;  Pvt.  P.  H.  Russell,  March,  1918,  to  April,  1918;  Pvt. 
W.  P.  Tomlinson,  December,  1917,  to  January,  1918. 

II.  Advisory  members  of  staff. — T.  L.  Kelly,  L.  M.  Terman  (later  commissioned),  E.  L.  Thorndike,  G.  M.  Whipple. 

III.  Civil  appointees,  psycholoqists. — J.  W.  Bridges,  December,  1917,  to  December,  1918;  C.  R.  Brown,  May,  1918, 
to  July,  1919;  Margaret  V.  Cobb,  February,  1918  to  May,  1919;  Alice  M.  Clark,  June,  1918,  to  July,  1918;  Helen  Davis, 
July,  1918,  to  August,  1918;  Mabel  R.  Fernald,  May,  1918  to  May,  1919;  Mary  H.  S.  Hayes,  December,  1918,  to 
January,  1919;  J.  J.  B.  Morgan  (later  commissioned),  January,  1918;  R.  H.  Wheeler  (later  commissioned),  December, 
1917,  to  January,  1918. 

ORGANIZATION    OF   A    SCHOOL    FOR    MILITARY    PSYCHOLOGY. 

The  staff  of  the  division  of  psychology  appreciated  from  the  first  the  importance  of  provid- 
ing for  the  selection  and  training  of  the  requisite  number  of  officers  and  enlisted  men  for  psycho- 
logical examining.  Immediately  f ollowing  approval  of  the  plan  for  extension,  steps  were  taken  to 
organize  a  suitable  training  school  for  military  psychology.  The  first  move  in  this  direction 
was  made  when  Maj.  Yerkes  suggested  to  Col.  P.  M.  Ashburn,  M.  C,  the  need  of  a  special  training 
school  for  military  psychologists.  Col.  Ashburn  expressed  the  opinion  that  a  special  school 
might  be  arranged  for  at  the  medical  officers'  training  camp,  Fort  Oglethorpe,  Ga.,  or  Fort  Riley, 
Kans.  He  referred  the  matter  to  Col.  E.  L.  Munson,  M.  C.  chief  of  the  division  of  training  camps 
of  the  Surgeon  General's  Office. 

On  learning  of  the  nature  of  the  need  of  the  division  of  psychology  for  personnel,  Col. 
Munson  addressed  the  following  memorandum  to  Maj.  Yerkes: 

December  29, 1917. 
Memorandum  for  Maj.  Yerkes,  Division  of  Psychology: 

1.  With  reference  to  our  conversation  relative  to  the  training  of  the  officers  working  under  your  division,  the 
training  camp  division  is  prepared  to  train  any  reasonable  number  of  such  officers  at  the  medical  officers'  training 
camps. 

2.  They  will  be  expected  to  conform  to  all  the  rules  of  discipline  and  administration  pertaining  to  these  camps  and 
be  given  such  part  of  the  basic  course  of  instruction  as  will  reasonably  be  considered  to  pertain  to  their  functions  as 
officers  under  the  medical  department. 

3.  It  is  suggested  that  a  course  of  two  months  would  probably  suffice  for  these  purposes  which  would  also  include 
such  amount  of  special  training  in  psychology  and  other  matters  as  you  may  think  necessary. 

4.  Please  inform  this  office  of  the  number  of  psychologists  you  would  desire  to  have  trained,  including  the  average 
to  be  so  trained  and  the  maximum  number  which  could  be  expected  at  any  one  time.  Please  also  submit  a  syllabus 
of  the  instruction  in  psychology  and  what  other  subjects  you  may  desire  to  take  up  for  consideration  in  getting  up  the 
general  program.     The  latter  will  then  be  tentatively  drawn  and  submitted  to  you  for  conference  and  final  action. 

5.  Please  arrange  for  the  selection  and  assignment  after  this  course  is  arranged  of  such  officers  as  you  desire  to 
send  to  these  training  camps  for  duty  as  instructors  under  the  commandant  of  the  camp. 

6.  It  is  possible  to  establish  two  such  schools  if  you  so  desire — one  at  Fort  Riley,  Kans.,  and  one  at  Fort  Oglethorpe, 
Ga. ;  but  if  no  large  number  of  student  officers  are  to  be  instructed,  it  would  be  preferable  to  establish  but  one  school, 
which  it  is  considered  should  be  established  at  Fort  Oglethorpe  rather  than  Fort  Riley,  as  plans  of  expansion  contem- 
plate the  final  concentration  at  Fort  Oglethorpe  of  all  the  training  facilities  of  the  medical  department. 

E.  L.  Munson, 
Colonel,  Medical  Corps. 

1  Assigned  to  duty  on  staff  of  division  of  physical  reconstruction  of  Surgeon  General's  Office. 

2  On  duty  with  psychology  committee  of  National  Research  Council,  January  to  April,  1919. 


32  MEMOIRS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES.  [vol.  xv, 

In  response  to  Col.  Munson's  information  and  request  Maj.  Yerkes  replied,  suggesting  a 
course  of  instruction  two  months  long,  one-half  devoted  to  military  and  medical  matters  and  the 
remainder  to  specifically  psychological  subjects.  The  letter  stated  that  approximately  150 
psychologists  should  be  trained — 50  to  re.port  in  successive  months. 

On  receipt  of  this  information  Col.  Munson  prepared  the  necessary  instructions  for  the  divi- 
sion of  psychology  and  transmitted  them  to  Maj.  Yerkes  in  the  following  memorandum: 

January  5,  1918. 
Memorandum  for  Maj.  Yerkes,  Division  of  Psychology. 

1.  The  attached  letter,  establishing  a  course  for  psychologists  as  part  of  the  medical  officers'  training  camp,  Fort 
Oglethorpe,  Ga.,  is  furnished  for  your  information. 

2.  You  should  ask  for  orders  for  the  necessary  officers  to  carry  on  the  work  in  psychological  training.  They  should 
be  ordered  to  report  to  the  commandant,  medical  officers'  training  camp,  Fort  Oglethorpe,  Ga.,  for  duty  as  instructors. 

3.  You  should  ask  for  orders  directing  the  necessary  officers  and  men  to  report  to  the  medical  officers'  training  camp, 
Fort  Oglethorpe,  for  the  proposed  instruction.  As  far  as  possible  they  should  report  on  one  or  two  definite  dates,  so  that 
companies  and  instruction  may  be  organized  and  systematically  commenced. 

4.  You  should  make  request  on  the  supply  division  for  whatever  special  apparatus,  equipment,  and  supplies  will 
be  needed  in  your  psychological  work.  Effort  should  be  made  to  expedite  its  arrival  at  Fort  Oglethorpe.  It  should  be 
addressed  to  the  commandant,  medical  officers'  training  camp,  Fort  Oglethorpe,  Ga. 

'   5.  You  should  prepare  in  detail  a  syllabus  of  the  proposed  course  in  psychological  training,  as  described  in  para- 
graph 6  of  the  attached  letter  of  instructions. 

6.  This  syllabus  you  should  send  to  your  representative  on  the  staff  of  the  commandant  for  reference  to  the  latter. 

7.  Please  communicate  direct  with  the  commandant,  medical  officers'  training  camp,  Fort  Oglethorpe,  on  all  matter 
other  than  those  of  the  general  policy  of  this  course  of  instruction. 

E.  L.  Munson, 
Colonel,  Medical  Corps. 

On  the  same  day  he  prepared,  by  direction  of  the  Surgeon  General,  a  letter  to  the  comman- 
dant of  the  medical  officers'  training  camp  at  Fort  Oglethorpe,  Ga. ,  which  created  and  provided 
for  the  proper  organization  and  conduct  of  a  school  in  military  psychology.  This  letter, 
which  includes  the  schedule  of  instruction  for  the  course,  follows: 

January,  5,  1918. 
From:  The  Surgeon  General,  U.  S.  Army. 

To:  Commandant,  Medical  Officers'  Training  Camp,  Fort  Oglethorpe,  Ga. 
Subject:  School  in  military  psychology. 

1.  A  school  for  military  psychologists  will  be  established  as  a  special  course  for  selected  student  officers,  as  a 
part  of  the  general  scheme  of  instruction  carried  out  in  the  medical  officers'  training  camp  at  Fort  Oglethorpe,  Ga. 

2.  The  purpose  of  this  school  is  to  conduct  training  of  psychologists  along  military  lines,  from  the  military  viewpoint 
and  in  the  military  environment;  and,  coincidently,  todevelopits  officers  physically  and  train  them  in  subjects  which 
they  should  know  under  the  conditions  in  which  they  would  practice  their  speciality,  including  organization,  regular 
tions,  paper  work,  relations  with  enlisted  men,  and  their  general  functions  as  officers. 

3.  About  50  psychologists  will  be  required  monthly.  Classes  under  instruction  should  be  arranged  for  on  the  basis 
of  a  course  lasting  two  months. 

4.  The  senior  instructor  in  psychology  detailed  by  this  office  on  the  staff  of  instructors  of  the  training  camp  will, 
under  the  supervision  of  the  commandant  thereof,  be  in  direct  charge  of  the  course. 

5.  The  routine  work  of  psychologist  at  your  camp  will,  as  far  as  possible,  be  demonstrated  and  utilized  as  part  of 
the  subjects  of  instruction. 

6.  The  general  instruction  to  be  given  will  relate  to  the  principles  of  psychological  examination. 
Detailed  information  as  to  the  general  nature  and  scope  of  the  work  to  be  done  will  be  furnished  by  the  psychology 

section  of  this  office. 

The  course  of  instruction  in  psychology  based  thereon  will  be  prescribed  by  the  commandant  of  the  training 
camp,  after  conference  with  the  instructor  in  psychology. 

7.  The  course  in  general  training  and  psychology  will  cover  a  minimum  of  two  months.  In  addition  to  instruc- 
tion in  other  subjects,  the  course  in  psychology  will  comprise  a  total  of  167  hours. 

8.  Officers  under  training  as  specialists  in  military  psychology  will  be  quartered  and  subsisted  in  the  medical 
officers'  training  camp  and  subject  to  its  discipline  at  all  times. 

9.  They  will  be  organized  as  a  special  company.  Hours  of  instruction  in  military  psychology  will  be  arranged 
by  the  commandant  of  the  training  camp. 

10.  The  schedule  for  the  first  month  is  as  follows: 


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no.  i.]  PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  ARMY.  33 

General  Instruction. 

Honra. 

Setting  up  (15  minutes  daily  for  25  days) : 6.  5 

Drills,  marches,  etc 52 

Inspections 4 

Tent  pitching,  shelter  tent 2 

Tent  pitching,  pyramidal  tent 2 

Personal  equipment  of  sanitary  soldier 1 

First  aid,  using  soldiers'  equipment  only 2 

Customs  of  the  service 2 

Duties  of  the  soldier 2 

Organization  of  military  forces  of  the  United  States 2 

Organization  of  medical  department  for  war 2 

Relation  of  medical  department  to  rest  of  Army 1 

Army  Regulations 12 

Manual  for  the  medical  department 12 

Field  Service  Regulations 6 

Methods  of  supply,  at  home  and  in  the  field 2 

Paper  work,  relating  to  the  medical  department 4 

Paper  work,  relating  to  the  Quartermaster's  Department 2 

Military  hygiene  and  camp  sanatition 6 

Psychological  Instruction. 

Organization  and  administration  of  psychological  examining 6 

Paper  work,  relating  to  psychological  examining 6 

Group  examining,  practice 10 

Scoring,  organization  and  methods,  checking,  filing,  etc 12 

Individual  examining,  practice 14 

Statistical  method 10 


Total 180.5 

11.  The  schedule  for  the  second  month  is  as  follows: 

»  General  Instruction. 

Houra. 

Setting  up  (15  minutes  daily  for  26  days) 6.  5 

Drills  and  marches 26 

Inspections 4 

The  regimental  detachment;  its  equipment,  use,  and  internal  administration 2 

The  ambulance  company;  its  equipment,  use,  and  internal  administration 2 

The  field  hospital ;  its  equipment,  use,  and  internal  administration 2 

The  evacuation  hospital ;  its  equipment,  use,  and  internal  administration  (including  its  establishment ) 2 

Liquid  fire,  poison  gases,  protection  against,  symptoms,  and  treatment  (practical) 4 

War  psychoses  and  neuroses;  shell  shock 8 

Trench  warfare,  including  demonstration  of  trench  system 2 

The  sanitary  service,  line  of  commmunication 2 

Base  hospitals,  their  organization  and  management 3 

General  hospitals,  their  organization  and  management 2 

Organization,  functions,  and  limitations  of  the  American  Red  Cross 1 

The  civil  sanitary  function  of  the  medical  department  in  occupied  territory 1 

Manual  for  court-martial  and  military  law 4 

The  Articles  of  War 1 

The  Geneva  and  Hague  Conventions 1 

The  rules  of  land  warfare 2 

Psychological  Instruction. 

Examination  of  recruits,  with  papers  and  finger  prints ■ 3 

Group  examining,  practice 40 

Individual  examining,  practice 36 

Statistical  methods  and  reporting 10 

Mental  incompetents — Types 10 

Service  organizations 2 

Malingering 6 

Reporting  results 2 


Total 184.  5 


34  MEMOIRS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES.  ivolxv 

12.  About  25  to  50  selected  enlisted  men,  to  work  under  the  Division  of  Psychology,  will  be  kept  at  your  camp 
under  instruction  therefor.  Some  of  them  will  be  sent  with  a  view  to  being  tried  out  as  to  their  fitness  for  appoint- 
ment as  officers  of  the  Sanitary  Corps  under  the  Division  of  Psychology.  All  should  be  given  such  part  of  the  basic 
course  for  enlisted  men,  including  the  physical,  military,  and  professional,  as  might  be  of  advantage  to  them  in  their 
special  service  with  psychologists. 

Their  further  special  training  under  the  Psychology  Division  will  be  outlined  by  the  representative  of  that 
division  on  your  staff  of  instructors  subject  to  your  approval.  They  should  be  organized  as  a  separate  company  under 
officers  of  the  Sanitary  Corps  serving  under  the  Division  of  Psychology.     . 

13.  Receipt  of  this  letter  to  be  acknowledged. 

E.  L.  Munson, 
Colonel,  Medical  Corps. 

Subsequently  the  Division  of  Psychology  arranged  also  for  a  group  of  approximately 
50  enlisted  men  to  report  at  the  medical  officers'  training  camp,  Fort  Oglethorpe,  and  forwarded 
a  syllabus  of  a  course  in  military  psychology  and  the  necessary  supplies.  Capt.  William  S. 
Foster  was  appointed  senior  instructor  in  charge.  In  August,  1918,  he  was  succeeded  by 
Lieut.  John  E.  Anderson. 

The  history  of  the  School  for  Military  Psychology  is  recorded  in  the  following  official 
reports  of  the  senior  instructors: 

On  January  23,  1918,  Capt.  William  S.  Foster,  Sanitary  Corps,  National  Army,  was  ordered  to  report  to  the  com- 
mandant for  duty  as  instructor  in  the  school.  While  awaiting  the  arrival  of  student  officers  and  men  he  was  assigned 
to  Company  16  of  the  medical  officers'  training  group,  for  intensive  military  training.  On  February  4,  1918,  officers 
and  enlisted  men  detailed  for  instruction  began  to  arrive.  No  barracks  for  the  use  of  additional  companies  were  at 
that  time  available,  so  that,  until  a  sufficient  number  of  officers  to  form  a  company  of  25  to  30  should  arrive,  commis- 
sioned psychologists  were  assigned  to  companies  13,  14,  15,  and  16,  which  were  already  formed  from  officers  of  the 
medical  department.  Similarly,  until  facilities  and  adequate  personnel  for  the  formation  of  a  company  of  enlisted 
psychologists  were  obtained,  these  men  were  assigned  to  the  Camp  Greenleaf  Infirmary  Detachment.  On  February  8, 
22  commissioned  psychologists,  then  in  camp,  together  with  certain  other  officers  of  the  sanitary  and  veterinary  corps, 
were  combined  in  company  15.  Until  February  16,  when  the  psychological  officers  of  this  company  became  com- 
pany 28,  battalion  VII,  M.  O.  T.  O,  and  moved  to  a  section  of  the  camp  where  facilities  for  special  training  were 
available,  commissioned  psychologists  received  the  same  training  as  that  given  regularly  to  medical  officers.  [The 
first  group  of  commissioned  psychologists,  company  28,  is  shown  in  pi.  1.] 

On  March  7  the  enlisted  psychologists,  then  numbering  49,  were  moved  from  the  infirmary  to  the  tents  of  the 
recruit  section  of  the  division  of  hospitals  and  sanitary  trains,  battalion  XIV,  and  formed  company  F  of  that  battalion. 
In  addition  to  their  military  training,  special  psychological  training  for  these  soldiers  was  begun  at  that  time.  On 
April  20  company  F  became  psychological  company  1,  and  together  with  the  commissioned  psychologists  of  company  28, 
was  moved  to  more  commodious  quarters,  formerly  occupied  by  base  and  field  hospitals.  On  June  20  a  building, 
specially  constructed  for  psychological  examining,  was  completed  and  both  groups  of  psychologists  were  consolidated 
and  quartered,  the  officers  in  the  psychological  building  itself  and  the  enlisted  men  in  the  near-by  barracks  of  the 
motor  sanitary  units  in  Camp  Greenleaf  annex.  Formal  instruction  in  military  psychology  was  discontinued  August  1, 
1918.    [The  first  group  of  enlisted  men  in  training  for  psychological  service,  company  F,  is  shown  in  pi.  2.] 

The  content  of  instruction  followed  closely  the  outline  given  in  Gen.  Munson's  letter  to  the  commandant,  estab- 
lishing the  school  (see above). 

The  military  instruction  for  enlisted  psychologists  followed  as  closely  as  possible  that  given  to  the  officers,  save 
that  in  certain  cases,  such  as  army  regulations  and  manual  of  the  medical  department,  abbreviations  and  substitutions 
were  made,  and  parts  of  Mason's  Handbook  for  the  Sanitary  Troops  were  used  as  a  text.  This  instruction  was  con- 
ducted by  officers  of  the  school. 

The  first  lectures  were  given  in  a  lecture  room  formed  by  throwing  together  rooms  in  former  officers'  quarters. 
Later  mess  halls,  and  yet  later  a  lecturer's  table  in  the  open  air,  before  an  amphitheatre  under  the  trees,  were  used, 
until  in  May  a  special  psychological  building  became  available.  This  building  is  located  centrally  in  Camp  Greenleaf, 
near  the  headquarters  of  the  division  of  hospitals  and  sanitary  trains.  It  is  of  two  stories,  120  by  30  feet.  On  the 
lower  floor  of  the  building  is  a  large  room,  with  benches  and  lap  boards  for  the  use  of  about  200  men  in  the  alpha  group 
examination.  At  the  opposite  end  of  the  building  is  a  similar  room,  fitted  with  benches,  tables,  shelves,  and  special 
lighting  arrangements  for  the  beta  group  examination,  for  about  100  illiterates  and  foreigners.  Between  these  two 
rooms  is  a  hallway,  with  a  drinking  fountain  and  supply  room,  which  is  used  also  as  a  library  and  is  fitted  with 
shelves  and  counter.  Above  the  beta  room  is  a  well-lighted  scoring  room,  provided  with  tables,  chairs,  and  shelves 
and  sufficiently  large  to  accommodate  50  clerks  and  scorers.  The  remainder  of  the  upper  floor  consists  of  five  rooms 
for  individual  examining,  two  offices,  a  record  room,  a  supply  room,  two  lavatories,  and  four  rooms  which  serve  as  quar- 
ters for  the  commissioned  examining  staff. 


Memoirs  National  Academy  of  Sciences  XV. 


Part  I.  PI.  3. 


MORALE  STAFF  AT  CAMP  GREENLEAF.      GEN.   MUNSON    IS   SHOWN    IN   THE  CORNER. 


STAFF  OF  THE  SCHOOL  OF   MILITARY    PSYCHOLOGY,  CAMP  GREENLEAF,  MAY,  1918. 
From  left  to  right:  Capt.  Foster,  Lieut.  Anderson,  Lieut.  Owen,  Lieut.  Murchison,  Lieut.  Pechstein,  Lieut.  May,  and  Lieut.  Frost. 


no.  i.]  PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  ARMY.  35 

Psychological  training,  as  outlined  in  Gen.  Munson's  letter,  has  been  supplemented  in  several  ways.  Lieut. 
Mark  A.  May  has  given  a  course  of  four  lectures  on  the  political  and  religious  creeds  commonly  held  by  conscientious 
objectors.  Upon  three  occasions  lectures  have  been  given  by  personnel  officers  and  supervisors,  and  practical  experi- 
ence in  personnel  interviewing  has  been  secured  by  student  officers  and  men  at  the  recruit  depot,  Fort  Oglethorpe, 
and  at  Camp  Forrest.  Special  lectures  on  the  psychological  aspects  of  reconstruction  have  been  given  by  Lieut.  Col. 
Mock  and  Maj.  Haggerty,  of  the  Surgeon  General's  Office.  Considerable  practical  experience  in  actual  examining, 
both  of  groups  and  of  individuals,  has  also  been  given  to  students.  The  extent  of  such  examining  at  this  camp  will 
be  noted  in  detail  later  in  this  report.  The  instructor  in  psychology  has  given  several  general  lectures  on  the  nature 
and  purpose  of  psychological  examining  to  the  medical  student  officers,  as  a  part  of  their  scheduled  instruction. 

Psychological  instruction  has  been  conducted  almost  exclusively  by  officers  of  the  school.  The  more  important 
courses  given  by  psychologists  are  as  follows:  Organization  and  administration  of  psychological  examining  (Capt. 
Foster,  Lieut.  Jones);  paper  work  relating  to  psychological  examining  (Capt.  Foster);  alpha  group  examining  (Capt. 
Hayes,  Lieut.  Murchison) ;  beta  group  examining  (Lieut.  Wheeler,  Lieut.  Owen) ;  scoring  (Lieut.  Wheeler,  Lieut.  May) ; 
individual  examining  (Capt.  Rowe,  Lieut.  Anderson,  Lieut.  Paterson,  Lieut.  Pechstein,  Lieut.  Myers);  mental 
incompetents  (Lieut.  Anderson,  Capt.  Rowe,  Lieut.  Pechstein);  statistical  methods  and  practice  (Lieut.  Morgan, 
Lieut.  May);  malingering  (Lieut.  Paterson;)  conscientious  objectors  (Lieut.  May);  military  topics  (Lieut.  Murchison 
Lieut.  Owen,  Lieut.  Myers);  gas  instruction  (Lieut.  Murchison);  drill  (Lieut.  Anderson,  Lieut.  Murchison,  Lieut. 

Lane,  Lieut.  Owen). 

********* 

Psychologists  upon  arrival  in  camp  were  given  alpha  examination  and  filled  out  a  modified  officer's  qualification 
card.  On  this  card  were  listed  student's  topics  of  specialization  and  publication  and  the  amount  and  variety  of  psy- 
chological and  applied  psychological  training  as  well  as  preference  as  to  psychological  duty.  His  ability  in  the  prac- 
tice courses  was  frequently  tested  and  estimated  by  the  instructors  in  charge.  The  officers'  military  grades  were 
reported  weekly  by  the  company  commander  to  the  battalion  commander,  who  revised  them.  In  lecture  courses, 
grades  were  determined  by  recitations  and  final  examinations.  Recommendations  as  to  promotion  and  assignment 
of  commissioned  psychologists  were  made  by  a  board  of  examiners. 

In  the  case  of  enlisted  men,  the  data  on  the  qualification  cards,  the  report  of  the  company  commander  as  to  mili- 
tary record,  and  the  marks  obtained  in  the  training  course  were  similarly  secured.  A  written  examination  on  general 
psychological  topics  and  a  final  oral  examination  furnished  a  further  basis  of  recommendation  by  a  board  composed  of 
officers  of  the  school. 

The  record  of  the  school  with  regard  to  military  activities  has  been  high.  Before  the  system  of  weekly  written  and 
practical  examinations  to  determine  military  grades  in  the  officers'  training  camp,  and  of  awarding  a  banner  each  week 
to  the  company  showing  the  greatest  improvement  in  drill  and  inspections,  was  discontinued,  early  in  April,  22  psycho- 
logical officers  of  the  43  who  had  at  that  time  had  more  than  a  month's  training  had  received  a  white  hatband  desig- 
nating an  A  or  highest  grade,  and  the  banner  had  been  once  awarded  to  company  28.  In  few  other  companies  at  the 
camp  were  there  more  than  three  white  hatbands. 

On  May  31,  1918,  by  direction  of  the  commandant,  Camp  Greenleaf,  a  suggested  program  for  the  organization  of 
"psychological  stimulation  of  troops"  ("morale  work")  at  this  camp  was  submitted  by  Lieut.  John  E.  Anderson  in 
the  absence  of  the  senior  instructor.  The  essential  feature  of  this  program  was  to  begin  the  work  in  detention  camp, 
battalion  XV,  with  a  staff  consisting  of  one  morale  officer,  an  assistant  morale  officer,  a  chaplain,  two  headquarters 
sergeants,  and  one  enlisted  man  for  each  company,  the  latter  to  act  in  the  capacity  of  sick  sergeant,  to  lead  in  informal 
singing  on  all  possible  occasions,  and  to  assist  in  drill,  games,  athletics,  and  the  giving  of  personal  information  to  re- 
cruits. These  psychologists  cooperated  with  civilian  agencies — Y.  M.  C.  A.,  Knights  of  Columbus,  Jewish  Welfare 
Board,  the  Fosdick  Commission  on  Training  Camp  Activities,  and  the  Red  Cross.  A  15-day  repeating  program  was 
established,  including  inspirational  and  informative  talks,  tagging  of  all  recruits  with  a  card  bearing  name,  new  ad- 
dress, and  printed  paragraph  intended  to  promote  patriotic  and  military  ideals;  the  systematic  direction  of  the  writing 
of  home  letters  by  all  recruits  on  their  first  day  in  camp,  inclosing  mimeographed  letter  from  the  section  commander; 
the  furnishing  to  company  commanders  of  syllabi  of  inspirational  talks,  and  the  putting  into  effect  of  an  evening  pro- 
gram of  two  and  half  hours'  entertainment  organized  aa  a  matter  of  daily  routine. 

On  June  6,  1918,  the  office  of  camp  morale  officer  was  created  and  Capt.  William  S.  Foster  appointed  thereto.  The 
above  program  was  submitted  for  criticism  to  Maj.  Kirk,  commander  of  battalion  XV.  On  the  basis  of  his  recom- 
mendations a  revised  program  was  submitted  to  the  commandant  June  12,  1918.  On  June  15,  1918,  this  revised  pro- 
gram was  ordered  to  be  put  into  effect.  On  June  17,  1918,  First  Lieut.  Eliott  P.  Frost,  Sanitary  Corps,  National  Army, 
was  appointed  assistant  morale  officer. 

********* 

(In  pi.  3,  are  reproduced  pictures  of  the  staff  at  Camp  Greenleaf  in  June,  1918,  and  of  the 
morale  sergeants.) 

On  January  10,  1919,  Lieut.  Anderson  submitted  a  report  covering  the  period  from  the 
relief  of  Capt.  Foster  from  duty,  August  7,  1918,  to  the  abandonment  of  the  school,  January 
9,  1919. 

Instructional  work  was  continued  during  this  period  on  a  reduced  scale.  Lectures  and 
courses  on  psychological  topics  were  given  by  Lieut.  Anderson,  Lieut.  May,  and  Lieut.  Owen. 


36 


MEMOIRS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES. 


[Vol.  XV, 


An  intensive  three  days'  course  on  personnel  work  was  given  by  Dr.  E.  K.  Strong,  of  the  Com- 
mittee on  Classification  of  Personnel,  Adjutant  General's  Department.  Following  this  work 
Capt.  Rosenblum,  of  the  Adjutant  General's  Department,  conducted  practice  in  personnel  work. 
At  another  time  Capt.  Buehler  and  Mr.  Evans  of  the  Committee  on  Classification  of  Personnel 
gave  a  course  in  trade  testing. 

A  greater  part  of  the  time  was  spent  in  the  actual  conduct  of  examinations.  From  July 
27  to  December  7,  1918,  a  total  of  49,984  men  was  examined,  including  4,474  officers. 

Morale  work  was  continued.  When  Capt.  Foster  was  relieved  from  duty  Lieut.  Anderson 
was  made  camp  morale  officer.  On  August  31,  1918,  Lieut.  Anderson  was  relieved  from  this 
duty,  and  the  assistant  morale  officer,  Lieut.  E.  P.  Frost,  became  camp  morale  officer.  He 
was  succeeded  by  Lieut.  R.  V.  Boyce,  M.  C,  on  October  23,  1918.  At  this  time  the  morale 
work  ceased  to  be  under  the  direction  of  a  psychologist.  Under  Lieut.  Frost  and  Lieut.  Boyce 
morale  work  was  greatly  extended  and  the  organization  perfected. 

The  school  of  military  psychology  has  undoubtedly  been  of  extreme  importance  for  psycho- 
logical service.  For  however  thorough  the  scientific  training  or  the  technical  psychological 
training  of  a  man,  he  is  ill  qualified  for  psychological  work  in  the  Army  until  he  has  had  a  few 
weeks  of  intensive  military  training,  and,  in  addition,  training  in  military  psychology.  It  is 
believed  that  this  school  doubled  the  value  of  psychological  service  during  the  first  six  months 
of  1918. 

PERSONNEL  OF  THE  DIVISION  OF  PSYCHOLOGY. 


Personnel  lists  are  presented  herewith.  The  first  list  shows  the  commissioned  officers  of 
the  Sanitary  Corps  in  psychological  service,  with  successive  commissions  and  dates  and  succes- 
sive assignments  to  October  31,  1919.  Assignment  to  the  School  of  Military  Psychology  for 
purposes  of  instruction  is  indicated  by  the  name  "Greenleaf"  printed  in  italics.  A  second  list 
is  that  of  the  enlisted  men  in  the  medical  department  who  were  trained  in  the  School  for 
Military  Psychology. 


Adams,  Edwin  W 

Anderson,  John  E 

Arps,  George  F 

Ash,  Isaac  E 

Bailor,  Edwin  M 

Baird,  George  M.  P 

Baldwin,  BirdT.i 

Bare,  John  W 

Basse  tt,  Gardner  C 

Bates,  RohertL 

Benson,  Charles  E 

Berry,  Charles  S 

Bingham,  Harold  C 

Boring,  Edwin  G 

Boswell,  Foster  P 

Breitwieser,  Thos.  J . . . . 

Brigham,  Carl  C 

Brockbank,  Thos.  W . . . 

Brown,  Carl  R 

Braeckner,  Leo  J 

Chamberlain,  Edwin  M. 
Clark,  Elmer  B 

Coburn,  Chas.  A.1 

Coghill,  Harvie  D.i 

Cole,  Lawrence  W 

Coxe,  Warren  W 

Cummings,  Heber  B . . . 

Dallenbach,  Karl  M 

Deerwester,  David  F . . . 
Denslow,  Lorenzo  C 

De  Voss,  James  C 

Doll,  Edgar  A 

Edwards,  Austin  S 

Elliott,  Richard  M 

English,  Horace  B 

Estabrook,  Arthur  H. . . 

Farber,  John  C 

Ferguson,  George  O 


First  lieutenant,  March,  191S 

First  lieutenant,  October,  1917 

Captain,  February,  1918;  major,  November,  1918 

Captain,  March,  1918 

Private,  March,  1918;  second  lieutenant,  Octo'  >er,  101^ 

Private,  February,  1918;  second  lieutenant,  October,  1918 

Major,  February,  191S 

First  I  ieutenant,  February,  1918 

Captain,  January,  191S 

First  lieutenant,  February,  191S 

First  lieutenant,  February,  1918 

Captain,  November,  191V;  major,  October,  191S 

Civilian,  August,  1917;  first  lieutenant,  February,  1918;  captain, 
October,  191S;  major,  June,  1919. 

Captain,  February  5, 1918 

First  1  ieutenant,  March,  191S 

First  lieutenant,  March,  1918 

First  lieutenant,  September  1917 

Private,  February,  191S;  second  lieutenant,  October,  1918 

Civilian,  August,  1917;  first  lieutenant,  January,  1918;  civilian, 
May,  1918. 

Civilian,  August,  1917;  first  lieutenant,  March,  191S;  captain,  No- 
vember, 1918. 

First  lieutenant,  February,  1918;  captain,  October,  1918 

Private,  March,  1918;  second  lieutenant,  October,  1918 

First  1  ieutenant,  September,  1918 

First  lieutenant,  September,  1918. 

Captain,  October,  1918 

Private,  February,  191S;  second  lieutenant,  October, 1918 

First  lieutenant,  September,  1917;  captain,  November,  1918 

Captain,  February,  1918 

First  lieutenant,  March,  1918 

Private,  March,  1918;  second  lieutenant,  October,  1918 

First  lieutenant,  February,  1918;  captain,  November,  1918 

First  lieutenant,  September,  1917 

Civilian,  August,  1917:  captain,  February,  1918 

First  1  ieutenant,  February,  1918;  captain,  October,  1918 

First  lieutenant,  September,  1917;  captain,  November,  1918 

First  lieutenant,  February,  1918;  captain,  August,  1919 

Private,  March,  1918;  second  lieutenant,  November,  1918 

First  lieutenant,  September,  1917 

1  Psychological  Service  in  Division  of  Physical  Reconstruction. 


Oreenleaf,  Upton. 

De vens,  Greenleaf,  Greenleaf. 

Greenleaf  Sherman,  G.  H.  No.  36. 

Greenleaf,  Jackson. 

Greenleaf,  Gordon,  G.  H.  No.  17. 

Greenleaf,  Grant,  Logan  Travis. 

S.G.  0.,  Walter  Reed  Hospital. 

Greenleaf  Taylor,  Greenleaf,  G.  H.  No.  6. 

Greenleaf,  Logan. 

Greenleaf,  Lee. 

Greenleaf.  Grant. 

S.G.O.,Dix,S.G.O.,FortRiley,G.H 

No.  2B. 
Devens,  S.  G.  O.,  MacArthur,  S.  G.  O. 

Greenleaf,  Upton,  S.  G.  O. 

Greenleaf,  Wadsworth. 

Greenleaf,  Shelby,  Pike. 

Dix,  S.  G.  O. 

Greenleaf,  Dodge,  Greenleaf,  G.  H.  No. 

28. 
Devens,  Greenleaf,  S.  G.  O. 

Lee,  Greenleaf,  Lewis,  Letterman  G.  H. 

Greenleaf,  Greene,  G.  H.  No.  10. 
Greenleaf,  Greenleaf  Sheridan,  G.  H. 

No.  18,  No.  19,  and  No.  3. 
Greenleaf. 

Greenleaf,  G.  H.  No.  19. 
Greenleaf  Walter  Reed. 
Greenleaf,  Bowie. 
Taylor. 

Greenleaf,  Sheridan,  G.  H.  No.  29. 
Greenleaf  Grant,  Sherman. 
Greenleaf  Taylor,  Greenleaf,  G.  H.  No. 

3. 
Tavlor,  Dix,  Jackson. 
Taylor,  Greenleaf,  Dix. 
Lee,  Greenleaf,  Jackson. 
Greenleaf,  Wadsworth,  Sevier,  Walter 

Reed. 
Devens,  Greenleaf,  Lewis. 
Greenleaf,  Gordon,  G.  H.  No.  14,  No.  3, 

and  No.  41. 
Greenleaf,  Humphreys,  Dix,  G.  H.  No. 

11. 
Lee. 


no.  i.]  PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  ARMY. 

Personnel  of  (he  Division  of  Psychology — Continued. 


37 


Fitch,  Harry  N 

Folsom,  Joseph  K 

Foster,  Wm.  S 

Frost,  Elliott  P 

Fryer,  Henry  D 

Giesel,  Frederick  W 

Goldberger,  Anthony  M . 


Haggerty,  Melville  E.i. 
Hansen,  Clarence  F 


Harlan,  Charles  L . 
Hayes,  Joseph  W. . 

Hines,  Harley  C . . . 

Holley,  Charles  E . 

Hood,  Frazer 

Houser,  John  T> . . . 


Hunter,  Walters... 
Jones,  Edward  S . . . 
Kefauver,  Harry  J.. 
Kellogg,  Chester  E.. 

Lane,  Lawrence  W . 
La  Rue,  Daniel  W.. 
Layton,  Warren  K. 


Lee,  Augustus  S 

Lincoln,  Edward  A. 


Ly tie,  Herbert  C. 2 

Malmberg,  Constantine  F. 
Manuel,  Herschel  T 


Marcus.  Lawrence. 
Marston,  Wm.  M. . 

May,  Mark  A 

Mearns,  Wm.  H.1.. 


Mertz,  Faul  A... 
Metcalf,  JohnT. 


Miller,  WilfordS... 

Moore,  Clyde  B 

Moore,  Henry  T 

Morgan,  John  J.  B. 

Murchlson,  Carl  A. 
Myers,  Garry  C 


McCrady,  Roland  A. 

Neifeld,  Morris 

Norton,  John  K 


Otis,  Arthurs 

Owen,  Roberts  B. 


Paterson,  Donald  G. 


Peehstein,  Louis  A.i 

Pedrick,  Lawrence  D... 
Pittenger,  Benjamin  F. 


Poffenberger.  Albert  T. 
Ream,  Merrill  J 


Rejall,  A.  E.i 

Richmond,  Harold  A. 

Roberts,  Ralphs 

Rowe,  Eugene  C 


Scott, IraD 

Shumway,  Howard  P. 

Stech,  Charles  C 


Stokes,  Thomas  M. . 
Stone,  Calvin  P 


Sylvester,  Reuel  H . 
Terman,  Lewis  M. . 

Terry.  PaulW 

Toll,  Charles  H 


Trabue,  Marion  R 

Ullrich,  Oscar  A 

Van  Houten,  Lyman  H . 


Private,  March,  1918;  second  lieutenant,  October,  IMS 

Sergeant,  first  class,  March,  1918;  first  lieutenant,  October,  1918..  . 

First  lieutenant,  August,  1917;  captain,  January.  1918;  major,  Oc- 
tober, 1918. 
First  lieutenant,  February,  1918;  captain,  November,  191S 


Sergeant,  first  class,  April,  1918;  second  lieutenant,  October,  1918. . . 

Private,  March,  1918;  sergeant,  Julv,  1918;  second  lieutenant,  Octo- 
ber, 1918. 
Sergeant,  February,  1918;  second  lieutenant,  October,  1918 

Maj or,  January,  1918 

Private,  February,  1918;  second  lieutenant,  October,  1918 


First  lieutenant,  March,  1918;  captain,  August,  1919 

First  lieutenant,  August,  1917;  captain,  November,  1917;  major, 

Octoher,  1918. 
Private,  May,  1918;  second  lieutenant,  November,  1918 


Private,  February,  1918;  second  lieutenant,  October,  1918 

First  lieutenant,  March,  1918 

Civilian,  August,  1917;  first  lieutenant,  February,  1918;  captain, 

November,  1918. 

First  lieutenant,  September,  1917;  captain,  January,  1918 

First  lieutenant,  September,  1917;  captain,  Novc ml  er,  191S 

First  lieutenant,  March,  1918 

Civilian,  August,  1917:  private,  February,  191S;  first  lieutenant, 

September,  1918;  captain,  August,  1919. 

First  lieutenant,  March,  1918 

Captain,  January,  1918 

First  lieutenant,  February,  1918 


First  lieutenant,  March,  191S 

Private,  March,  1918;  first  lieutenant,  October,  1918. 

Private,  June,  191S 

First  lieutenant ,  February,  1918 

First  lieutenant,  September,  1917 


First  lieutenant,  February,  1918.. 
Second  lieutenant,  October,  1918. 

First  lieutenant,  March,  1918 

Captain,  March,  1918 


First  lieutenant,  April,  191S 

First  lieutenant,  September,  1917 

First  lieutenant,  February,  1918;  captain,  November,  1918 

Second  lieutenant,  October,  1918 

First  lieutenant,  February,  191S 

Civilian,  August,  1917;  first  lieutenant,  February,  191S;  captain, 
October,  1918. 

First  lieutenant,  March,  1918 

First  lieutenant,  March,  1918;  captain,  November,  1918 


Private,  April,  1918;  second  lieutenant,  October,  1918 

Private,  February,  1918;  second  lieutenant,  November,  191S 

Civilian,  August,  1917;  first  lieutenant,  February,  1918;  captain, 
November,  1918. 

First  lieutenant,  October,  1917 

First  lieutenant,  January.  1918 


Civilian,  August,  1917;  first  lieutenant,  February,  1918;  captain, 

November,  1918. 

First  lieutenant,  March,  1918;  captain,  November,  1918 

First  lieutenant ,  February,  1918;  captain,  November,  1918 

Civilian,  August,  1917;  captain,  January,  191S;  major,  November, 

191S. 

Captain,  February,  1918 

Private,  April,  1918;  sergeant,  July,  191S;  second  lieutenant,  Novem 

ber,  1918. 
First  lieutenant,  September,  1918 


First  lieutenant,  September,  1917;  captain,  October,  1918 

Civilian,   August,    1917;  first  lieutenant,    March,    1918,   captain, 

November,  1918. 
Civilian,  August,  1917;  captain,  January,  191S;  major,  November, 

1918. 

First  lieutenant,  April,  1918 

Civilian,  August,  1917;  first  lieutenant,  February,  1918;  captain, 

November,  1918. 
Civilian,  August,  1917;  first  lieutenant,  February,  1918 


Civilian,  August,  1917;  first  lieutenant,  February,  1918 

Civilian,  August,  1917;  first  lieutenant,  February,  1918;  captain, 

November,  1918. 

First  lieutenant,  February,  1918;  captain,  November,  1918 

Civilian,  May,  1918;  major,  November,  1918 

First  lieutenant,  March,  1918 

Civilian.  August,  1917;  first  lieutenant,  January,   1918;  captain, 

November,  1918. 

First  lieutenant,  August,  1917;  captain,  January,  1918 

Second  lieutenant,  October,  1918 

First  lieutenant,  March,  1918;  captain,  July,  1919 


Greenleaf,  Gordon,  McCIellan,  Green- 
leaf,  G.  H.  No.  10. 

Greenleaf,  Lee,  Hancock,  Greenleaf, 
Fort  Leavenworth. 

Devens,  S.  G.  O.,  Greenleaf,  S.  G.  O., 
Morale  Branch,  General  Stall. 

Greenleaf  Morale  Branch,  General 
Staff. 

Greenleaf,  MacArthur,  Morale  Branch, 
General  Staff. 

Greenleaf  Humphreys,  Grant,  G.  H. 
No.  28. 

Greenleaf,  Travis,  Fort  Sam  Houston 
Upton. 

S.  G.  O. 

Greenleaf,  Funston,  G.  H.,  Fort  Bay- 
ard, N.  Mex. 

Greenleaf,  Dix,  S.  G.  O. 

Dix,  Greenleaf,  Upton,  Humphreys, 
C.  C.  P. 

Greenleaf,  Humphreys,  Greene,  Green- 
leaf, G.  H.  No.  36. 

Greenleaf,  Hancock,  G.  H.  No.  36. 

Greenleai '  Shelby,Hancock,G.H.No.36. . 

Greenleaf,  Kearny,  Letterman  G.  H. 

Lee,  Greenleaf,  Sheridan,  Devens. 

Lee,  Greenleaf.  Custer. 

Greenleaf,  Sevier,  G.  H.  No.  19. 

Grr/nlcaf,  Custer,  Dodge,  Fort  Sam 
Houston. 

Greenleaf,  Sevier,  Wadsworth. 

Greenleaf ,A!eade,  Waller  Reed 

Greenleaf,  Gordon,  McCIellan,  Green- 
leaf, G.  H.  No.  19. 

Greenleaf,  Wheeler,  Wadsworth.  G.  H. 
No.  3  and  No.  41. 

Greenleaf,  Lee,  Funston,  Fort  Leaven- 
worth, S.  G.  O. 

Greenleaf. 

Greenleaf,  Meade,  G.  H.  No.  31. 

Greenleaf,  Pike,  Beauregard,  G.  H. 
No.  1. 

S.  G.  O.,  Greenleaf,  Wheeler,  Pike. 

Greenleaf,  Upton. 

Greenleaf,  Greenleaf,  S.  G.  O. 

Greenleaf,  G.  H.  No.  2,  S.  G.  O.,  Walter 
Reed. 

Greenleaf,  Greenleaf,  Lee,  Newport 
News,  S.  G.  O. 

Devens,  Beauregard,  Fort  Rilay,  S. 
G.  O. 

Greenleaf,  Dodge,  G.  H.  No.  29. 

Greenleaf,  G.  H.  No.  28. 

Greenleaf, Cody.G.  H.  No.  3. 

Dix,  Greenleaf,  Hancock,  G.  H.  No.  30. 

Greenleaf.  Greenleaf,  Sherman. 
Greenleaf,  Gordon,  Humphreys,  G.  H. 

No.  31.  Hoboken,  S.  G.  O. 
Greenleaf,  Sherman,  Lewis,  Letterman 

G.  H. 
Greenleaf,  Wheeler,  G.  H.  No.  17. 
Taylor,  Greenleaf,  Taylor,  Fort  Leaven- 
worth. 
S.  G.  O.,  Greenleaf,  Lee. 
Greenleaf,  Greene,   Greenleaf,   G.    H. 

No.  9. 
Lee,    Greenleaf,   Wadsworth,    Meade, 

Humphreys,  Newport  News,  S.  G.  O. 
Greenleaf,  G.  H.  No.  6. 
Greenleaf,  Meade,  Shelby,  Upton. 
Lee,    Greenleaf,    Travis,    Fort    Sam 

Houston. 
Greenleaf,  Wheeler,  G.  H.  No.  19. 
Greenleaf,  Humphreys,  Cody,  G.  H. 

No.  21. 
Walter  Reed,  G.  H.  No.  16,  No.  38,  and 

No,  8. 
Dix,  S.  G.  O.,  Greenleaf,  Humphreys, 

Wneeler.  Walter  Reed. 
Devens,  Greenleaf,  Jackson,  Fremont, 

Keamy. 
Taylor,    Greenleaf,    Greene,    Shelby, 

Funston,  G.  H.  No.  31. 
Greenleaf,  Devens. 
Dix,  Greenleaf,  Funston. 

Dix,  Greenleaf,  Funston,  Logan,  Green- 
leaf, Letterman  G.  H. 

Dix,  Greenleaf,  Travis,  Walter  Reed. 

Taylor,  Greenleaf.  Pike,  G.  H.  No.  28, 
Custer,  G.  H.  No.  38,  S.  G.  O. 

Greenleaf,  Dodge,  Grant. 

S.  G.  O. 

Greenleaf,  Grant. 

Dix,  Devens,  Greenleaf,  Custer. 

Taylor,  Greenleaf,  Grant. 

Greenleaf,  Fort  Sam  Houston,  Travis. 

Greenleaf,  Dodge.  G.  H.  No.  26,  S.  G.  O. 


i  Psychological  Service  in  Division  of  Physical  Reconstruction. 

:  Assigned  to  School  of  Psychology  for  C.  C.  P.;  commissioned  in  A.  G.  D. 


38 


MEMOIRS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES. 


[Vol.  XV, 


Personnel  of  the  Division  of  Psychology — Continued. 


Wade,  Francis  A 

Waugh,  Karl  T 

Wembridge,  Harry  A . 

Wheeler,  Raymond  II. 

White,  Goodrich  C 

Wilson,  William  R 

Wood,  Benjamin  D . . . 
Woodruff,  William  H.> 

Wylie,  Harry  H 

Yerkes,  Robert  M 

Yoakum,  Clarence  S... 


Private,  February,  191S;  second  lieutenant,  November,  1918 

First  lieutenant,  September,  1917;  captain,  November,  1917;  major 

January,  1918. 
Private,  February,  1918,  second  lieutenant,  October,  191S 

Civilian,  August,  1917;  first  lieutenant,  February,  1918;  captain, 

November,  1918. 
Private,  February,  1918;  second  lieutenant,  November,  1918 

Sergeant,  February,  1918;  second  lieutenant,  October,  1918 

Civilian,  August,  1917;  first  lieutenant,  February,  1918 

Second  lieutenant,  October,  1918 

First  lieutenant,  February,  1918;  captain,  October,  1918 

Major,  August,  1917 

First  lieutenant,  August,  1917;  captain,  November,  1917;  major, 
March,  1918. 


Greenleaf,   Pike,    Greenleaf,   G. 

H.  No.  11. 
Taylor,  S.  G.  O.,  Gordon,  McClellan, 

G.  H.  No.  6. 
Greenleaf,  Jackson,  Meade,  G.  H.  No. 

21,  Dix. 
Devens,  S.  G.  O.,  Oreenleaf,  Bowie. 

Greenleaf,  Jackson,  Sevier,  Greenleaf, 

Gordon. 
Greenleaf,  Sherman,  Greenleaf,  G.  H. 

No.  29. 
Lee,  Greenleaf,  Cody,  Keamy. 
Greenleaf,  G.  H.  No.  16  and  No.  26,  S. 

G.  O. 
Greenleaf,   Sherman,    G.    H.    No.    8, 

Upton,  G.  H.  No.  43. 
S.  G.O. 
S.  G.  O.,  Lee,  Taylor,  S.  G.  O. 


Enlisted  Personnel  of  the  Section  of  Psychology,  Medical  Corps,  trained  in  the  School  of  Military  Psychology — School  for 

Military  Psychology. 


Name. 


Date  of  arrival. 


Rank  on  arrival. 


Rank  on  departure 
from  school. 


Assignment  to 
camp. 


Adams,  Donald  W 

Addis,  Walter  D 

Allenberg,  Sidney 

Amdursky,  Emanuel. . . 

Andrews,  Ralph  L 

Augenblick,  Jack 

Baumann,  Arthur  C.  B. 
Baumgartel,  Walter  H.. 

Beck,  Edward  J1 

Beck,  Theophilis  J 

Benge,  Eugene  J 

Bernard,  Henry  S 

Beverly,  Bert 

Bird,  Robert  F 

Bishop,  Homer  G 

Blake.  Ralph  M 

Blanchette,  Jospeh  A. . . 

Bolwell,  Robert  W 

Booher,  noward  I 

Borden,  NeilH 

Bowie,  Arthur 

Bradish  Norman  C 

Bradish,  Robert 

Briggs,  Howard  L 

Broehl,  Leland  P 

Browdy,  Louis 

Brown,  Anthony  J 

Brown,  Oliver  W 

Browniee,  John  W 


Bruder,  Victor  X 

Bullock,  William  H... 
Bundlie,  Gerhard  J . . . 

Cartland,  Carl  W 

Cascaden,  William  W. . 

Cavanaugh,  Paul  J 

Clark,  Walter  J 

Clarke,  Francis  P 

Cohen,  Joseph 

Cohen  William 

Coleman,  Abraham  E . 

Conley,  Harold  G 

Coons,  Glenn  C 

Cornell,  Arthur , 

Corzine,  Bruce  H 

Cotter,  Arthur  B 

Cowdery,  Karl  M 

Cox.JohnH' 

Coyner,  Martin  B 

Cnbbs,  James  E 

Currie,  Warren  G 

Custer,  Everett  E 

Davis,  Greyden,  R 

Davis,  Herman  B 

Dawson,  John  B 

Day,  Lorey  C 

Dealey,  William  L.... 
Dimmick,  Forrest  L. . 

Doe,  WeastellT 

Doermann,  Henry  J . . 
Donovan,  Herman  L . 

Dotzour,  GroverC 

Downing,  Harold  S... 

Edwards,  Howard 

Elterich,  Theodore  O . 
Emmerick,  Franz  J . . . 

Erlckson.Carll 

Evans,  Walter  P 

Feldman,  Harry  G 


April,  1918. 

February.  1918.. 
October,  191S... 

March,  1918 

October,  1918.. . 
Februarv,  1918.. 

May,  1918 

October,  1918. . . 
Februarv,  1918. 

May,  1918 

do 

....do 

April,  1918 

March,  1918 

February,  1918. 

June,  19i8 

May,  1918 

do 

March,  1918.... 

April,  1918 

do 

May,  1918 

do. 


February,  1918... 

October,  191S 

April,  1918 

do 

Mav,  1918 

Sep'tember,  191S. 


February,  1918... 

April,  1918 

October,  1918. 

Mav,  1918 

February, 191S. . . 

May,  1918 

do 

March,  1918 

February, 1918. . 

June,  1918 

November,  1918. . 

do 

April,  1918 

September,  191s.. 

May,  1918 

Februarv,  1918... 

March,  1918 

Mav,  191S 

April,  1918 

July, 1918 

February,  1918.. 

do 

do 

October,  1918. . . . 
November,  1918.. 

March,  191S 

Mav,  1918 

February, 1918.. 
May,  1918. 


April,  1918 

March,  1918 

May,  1918 

June,  1918 

May,  1918 

do 

February,  1918.. 

Mav,  1918 

April,  1918 

May,  191S 


Private.. 
....do... 
....do... 

...do... 

...do... 
....do... 
....do... 
....do... 
....do... 
....do... 
....do... 
....do... 
Corporal. 
Private. . 
....do... 
....do... 
....do... 
....do... 
....do... 
....do... 

do... 

do... 

do... 

do... 

do... 

do... 

do... 

do... 

do... 


....do 

....do 

....do 

Corporal 

Sergeant 

Private 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

Private,  1st  class. 

Corporal 

Private 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 


Sergeant 

....do 

Private 

....do 

....do 

Corporal 

Sergeant 

Private 

Sergeant 

Corporal 

Sergeant 

do 

Corporal 

Sergeant 

do 

Corporal 

do 

Private 

Sergeant,  Istclasss... 

Corporal 

Sergeant 

do 

Private 

Sergeant 

Private 

do 

do 

do 

Sergeant,  1st  class 


Corporal 

Sergeant,  1st  class. 

Private 

Corporal 

Sergeant 

Corporal 

Private 

Corporal 

Private 

Corporal 

Private 

do 

....do 

Corporal :. 

Private 

Sergeant 

Private 

do 

Corporal 

Sergeant 

Private 

do 

Sergeant 

Private,  1st  class.. 

Corporal 

do 

Sergeant 

do 

do 

do 

Corporal 

Sergeant 

do 

Private 

do 

Sergeant 

do 

Corporal 

Private 


Lewis. 

Wadsworth. 

Discharged. 

Lee. 

Dodge. 

Funston. 

Devens. 

Dodge. 

Walter  Reed. 

Grant. 

Custer. 

Dix. 

Fort  McHenry. 

Funston. 

Wheeler. 

Funston. 

Hancock. 

Walter  Reed. 

Do. 
Hancock. 
Taylor. 
Logan. 
Discharged. 
Travis. 
Grant. 
Upton. 

Do. 
Pike. 

Morale   Staff,    Green- 
leaf. 
Funston. 
Walter  Reed. 
Dodge. 
Walter  Reed. 
Logan. 
Wadsworth. 
Custer. 

Do. 
Upton. 
....  Do. 
Hoboken. 
Upton. 
Sherman. 

MoraleStaff,  Hoboken. 
Humphreys. 
Sherman. 
Lee. 

Fort  McPherson. 
G.  H.  No.  11. 
Greene. 
Discharged. 
Dix. 
Upton. 

Do 
Sherman. 

Do. 
Meade. 
Custer. 
Kearney. 
Humphreys. 
Taylor. 
Wadsworth. 
G.  H.  No.  16. 
Dix. 
Grant. 
Sheridan. 
Funston. 
Sevi«r. 
Gordon. 


Psychological  Service  in  Division  of  Physical  Reconstruction. 


No.i.]  PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  ARMY. 


39 


Enlisted  Personnel  of  the  Section  of  Psychology,  Medical  Corps,  trained  in  the  School  of  Military  Psychology— School  for 

Military  Psychology — Continued. 


Name. 


Femi,  Dan  IT 

Finkelhor,  Herbert  It.. 

Fisher,  Donald  W 

Fishkin,  Joseph 

Fossler,  Harold  R 

Franklin,  Henry 

Friedman,  Saul 

Fromuth,  Carl  L 

Garrett,  John  W 

Gill,  William 

Gillilanrt.AdamR'.... 

Given,  Philip  L 

Glenn,  Harold  H 

Goolsby,  Jehu  L 

Gould,  Kenneth  M 

Granger,  Oscar 

Gray,  Benjamin  F 

Greenberg,  Mayer 

Greenleaf,  Walter  J1 . . . 
Growdon,  Clarence  H.. 
Habberstad,  Claude  C . 
Hagner,  Leonard  G  — 
Haneman,  Henry  W... 
Hanmer,  Harold  M  — 


Harry,  Leroy 

Hauck,  Arthur  A 

Hawes,  Raymond  P.. 
Headrick,  James  A . . . 

Heller,  Walters 

Hildreth,  Harold  A  .. 
Hitchcock,  George  K . 

Hoch,  Alvan  H 

Holler,  Irwin  S 

Hoffman,  Alfred  M. . . 
Hoffman  David  M . . . 
Holmes,  Chester  W. . . 

Holmes,  Joseph  L 

Holzinger  Karl  J 

Hoover,  Walter  S 


Hoystradt,  George  F.... 

Hudson,  James  J 

Humphreys,  Kelso  II... 

Jackson,  Ernest  T 

Jackson,  Reynold  D  — 

Jenkins,  Joe'C 

Jennings,  William  II 

Johanson,  Albert  M 

Johnson,  Oscar  J 

Johnson,  Oscar  R 

Johnson.  Martin  S 

Josey,  Cnarles  C 

Karri,  Reucl  U 

Katz,  Samuel  E 

Katzenberg,  David  S. .. 
Kaulmann,  Herman  J. . 

Keener,  Edward  E 

Kemmer,  Frank  L 

Kennedy,  Charles  E 

Kennedy  ^John  A.1 

Kiernan,  Edmund  B. . . 

King,  Samuel  R 

Kolstad,  Arthur 

Kornhauser,  Arthur  W. 

Krutch,  Joseph  W 

Kuhlman,  August  F. . . 

Lancaster,  Elmer  E 

Landis,  EstesB 


Larrabee,  Harold  A. 

Larsen ,  Ulrich 

Lavelle,Michael  J. . . 
Leach,  Howard  S. . . 
Lecky,  William  P. . . 

Lefton.Al.  P 

Levy,  Joseph 

Lewis,  Stuart 


Lind,  Tennie  A 

Little,  LesUeT. 

Loomis,  Roger  S 

MeClain,  Fred  H 

McEllish,  Russell  C... 
McKeon,  Wallace  F. . . 
McMahon,  Thomas  A. 
McWharter,  Cecil  E... 
Marvin,  Donald  M. . . . 

Massie,  Welford  J 

Michie,  John  G 


Moore,  Bruce  V.1. . . 

Moore,  John  I 

Morris ,  Frank  E 

Morton,  Richard  L. 

Muller,  John  J 

Munro,  Thomas. . . . 


Date  of  arrival. 


April,  1918.... 

May,  1918 

April, 1918.... 
October,  1918. 

May,  1918 

do. 


October,  1918... 

April,  1318 

May,  1918 

February,  1918.. 

April, 1918 

February,  1918.. 

April,  1918 

March,  1918 

....do 

May,  1918 

do 

....do 

....do 

April,  1918 

February,  1918.. 

May,  1918 

October,  1918. . . 
do 


April,  1918. 
do. 


Mav,  1918 

April,  1918 

June.  1918 

March,  1918 

February,  1918... 

Mav,  1918 

April, 1918 

October,  1918 

February,  1918... 

May,  1918 

September,  1918. 
October,  1918.... 
do 


do 

March,  1918 

February,  1918.. 

May,  1918 

do 

April,  1918 

do 

do 

March,  1918 

do 

October,  1918... 

Mav,  1918 

April,  1918 

February,  1918. 
October,  1918. . . 

Mav,  1918 

April,  1918 

October,  1918. . . 

Mav,  1918 

do 

October,  1918. . . 

May.  1918, 

do 

February, 1918.. 
March,  1918  .... 
Octoner,  1918. . . 

March,  1918 

October,  1918. . . 


Mav,  1918 

October,  1918 

August,  1918 

April,  1918 

February,  191S... 

April,  1918 

September,  1918. 
October,  1918 


March,  1918 

November,  1918., 

May,  1918 

Julv,  1918 

Mav,  1918 

October,  1918 

June,  1918 , 

March,  1918 

do 

July,  1918 

March,  1918 


February,  191S. 

do 

Mav,  1918 

June,  1918 

Februarv, 191S. . 
March,  1918 


Rank  on  arrival. 


Private 

....do 

....do 

...do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

Sergeant 

Private,  1st  class. 

Private 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

Private, 1st  class. 

Private 

....do 


Sergeant. 
Private . . 
....do... 
....do... 
....do... 
....do... 
....do... 
....do... 
....do... 
....do... 
....do... 
....do... 
....do... 

do... 

Sergeant. 


Private 

do 

Private,  1st  class. 

Private 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

....do 

do 

....do 

do 

do 

.do 


.do. 


Sergeant. 
Private. . 

do... 

do... 

do... 

do... 

Corporal. 
Private. . 
do... 


.do. 
.do. 
.do. 


.do 

.do 

Private,  1st  class. 

Private 

....do 


....do... 
....do... 
....do... 
Corporal. 
Private. . 

do. 

do. 


.do. 


.do. 

Private,  1st  class. 
Private 


....do 

Private,  1st  class. 

Private 

....do 

Private,  1st  class. 
Private 


Rank  on  departure 
from  school. 


Corporal 

Sergeant 

do 

Private 

Sergeant 

Corporal 

Private 

Sergeant 

do 

Corporal 

Frivate 

Sergeant 

Private 

do 

Sergeant 

Corporal 

Private 

Corporal 

Private 

do 

Sergeant 

Private,  1st  class. 

Private 

do 


Sergeant 

do 

do 

Corporal 

do 

Sergeant,  1st  class. 

Sergeant 

Corporal 

Sergeant 

Private 

do 

Sergeant 

Private 

do 

Sergeant 


Private 

Corporal 

Sergeant 

Private 

Corporal 

Sergeant 

Corporal 

do 

Private 

Corporal 

Private 

Corporal 

Private 

Sergeant 

Private 

Corporal 

Sergeant 

Private 

Sergeant,  1st  class. 

Sergeant 

Private 

Corporal 

Sergeant 

Private 

Corporal 

Sergeant 

do 

Private 


Sergeant. 
Private. . 
do. 


Corporal 

Sergeant 

Private,  1st  class. 

Private 

....do 


Corporal 

Private 

Corporal 

Sergeant , 

do 

Private 

Corporal 

Sergeant 

Private 

Sergeant 

Sergeant,  1st  class. 


Sergeant. 
Corporal. 
Private. . 
Corporal. 

do... 

Sergeant. 


Assignment  to 
camp. 


Dodge. 

Devens. 

Dix. 

Upton. 

Meade. 

Pike. 

Upton. 

Wheeler. 

Fort  McPherson. 

Upton. 

Walter  Reed. 

Pike. 

Meade. 

Upton. 

Wadsworth. 

Pike. 

Travis. 

Lee. 

Walter  Reed 

Sherman. 

Grant. 

Gordon. 

Upton. 

Sign.   C,   Tr.   Det. 
Yale  tfnlT. 

Funs  ton. 

Kearny. 

Sevier. 

Gordon. 

Lewis. 

G.  H.  No.  16. 

Devens. 

Custer. 

Wheeler. 

Hoboken. 

Upton. 

Sevier. 

G.  H.  No.  30. 

Dodge. 

Hq.  Mtr.  Units,  Green- 
leaf. 

Upton. 

Dodge. 

Gordon. 

Taylor. 

Custer. 

Cody. 

Bowie. 

Grant. 

Dodge. 

Custer. 

Hoboken. 

Humphreys. 

Cody. 
Do. 

Upton. 

Discharged. 

Hancock. 

Grant. 

G.  H.  No.  10. 

Walter  Reed. 

Hoboken. 

Dodge. 

Lewis. 

Dix. 

Travis. 

MoraleStafl, Greenleaf. 

Jackson. 

Hq.  Mtr.  Units,  Green- 
leaf. 

Beauregard. 

Dodge. 

G.  H.  No.  6. 

Lee. 

Gordon. 

Custer. 

G.  H.No.  10. 

Hq.  Mtr.  Units,  Green- 
leaf. 

Grant. 

G.  H.  No.  10. 

Logan. 

G.H.  No.  1C. 

Wadsworth. 

Dodge. 

Logan. 

Taylor. 

Grant. 

Wadsworth. 

N.  C.  O.  School,  Green- 
leaf. 

Walter  Reed. 

Greene. 

G.  H.  No.  30. 

Meade. 

Upton. 

Jackson. 


1  Psychological  Service  in  Division  of  Physical  Reconstruction. 


40 


MEMOIRS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES. 


[Vol.  XV, 


Enlisted  Personnel  of  the  Section  of  Psychology,  Med-'eal  Corps,  trained  in  the.  School  of  Military  Psychology — School  for 

Military  Psychology — Continued. 


Name. 


Murphy,  Clifton 

Myhre,  Olaf  O 

Mvrick,  Fred  F 

Nau.OttoS 

Neal,EarlS 

Noble,  Ellis  L 

Oberholse.r,  Robert  M. . . . 
Oppenheimer,  Julius  J. . . . 

Parker,  Clifford  D 

Paynter,  Richard  H 

Pearson  .Oscar  P 

Pcllctt,  Frederick  D 

Peppel,  Edward  L 

Perla,  Leo 

Perry,  Stephen  K 

Puhak,  John  I 

Rachofsky,  Lester  M 

Racioppi,  Joseph 

Ralston,  Roy  R 

Reed,  Ellery  F 

Rees,  Thomas  L 

Rhawn,  Heister  G 

Rich,  Gilbert  J 

Rich,  Harold  T 

Rickard,  Garrett  E 

Riggs.CecilH 

Rosenberry,  Benj.  F 

Rosenfield,  Simon  D 

Rubin,  Abner  J 

Rushmore,  Everett 

Russell,  Philip  H 

Sapiro,  David 

Sarrt.AlfonsJ.' 

Schaeffer,  Rupert  C 

Schiff,  Hyman 

Schmidt,  Clayton 

Schneider,  Arthur  M 

Schneider,  Herbert  W 

Schoonmaker,  Bernard  N. 

Scriver,  Harry 

Shefveland,  Jos.  B 

Shields,  Lewis  W 


Sides,  Arthur  C 

Simon,  Arthur  E 

Snapp,  Glenn  B 

Sprankle,  Horace  M 

Springstun,  Humphreys. 

Stone,  Charles  L 

Strauss,  Samuel  W 

Sweeting,  C.  Lloyd 

Swindle,  Percy  F 

Taub.IsraelZ , 

Tea,  Charles  M 

Ten  Hoor,  Marten 

Terrell,  Marvin  C 

Thompson,  Frank  W 

Thompson,  Lorenzo  D. . . 

Thorpe,  Herbert  W 

Thompkins,  Leslie  J 

Tomlinson,  Willard  ! '. . . 

Turete,  David 

Tyson,  George  R 

Trow,  WilliamC 

Uhlendorf,  Bernard 

Uhrbrock,  Richard 

Veazie,  Walter  B 

Wakeman;  Seth 

Walker,  Pierre  J 

Walter,  Gains  W 

Ward,  Emerson  C 

Watkins,  Clarence  P 

Weber,  Chris  O 

Wechsler,  David 

Wells,  Cornelius  L 

Werner,  Helmuth  C.  J. . . . 

West,  Robert  W 

Westcott,  Ralph  W 

Whitehead,  Guy 

Whitehead,  James  S 

Wickman,  EzralC 

Wildman.  James  R 

Wiles,  Harry  B 

Williams,  James  M 

Williams,  Osborne 

Wills,  Benjamin  G 

Wilson,  Samuel  B 


Wittenberg,  Philip. . 

Woellner ,  Robert 

Wolfe,  Emil 

Wood,  Ernest  R 

Wooddy,  Carroll  H.. 
Wright,  William  W. 

Young,  Ralph  C 

Zimmerly,  Fred  W. . 
Zoellner,  Herbert  W. 


Date  of  arrival. 


October,  191S. 

do 

Mas'  1918 

.do. 


April,  1918 

May,  1918 

Novemher,  1913. 
February,  1918... 

May,  1918 

Februarv, 1918. . 

May,  1913 

March,  1918 

....do 

July, 1918 

October,  1918 

November,  1918.. 

March,  1918 

October,  1918 

February, 1918... 

October,  1918 

May,  1918 

November,  1918.. 
Februarv,  1918... 

March,  1918 

April,  1918 

do 

May,  1918 

June,  1918 

do 

October,  1918 

April,  1918 

August,  1918 

April, 1918 

November,  191S. . 

October,  1918 

April,  1918 

do 

....do 

May,  1918 

September,  J91S. . 

May,  1918 

October,  191S 


March,  1918. .... 

May  1918 

do 

do 

do 

do 

April, 1918 

March,  1918 

June,  1918 

February,  1918. . . 

May,  1918. 

April,  1918 

May,  1913 

November,  1918.. 

October,  1918 

May,  1918 

October,  1918 

February,  191S... 

April,  1918 

do 

June,  1918 

November,  1918. 

April,  1918 

March,  1918. 

Mav,  1918 

February,  1918. . , 

June,  1918 

April,  1918 

November,  1918. . 

April,  1918 

May,  1918 

November,  1918. 

May,  191S 

June,  1918 

May,  1918 

April.  1918 

March,  1918 

May.1918 

April,  1918 

May,  1918 

do 

March,  1918 

May,  1918 

November,  191S. 


July, 1918 

May,  1918 

Oetober,  1918. 


May,  1918. 
do. 


....do 

November,  1918. 
February, 1918.. 
May,  191S 


Rank  on  arrival. 


do... 

do... 

do... 

Sergeant. 
Private. - 
.do. . . 


.do. 
.do. 
.do. 


.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 


.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 


do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

Private,  1st  class. 

Private , 

....do 

....do 

....do 

Private,  1st  class. . 

Sergeant 

Private 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

Sergeant 

Private 

....do 


do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

Corporal 

Private 

do 

....do 

do 

do 

Corporal 

Private,  1st  class. 

Private 

Corporal 

Private 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

....do 

Corporal 

Private 

....do 

Sergeant 

Private 

....do 

Sergeant,  1st  class 

Private 

.do 


.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 


Rank  on  departure 
from  school. 


Private 

do 

do 

Sergeant 

Private 

Sergeant 

Frivate 

Sergeant 

Corporal 

Sergeant 

Corporal 

Sergeant 

Corporal 

do 

Private 

do 

do 

do 

Sergeant 

Private 

do 

do 

Sergeant 

Corporal 

do 

Private 

do 

Sergeant 

Private 

do 

Sergeant 

Private 

Private,  1st  class. 

Sergeant 

Private 

Corporal 

....do 

Private 

Corporal 

Sergeant 

Private 

....do 


Sergeant 

do 

Corporal 

Sergeant 

do 

Private 

Sergeant 

Corporal 

Sergeant 

do 

Private 

Sergeant,  1st  class. 

Corporal 

do 

Private,  1st  class. . 

Private 

Corporal 

Private 

Sergeant 

Corporal 

Sergeant 

Private 

....do 

Corporal 

do 

Private 

....do 

....do 

....do 

Corporal 

do 

Private 

....do 

Corporal 

Private 

Corporal 

Private 

Sergeant 

Sergeant,  1st  class. 

Sergeant 

do 

....do 

Corporal 

Sergeant,  1st  class. 


Corporal. 
do. .. 

Private. . 
Sergeant. 
....do... 
Corporal. 
Private. . 
Corporal. 
Private. . 


Assignment  to 
camp. 


Jackson. 

Dodge. 

Lee. 

Humphreys. 

Funston. 

Pike. 

Hoboken. 

Dodge. 

Taylor. 

Bowie. 

Jackson. 

Grant. 

Wheeler. 

Humphreys. 

G.  H.  No.  9. 

Hoboken. 

Funston. 

Upton. 

Lee. 

G.  H.  No.  9. 

Travis. 

Hoboken. 

Meade. 

Travis. 

Sheridan. 

Funston. 

Shelby. 

Greene. 

Sherman. 

Upton. 

Bowie. 

Taylor. 

Fort  McHenry. 

Hoboken. 

Upton. 

Cody. 

Pike. 

Humphreys. 

Pike. 

G.  H.  No.  14. 

Jackson. 

Hq.  Mtr. Units, Green- 
leaf. 

Greene. 

Shelby. 

G.  H.  No.  3. 

Sevier. 

Wheeler. 

Devens. 

Q.  H.  No.  3. 

Dix. 

Pike. 

Custer. 

Jackson. 

MacArthur. 

Greene, 

Devens. 

Pike. 

Jackson. 

Upton. 

Devens. 

Logan. 

Meade. 

S.  G.  O. 

Funston. 

Taylor. 

Dix. 

Wadsworth. 

Upton. 

Discharged. 

S.  G.  O. 

Upton. 

Cody. 

Logan. 

Hoboken. 

Dix. 

Wheeler. 

Upton. 

Jackson. 

Upton. 

Humphreys. 

G.  H.  No.  10. 

Sheridan. 

Dodge. 

Hancock. 

Kearny. 

Hq.  Mtr.  Units,  Green 
leaf. 

Sevier. 

Funston. 

Discharged. 

Devens. 

Lewis. 

Taylor. 

Hoboken. 

Jackson. 

Wheeler. 


1  Psychological  Service  in  Division  of  Physical  Reconstruction. 


no.i.]  PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  ARMY.  41 

Section  3. — Appointments  and  promotions  in  the  Sanitary  Corps  for  psyclwlogical  service. 

The  appointment  of  a  number  of  psychologists,  not  to  exceed  16,  in  the  Sanitary  Corps, 
was  approved  in  September,  1917;  these  officers  were  to  have  the  grade  of  first  lieutenant. 
In  addition,  two  officers  were  appointed  for  service  in  the  Office  of  the  Surgeon  General — Maj. 
Robert  M.  Yerkes  to  organize  psychological  examining,  and  Lieut.  Arthur  S.  Otis  to  have 
charge  of  statistical  work. 

In  the  plan  for  extension  of  psychological  examining  to  the  entire  Army  which  was  approved 
January  19,  1918,  provision  was  made  for  132  commissioned  officers,  distributed  as  follows: 
27  majors,  51  captains,  54  first  lieutenants.  It  was  assumed  that  the  Division  of  Psychology 
would  be  permitted  to  secure  this  officer  personnel  in  accordance  with  approval  quoted  on 
page  29  of  this  report. 

One  of  the  early  activities  of  the  Psychology  Committee  of  the  National  Research  Council 
and  subsequently  of  the  Section  of  Psychology,  Surgeon  General's  Office,  was  the  gathering 
of  pertinent  information  concerning  men  who  might  be  considered  for  appointment  in  the 
Sanitary  Corps.  Data  concerning  more  than  600  applicants  for  psychological  appointment 
were  secured,  properly  classified,  and  filed.  The  psychological  staff  of  the  Surgeon  General's 
Office  was  therefore  prepared,  when  the  need  for  additional  officers  presented  itself,  to  recom- 
mend qualified  candidates.  During  January  and  February  recommendations  were  made  in 
order  that  a  group  of  50  student  officers  might  report  for  training  at  Fort  Oglethorpe.  Subse- 
quently this  number  was  increased  to  79,  which  is  53  less  than  the  number  of  commissioned 
officers  approved  by  the  War  Department. 

In  accordance  with  the  plan  of  the  division,  qualified  psychologists  were  to  be  recommended 
for  appointment  as  rapidly  as  arrangements  could  be  made  for  their  training  at  Fort  Oglethorpe. 
This  was  extremely  difficult  because  of  interference  of  academic  and  other  professional  obliga- 
tions. It  would  have  been  possible  to  recommend  immediately  on  authorization  the  total 
number  of  132  psychologists,  but  in  order  to  secure  so  large  a  number  it  would  have  been 
necessary  to  accept  many  men  of  relatively  poor  equipment  as  contrasted  with  certain  of  the 
men  who  were  willing  to  enter  the  service  as  soon  as  they  could  make  suitable  arrangements 
with  their  institutions. 

Another  immediate  reason  for  delay  in  the  commissioning  of  psychologists  is  found  in 
the  temporary  postponement  of  recommendations.  A  short  delay  occurred  in  March  and  again 
early  in  April;  a  delay  of  several  days  was  occasioned  by  the  request  for  appointment  in  the 
Sanitary  Corps  of  a  large  number  of  men  for  the  gas  service.  About  the  middle  of  April  the 
Division  of  Psychology  was  notified  by  the  ranking  officer  of  the  Sanitary  Corps  that  recom- 
mendations might  be  made.  As  it  was  important  to  secure  appointments  for  approximately 
50  additional  psychologists  to  report  in  May  for  the  training  course,  the  necessary  papers  were 
prepared  and  as  rapidly  as  possible  placed  in  the  hands  of  Lieut.  Col.  W.  D.  Wrightson;  but 
before  action  had  been  taken  on  any  of  these  recommendations  by  The  Adjutant  General,  the 
Division  of  Psychology  was  requested  to  present  an  estimate  of  its  personnel  requirements 
during  the  year  1918.  In  response  to  this  request  a  personnel  table  was  prepared  and  submitted 
to  the  officer  in  charge  of  the  Sanitary  Corps. 

Before  estimate  of  the  required  personnel  had  been  submitted,  the  Division  of  Psychology 
was  notified  that,  pending  careful  investigation  of  the  personnel  of  the  Sanitary  Corps,  and  of 
requirements  for  the  various  kinds  of  work  provided  for  by  the  corps,  no  recommendations 
for  appointment  or  promotion  would  be  received  by  The  Adjutant  General. 

Since  this  additional  and  indefinite  delay  threatened  to  interfere  most  seriously  with  the 
training  of  a  sufficient  number  of  competent  psychologists,  and  thus  to  render  impossible 
satisfactory  compliance  with  the  instructions  of  the  War  Department  that  all  drafted  men  and 
all  company  officers  should  be  given  psychological  examinations,  the  following  special  request 
for  authority  to  recommend  50  additional  psychologists  for  appointment  in  the  Sanitary  Corps 
was  addressed  to  The  Adjutant  General  of  the  Army.  This  letter  was  written  by  Maj.  Yerkes 
and  transmitted  by  Lieut.  Col.  W.  D.  Wrightson,  chief  officer  of  the  Sanitary  Corps. 
121435°— 21 4 


42  MEMOIRS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES.  [vol.  xv. 

April  18,  1918. 
From:  The  Surgeon  General,  U.  S.  Army. 
To:  The  Adjutant  General  of  the  Army. 
Subject:  Authorized  personnel,  Sanitary  Corps,  N.  A.,  for  psychological  service. 

1.  January  19,  1918,  the  War  Department  authorized  the  securing  of  special  commissioned  and  enlisted  personnel 
for  psychological  service,  in  accordance  with  plan  outlined  in  third  indorsement,  copy  of  which  accompanies  this  com- 
munication. 

2.  This  authorization  provides  for  commissioning  in  Sanitary  Corps  of  132  officers.  To  date  approximately  80 
officers  have  been  commissioned.  It  is  desired  to  complete  the  number  up  to  the  original  authorized  quota  of  132 
immediately. 

3.  This  is  a  professionally  qualified  personnel,  the  needs  for  which  can  not  be  met  by  officers  already  in  the  Sanitary 
Corps.  The  course  in  military  psychology  is  in  progress  at  the  M.O.T.C.,  Fort  Oglethorpe,  to  which  it  is  desired  to 
send  at  least  40  commissioned  officers  for  special  training  on  April  29. 

4.  The  fact  that  the  Sanitary  Corps  has  exceeded  its  allowance  of  officers  at  present,  renders  it  impossible  to  rec- 
ommend appointment  of  additional  psychologists.  The  situation  is  urgent.  During  the  next  few  weeks  the  Divi- 
sion of  Psychology  will  be  expected  to  examine  upwards  of  200,000  men  in  the  various  recruit  depots,  training  camps, 
and  ports  of  embarkation,  and  unless  we  are  able  to  increase  our  personnel  immediately  and  rapidly,  it  will  be  utterly 
impossible  to  do  the  work  which  has  been  ordered. 

5.  In  view  of  the  above  facts  it  is  urgently  requested  that  special  authorization  be  immediately  granted  the  Sur- 
geon General  to  recommend  appointment  in  the  Sanitary  Corps  of  50  additional  professionally  qualified  men  for  psy- 
chological service,  the  same  to  be  ordered  on  appointment,  to  M.O.T.C,  Fort  Oglethorpe,  Ga.,  for  training  in  military 
psychology. 

For  the  Surgeon  General : 

W.  D.  Wrightbon, 
Lieut.  Col.  Sanitary  Corps. 

On  April  26  Maj.  Yerkes  was  summoned  to  the  War  College  by  a  member  of  the  Committee 
on  Organization  of  the  War  Plans  Division  of  the  General  Staff.  To  this  officer  all  pertinent 
information  concerning  psychological  personnel  and  needs  was  presented,  and  at  the  close 
of  the  interview  Maj.  Yerkes  was  given  to  understand  that  this  officer  favored  approval  of  the 
request  for  authorization  to  recommend  the  appointment  of  50  additional  psychologists,  and 
that  the  Division  of  Psychology  might  expect  final  word  concerning  the  matter  the  following 
day,  Saturday,  April  27.  Early  the  following  week  the  Division  of  Psychology  was  notified 
by  telephone  that  the  special  request  had  been  disapproved.  Later  formal  notice  of  the  disap- 
proval was  received. 

The  peculiarly  interesting  and  puzzling  fact  about  this  action  is  that  the  committee  on 
organization  saw  fit  to  disapprove  an  essential  portion  of  a  plan  which  had  previously  been 
carefully  investigated  and  fully  approved  by  the  Surgeon  General,  a  Committee  of  the  War 
College  Division  of  the  General  Staff,  the  Chief  of  Staff,  and  the  Secretary  of  War.  The  unfavor- 
able action  of  the  committee  was  taken  despite  the  evident  fact  that  the  training  of  psychol- 
ogists, and  thus  the  securing  of  an  officer  personnel  adequate  for  immediate  needs,  would  thereby 
be  rendered  impossible. 

Having  failed  at  various  times  to  secure  authorization  by  individuals  or  committees 
charged  with  special  tasks  to  do  precisely  what  the  War  Department  had  fully  authorized  in 
January,  1918,  the  Division  of  Psychology  prepared  in  May  to  make  the  best  possible  use  of 
its  available  personnel  while  awaiting  final  action  of  the  Committee  on  Organization  of  the  War 
College  with  reference  to  personnel  to  be  allowed  the  psychological  section  of  the  Sanitary 
Corps. 

On  May  7  the  committee  recommended  to  the  Chief  of  Staff  that  no  additional  ranks 
or  personnel  be  allowed  the  psychological  section  of  the  corps  pending  investigation  of  the  value 
of  psychological  examining.  It  also  recommended  that  The  Adjutant  General  address  to  com- 
manding generals  of  National  Army  cantonments  and  National  Guard  camps  and  the  com- 
manding officers  of  army  posts,  a  letter  requesting  report  on  three  points — namely:  (1)  The 
value  of  psychological  work  in  the  military  establishment;  (2)  the  desirability  of  continuing 
the  work;  (3)  the  possibility  of  having  medical  officers  make  psychological  examinations. 

On  May  16,  1918,  the  Division  of  Psychology  received  an  informal  memorandum,  ad- 
dressed by  Lieut.  Col.  W.  D.  Wrightson,  of  the  Sanitary  Corps,  to  Col.  C.  L.  Furbush,  of  the 
Medical  Corps,  in  which  it  was  stated  that  the  General  Staff  had  disapproved  changes  in  psy- 
chological personnel  pending  the  special  inquiry  described  in  the  preceding  paragraph. 


no.  i.]  PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  ARMY.  43 

By  inquiry-  for  the  Surgeon  General  the  chief  of  the  Division  of  Psychology  learned  that, 
prior  to  July  1,  reports  concerning  psychological  work  had  been  received  by  The  Adjutant 
General,  in  response  to  special  request  mentioned  above,  from  approximately  90  commanding 
officers.  The  Adjutant  General  had  referred  these  reports  to  the  Committee  on  Organization, 
which  body  had  in  turn  placed  responsibility  for  their  analysis  on  Maj.  L.  P.  Horsfall.  Repre- 
sentatives of  the  Division  of  Psychology  subsequently  explained  to  this  officer  that  the  majority 
of  the  reports  were  unfair  to  the  psychological  service  because  few  of  the  officers  called  upon  to 
make  report  had  knowledge  of  this  new  kind  of  work.  It  was  indeed  shown  to  the  satisfaction 
of  Maj.  Horsfall  that  the  reports  in  most  instances  described  neuro-psychiatric  work  instead 
of  psychological  examining;  that  in  other  instances  they  confused  the  work  of  the  neuro- 
psychiatrist  with  that  of  the  psychologist;  and  that  not  more  than  one  report  in  four  dealt 
strictly  with  psychological  examining. 

As  a  result  of  this  exhibition  of  the  unreliability  of  the  data  presented  in  the  reports, 
Maj.  Horsfall,  and  subsequently  Col.  J.  W.  Craig,  to  whom  the  matter  was  referred  on  transfer 
of  Maj.  Horsfall  to  another  division  of  the  General  Staff,  concluded  that  the  official  reports 
supplied  no  basis  for  decision  concerning  the  desirability  of  additional  psychological  personnel. 
They  therefore  investigated  the  work  to  their  satisfaction  in  other  ways. 

To  correct  the  serious  misconceptions  and  prejudices  concerning  psychological  examining 
which  had  been  created  by  the  steady  influx  of  seemingly  unfavorable  official  reports  over 
a  period  of  several  weeks,  the  following  memorandum  was  prepared  for  the  Chief  of  Staff  by 

the  Division  of  Psychology. 

September  12,  1918. 
Memorandum  for  the  Chief  of  Staff. 
Relative  to  the  reports  on  supposedly  psychological  service. 

1.  In  May,  1918,  The  Adjutant  General  directed  the  following  letter  to  commanding  officers  of  cantonments, 
camps,  and  army  posts: 

"From:  The  Adjutant  General  of  the  Army. 

Subject:  Additional  personnel  for  psychological  duties. 

The  Secretary  of  War  directs  that  you  submit  at  once  to  this  office  a  report  as  to  the  benefits  derived  from  the 
work  of  psychological  officers  and  as  to  the  advisability  of  continuing  such  examinations,  and  whether  such  examina- 
tions can  be  made  by  the  regular  medical  personnel  on  duty  under  your  command." 

2.  During  May,  June,  and  July  it  is  understood  by  this  office  that  upward  of  100  replies  to  this  request  were 
received  by  the  War  Department.  Inasmuch  as  these  replies  are  supposed  to  be,  with  a  few  exceptions,  unfavorable 
to  psychological  work,  and  have  led  to  the  conclusion  on  the  part  of  various  officers  of  the  General  Staff  that  this  work 
has  little,  if  any,  value  to  the  army  and  should  be  discontinued,  it  is  deemed  of  prime  importance  that  the  following 
facts  be  considered: 

3.  At  the  time  above  request  for  report  was  sent  to  commanding  officers,  psychological  service  had  been  fully 
organized  in  four  cantonments.  Psychologists  had  recently  been  assigned  to  about  20  additional  cantonments  and 
camps,  but  they  had  not  had  opportunity  completely  to  organize  their  work,much  less  to  acquaint  commanding 
officers  with  it  and  to  demonstrate  its  values. 

4.  In  this  connection  attention  is  invited  to  the  fact  that  psychological  service  was  originally  introduced  on  a 
purely  trial  basis.  As  a  result  of  extensive  trial  in  four  cantonments  and  careful  investigation  and  consideration  of 
value  to  the  service  by  the  War  Plans  Division  of  the  General  Staff,  it  was  decided  in  January,  1918,  to  extend  this 
service  to  the  entire  army.  February,  March,  and  April  were  required  for  preparations  essential  to  the  extension 
of  work,  such,  for  example,  as  the  suitable  training  in  military  psychology  of  necessary  officers  and  the  manufacture 
and  distribution  of  examining  materials  and  other  supplies.  In  May,  when  the  request  for  report  was  made  of  command- 
ing officers,  the  service  was  just  about  to  be  organized  for  the  entire  army. 

5.  No  misleading  or  undesirable  effects  could  have  resulted  from  this  premature  and  unfair  investigation  had  it 
not  been  that  psychiatric  work  had  been  in  progress  in  practically  all  cantonments,  camps,  and  army  posts  for  many 
months.  The  following  is  what  actually  happened:  Practically  every  commanding  officer  reported  on  what  was 
supposed  to  be  psychological  sendee.  This  was  done  often  in  ignorance  of  the  fact  that  no  psychological  work  had 
been  attempted  in  the  station  in  question,  and  quite  as  frequently  regardless  of  the  fact  that  the  work  had  been  very 
recently  organized  and  could  not  be  fairly  judged. 

6.  The  majority  of  the  reports  received  and  supposed  to  deal  with  psychological  work  are,  in  fact,  reports  on  the 
nature  and  value  of  neuro-psychiatric  work,  which  is  entirely  independent  of  and  different  from  the  sen-ice  for  which 
the  Division  of  Psychology,  Surgeon  General's  Office,  is  responsible.  Furthermore,  in  many  of  the  camps  and  can- 
tonments to  which  psychologists  had  recently  been  sent,  the  commanding  officers  have  confused  psychological  and 
psychiatric  work  in  such  wise  that  grave  injustice  is  done  to  both  as  well  as  to  the  Army  itself. 

7.  Analysis  of  upward  of  100  reports  mentioned  above  indicates  that  the  reports  of  line  officers  are  at  least  75  per 
cent  f  avorable  to  psychological  work  in  those  stations  where  it  had  made  sufficient  progress  toward  complete  organization 
to  justify  any  report. 


44  MEMOIRS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES.  [vol.xv, 

8.  This  showing  is  wholly  in  line  with  the  result  of  the  original  trial  of  methods  in  four  cantonments,  for  at  that 
time  the  War  Plans  Division  of  the  General  Staff  learned  by  direct  inquiry  that  somewhat  more  than  75  per  cent  of 
the  company  commanders  and  other  officers  who  had  first-hand  knowledge  of  psychological  sendee  and  its  results 
were  favorable  to  the  continuance  and  extension  of  the  work.  It  would  be  remarkable,  indeed,  if  the  Army  should 
have  changed  so  radically  as  the  large  number  of  unfavorable  reports  mentioned  above  would  seem  to  indicate.  The 
case  is,  in  fact,  a  perfectly  clear  one.  The  War  Department  has  been  misled  by  the  confusion  of  similar  terms,  and 
the  most  serious  of  injustices  to  important  new  work  in  the  interests  of  military  efficiency  has  been  done. 

9.  At  the  present  time  psychological  work  is  well  organized  and  perfectly  established  in  all  cantonments  and  in 
10  camps.  At  least  three  out  of  four  of  these  military  establishments  report  favorably  concerning  the  value  of  the 
work,  and  from  the  commanding  officers  of  several  of  the  cantonments  and  camps  enthusiastic  appreciations  have  been 
received  by  this  office. 

Robert  M.  Yerkes, 
Major,  Sanitary  Corps,  U.  S.  A. 

Although  originally  only  the  rank  of  first  lieutenant  was  authorized  for  psychological 
appointees  in  the  Sanitary  Corps,  in  connection  with  the  plan  for  the  extension  of  psychological 
service,  the  grades  of  first  lieutenant,  captain,  and  major  were  authorized,  and  on  the  basis  of 
this  authorization  the  Division  of  Psychology  proceeded  to  make  preliminary  arrangements  for 
the  appointment  of  psychologists  of  maturity,  professional  competence,  and  important  position, 
for  whom  the  higher  grades  of  captain  and  major  were  essential. 

The  work  of  the  school  of  military  psychology  was  planned  on  the  assumption  that  it  would 
be  best  for  the  service  to  send  officers  there  with  relatively  low  grade,  with  the  expectation 
of  recommending  them  for  promotion  if  their  records  justified  it.  In  pursuance  of  this  plan 
several  psychologists  were  sent  to  the  training  camp  as  enlisted  men  who  would  otherwise  have 
been  commissioned  as  first  lieutenants  because  of  professional  qualifications  and  obvious  value 
to  the  service. 

Experience  during  the  initial  stages  of  psychological  examining  in  the  camps  indicated  the 
serious  disadvantages  of  having  an  officer  with  the  grade  of  first  lieutenant  at  the  head  of  the  work. 
It  was  therefore  decided  that  the  chief  psychological  examiner  in  the  divisional  training  camps 
should  in  all  cases  be  an  officer  with  the  grade  of  captain  or  major. 

In  order  that  a  sufficient  number  of  professionally  qualified  and  experienced  examiners  who 
had  been  trained  at  Fort  Oglethorpe  might  be  rendered  available  as  chiefs  of  the  psychological 
service  in  various  stations,  the  following  recommendations  for  promotion  were  made  to  the 
Surgeon  General  in  April,   1918: 

For  appointment  as  majors:  Capts.  G.  F.  Arps,  W.  S.  Foster,  J.  W.  Hayes,  W.  S.  Hunter, 
B.  F.  Pittenger,  E.  C.  Rowe,  M.  R.  Trabue. 

For  appointment  as  captains :  First  Lieuts.  J.  E.  Anderson,  H.  C.  Bingham,  L.  J.  Brueckner, 
H.  B.  Cummings,  E.  A.  Doll,  G.  O.  Ferguson,  J.  D.  Houser,  J.  T.  Metcalf,  W.  S.  Miller,  J.  J.  B. 
Morgan,  J.  K.  Norton,  D.  G.  Paterson,  H.  A.  Richmond,  C.  C.  Stech,  C.  P.  Stone,  T.  M.  Stokes, 
H.  P.  Shumway,  C.  H.  ToU. 

Because  of  the  peculiar  importance  of  these  promotions  for  the  psychological  service, 
Maj.  Yerkes,  by  permission  of  the  ranking  officer  of  the  Sanitary  Corps,  presented  the  recom- 
mendations to  the  Surgeon  General  with  full  explanation  concerning  the  professional  reasons 
for  recommending  the  promotion  of  certain  men  whose  ages  were  under  those  usually  required 
for  promotion  in  the  medical  department.  The  Surgeon  General  referred  the  matter  to  Col. 
Furbush  for  advice.  Subsequently  Maj.  Yerkes  was  twice  called  in  conference  concerning  the 
matter,  and  thereupon  the  Surgeon  General  approved  the  promotions  as  listed  above  with  three 
exceptions.  Maj.  Yerkes  was  notified  by  Col.  Furbush  of  the  Surgeon  General's  approval  and 
assumed  that  the  promotions  would  be  made  prior  to  the  assignment  of  chief  psychologists  in 
the  various  divisional  training  camps.  On  this  assumption,  men  who  had  been  recommended 
for  grades  of  captain  or  major  were  assigned  as  chiefs  of  the  psychological  service. 

Late  in  April,  and  nearly  a  month  after  recommendation  and  approval,  Maj.  Yerkes  learned 
upon  inquiry  concerning  the  reasons  for  delay  in  the  promotion  of  certain  officers,  that  the 
ranking  officer  of  the  Sanitary  Corps  had  returned  the  recommendations  for  the  promotion  of 
psychologists  to  the  Surgeon  General,  who  had  disapproved  them.  This  action  was  taken  with- 
out notification  of  the  Division  of  Psychology,  which  proceeded  with  its  personnel  arrangements 


No.  1.3  PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  AKMY.  45 

on  the  assumption  that  the  promotions  would  be  made  in  accordance  with  the  Surgeon  General's 
officially  announced   approval. 

The  importance  of  this  particular  miscarriage  of  justice  is  greater  than  might  at  first  appear, 
because  the  majority  of  the  officers  recommended  for  promotion  had  served  as  psychological 
examiners  since  September,  1917.  Many  of  them  are  men  highly  trained  for  professional  work 
in  psychology,  and  qualified  to  hold  important  academic  or  other  institutional  positions. 
Furthermore,  the  failure  of  these  promotions  necessitated  the  organizing  of  psychological 
examining  in  several  training  camps  under  the  direction  of  a  first  lieutenant  of  the  Sanitary 
Corps.  This  officer,  since  he  had  to  deal  chiefly  with  officers  of  the  line  and  staff  of  higher  rank 
than  himself,  worked  at  a  very  serious  disadvantage.  It  is  scarcely  possible  to  overemphasize 
the  injustice  to  the  psychological  service  of  this  particular  and  peculiar  disapproval. 

Almost  simultaneously  with  the  inquiry  concerning  the  value  of  psychological  examining 
initiated  by  the  Committee  on  Organization  of  the  General  Staff,  two  other  investigations  of  the 
work  were  undertaken.  The  one  was  made  for  and  under  the  direction  of  the  First  Assistant 
Secretary  of  War,  because  of  numerous  criticisms  which  had  reached  the  Secretary's  office. 
This  investigation  was  conducted  by  Mr.  G.  H.  Dorr.  The  other  investigation  was  conducted 
for  the  General  Staff  by  Col.  E.  J.  Burt. 

These  three  inquiries  into  the  nature  and  value  of  the  psychological  service  were  undoubtedly 
inspired  by  the  same  motive — namely,  the  desire  to  ascertain  whether  psychological  examining 
yielded  sufficiently  important  practical  results  to  justify  its  continuation  and  extension.  Each 
investigation  was  conducted  independently. 

As  has  already  been  indicated,  misleading  inferences  and  resulting  unfavorable  recommen- 
dations on  the  basis  of  the  reports  of  commanding  officers  were  avoided  by  action  of  the  Division 
of  Psychology;  nevertheless  further  development  of  psychological  examining  awaited  the 
reports  of  Col.  Burt  and  Mr.  Dorr.  Both  of  these  investigators  submitted  detailed  statements. 
It  is  unnecessary  to  do  more  than  report  the  nature  of  their  conclusions  and  recommendations. 

Formal  report  was  made  by  Mr.  Dorr  on  June  10,  1918.  After  describing  in  detail  the  pro- 
cedures of  neuro-psychiatric  and  psychological  examining,  this  investigator  made  the  following 
recommendations  concerning  psychological  service: 

The  present  force  of  psychologists  should  be  transferred  from  the  Sanitary  Corps  and  placed  under  the  Committee 
on  Classification  of  Personnel  and  the  psychologic  work  in  the  camps  hereafter  be  conducted  by  them  under  the  direction 
of  the  Camp  and  Division  Personnel  Officers. 

The  machinery  now  set  up  for  the  psychologic  test  of  all  men  inducted  into  the  service  at  the  time  of  their  arrival  at 
camp  should  be  given  a  thorough  trial.  To  give  it  this  trial,  it  is  essential  that  the  results  of  the  psychologic  tests  be  in 
the  hands  of  the  camp  personnel  officer  prior  to  the  time  that  the  men  are  assigned  out  of  the  depot  brigade.  Such  small 
increase  in  personnel  as  may  be  necessary  to  effect  this  should  be  made. 

Personnel  officers  should  be  instructed  to  make  such  use  of  the  psychologic  tests  in  making  assignments  of  inducted 
men  as  appears  to  be  practicable  treating  the  results  of  the  tests  as  a  rough  index  of  mental  alertness,  but  not  of  other 
military  qualities.  They  should  be  instructed  to  report  at  the  end  of  two  months  on  their  observations  as  to  the  value 
to  them  in  their  work  of  the  information  afforded  by  these  tests.  Personnel  officers  should  be  instructed  to  place  in  the 
hands  of  regimental  and  company  commanders  lists  of  the  psychologic  test  rating  of  men  assigned  to  the  divisional  organi- 
zations at  the  time  they  arrive  in  those  organizations. 

General  instructions  should  be  issued  pointing  out  the  object  of  the  psychological  tests  and  of  the  waysin  which 
they  had  been  found  useful  in  certain  of  the  camps,  with  instructions  to  company  commanders  to  report  at  the  end 
of  two  months  their  observations  as  to  the  extent  of  the  use  to  which  they  have  been  able  to  put  the  tests  in  the 
selection  and  training  of  their  men. 

The  ultimate  determination  of  whether  the  group  psychologic  examinations  are  of  sufficient  value  to  warrant 
their  continuance  should  await  the  resirit  of  the  observations  so  obtained,  for  no  matter  what  the  theoretical  merits 
or  demerits  of  the  test  may  be,  the  practical  value  must  depend  on  the  use  to  which  they  are  put. 

The  existing  tests  should  be  revised,  with  the  aid  of  officers  accustomed  to  the  training  and  handling  of  troops. 

Psychologists  attached  to  the  camp  and  division  personnel  offices  should  be  subject  to  call  for  aid  in  solving 
problems  of  discipline,  training  and  morale.  Definite  steps  should  be  taken  looking  to  the  development  of  this 
branch  of  the  psychologic  work. 

The  test  should  not  be  applied  to  officers  except  at  the  request  of  camp  or  divisional  commanders  and  the  chiefs 
of  Staff  Corps. 

Officers  engaged  in  psychologic  work  who  fail  to  establish  effective  working  relations  with  officers  in  command 
of  troops  should  be  promptly  transferred  to  other  lines  of  activity. 


46  MEMOIRS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES.  [vol.xv. 

Col.    Burt,    on    June    18,  1918,    reported   favorably,    as   is    indicated   by    the   following 

quotations: 

The  introduction  of  the  Psychological  Division  is  a  distinct  step  forward  in  military  progress.  Its  work  is  full 
of  possibilities  in  the  direction  of  classifying  personnel,  equitably  distributing  personnel  and  speeding  up  organization 
and  training;  however,  to  be  productive  of  proper  results,  a  firm  controlling  hand  from  the  War  Department  must 
be  kept  upon  it  in  order  that  no  theorist  may  be  permitted  to  ride  it  as  a  hobby  for  the  purpose  of  obtaining  daU  for 
research  work  and  the  future  benefit  of  the  human  race,  and  this  at  the  expense  of  present  military  training. 
Furthermore,  if  it  is  to  be  continued  in  existence,  since  it  is  of  importance,  it  should  be  systematically  backed  up 
by  the  War  Department.  So  far  the  Psychological  Division  has  an  insufficient  personnel;  camp  commanders  have 
not  been  directed  to  give  it  a  place  in  camp  organization;  no  building  has  been  assigned  to  it;  and  in  the  over- 
crowded cantonments  the  psychologist  has  become  a  "pest,"  since  a  building  was  to  be  furnished  him  and  none  has 
been  at  hand;  consequently,  his  examinations  have  been  held  on  sufferance,  here,  there,  and  anywhere.  If  he 
had  had  a  distinctive  niche  in  the  cantonment,  where  groups  of  men  could  have  been  sent  to  him  systematically, 
little  opposition  to  his  division  would  have  been  reported  by  cantonment  commanders.    *    *    * 

It  is  recommended  that  the  Psychological  Division  with  its  examinations  be  continued  with  limitations  and 
curtailments  as  follows: 

Psychological  examinations  to  be  given  to  all  candidates  of  officers'  training  schools  or  camps,  to  such  other 
company  officers  only  as  commanding  officers  of  stations  where  psychologists  are  on  duty  may  designate,  and  to  all 
newly  drafted  or  enlisted  men  at  those  points  where  large  numbers  are  collected  for  muster  into  the  service.    *    *    * 

Rating  results  of  psychological  examinations  to  be  presented  to  the  division  personnel  officer,  and  by  him  to 
organizations  concerned  at  the  earliest  practical  moment,  it  being  borne  in  mind  that  the  greatest  value  of  said 
ratings  depends  upon  the  division  personnel  officers  being  able  to  make  use  of  them  in  the  equitable  distribution  of 
men  to  organizations,  not  after  distributions  have  been  made,  and  by  the  organization  commanders  having  ratings  at 
hand  immediately  upon  the  entrance  of  men  into  the  companies.  This  will  speed  up  organization,  since,  within 
limits,  it  will  enable  commanders  at  once  to  place  alert-minded  men  in  lime  for  special  technical  instruction; 
among  this  class  self-effacing  nonprofessing  men  will  gain  early  recognition;  to  at  once  arrange  for  special  training 
for  the  low  grades  and  to  know  immediately  which  are  the  average  men  for  all  general  instruction. 

That  the  Psychological  Division  be  provided  definitely  with  a  building  either  by  construction  or  assignment 
at  any  station  where  it  is  to  work. 

That  the  Psychological  Division  be  given  a  definite  personnel  sufficient  for  its  needs,  and  in  camps  or  canton- 
ments; that  cantonment  commanders  be  informed  that  additional  permanent  enlisted  personnel  from  the  depot 
brigade,  the  Medical  Corps,  or  camp  sanitary  troops  shall  be  assigned  to  the  Psychological  Division  for  instruction 
in  their  duties  and  for  work  in  psychological  examinations  when  needed;  at  other  times  these  men  to  be  used  on 
other  duties.  So  far  this  division  has  trained  enlisted  men  in  camps  for  use  at  times  of  incoming  new  drafts,  and 
in  some  cases  lost  them  by  requisitioned  transfer  at  the  time  the  drafts  appeared.  Camp  commanders  have  received 
no  instruction  to  furnish  any  personnel  for  use  in  psychological  tests.     *    *     * 

That  definite  orders  be  published  covering  the  above,  since  no  regulations  so  far  have  been  issued  through  The 
Adjutant  General  of  the  Army  to  carry  on  the  psychological  examinations.  The  only  instructions  now  governing 
at  cantonments  are  those  issued  to  camp  surgeons  from  the  Office  of  the  Surgeon  General.  In  a  spirit  of  cooperation 
the  camp  commanders  considered  that  this  expressed  a  desire  of  the  War  Department  to  have  the  examinations 
conducted. 

That  a  scheme  be  devised  by  which  low  mentality  cases  may  be  recommended  for  assignment  to  special  organi- 
zations, not  for  service  as  camp  police  or  necessarih?  labor  organizations,  but  in  special-training  organizations  under 
specially  selected  officers  who  will  understand  their  particular  needs  for  training.  It  is  believed  that  the  majority 
of  such  cases,  although  possibly  requiring  double  time  for  development  over  that  necessary  for  the  average  and 
superior  mental  grades,  still  can  be  brought  forth  into  good  average  soldiers  who  will  stand  the  trench  strain.  The 
undersigned  is  not  convinced  that  the  stupid  man,  with  proper  training  and  leading,  is  necessarily  going  to  give  way 
in  the  trenches.  Through  the  above,  the  superior  and  average  cases  as  determined  by  the  psychologist  to  lie  appor- 
tioned equitably  by  the  division  or  camp  personnel  officer  to  regiments  and  separate  organizations.  The  average 
cases  are  included  with  the  superior  since  practically  the  average  enlisted  man  often  becomes  a  better  soldier  than 
the  quickly-grasping  examination  man,  often  superficial,  who  obtains  a  higher  rating;  particularly  so,  since  no 
psychological  examination  can  measure  characteristics  of  leadership,  loyalty,  judgment,  perseverance,  etc.,  which 
go  to  make  up  the  valuable  soldier's  character.  It  must  be  said,  however,  that,  with  few  exceptions,  the  judgment 
displayed  in  picking  candidates  for  officers  (the  third  and  fourth  training  camps  were  examined  psychologically) 
have  been  confirmed  by  superior  ratings. 

The  grouping  of  superior  and  average  men  in  fighting  organizations,  and  the  below-average  men  to  special 
training  for  replacements  in  fighting  organizations  will  be  a  further  step  in  advance,  as  the  former  should  then  complete 
training  in  much  less  time  than  they  would  if  retarded  by  the  slowest  men.  Herein  lies  an  especial  line  for 
speeding  up  training.  It  will  meet  with  opposition  through  lack  of  intimate  contact  with  the  psychologists,  fear 
of  the  new  and  unknown  project  and  the  idea  that  the  Army  is  to  be  saddled  with  a  hobby.     *     *    * 

It  is  noticeable  that  the  higher  ranking  officers  of  long  military  service  generally  condemn  the  psychological 
test  as  unnecessary  from  the  standpoint  of  an  organization  commander.     This  is  due — 

(a)  To  the  fear  of  having  a  "hobby"  saddled  upon  the  Army. 

(b)  To  a  lack  of  knowledge  of  the  psychological  examination  and  its  uses. 


No.  l.J 


PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  ARMY. 


47 


(c)  To  their  ability  from  practice  to  judge  their  own  men. 

(d)  To  the  fear  that  examinations  will  encroach  upon  training  time. 

The  younger  officers  who  are  now  and  to  be  company  commanders  are  inclined  to  believe  that  the  psychological 
ratings  are  of  value  in  confirming  organization  commanders  in  their  estimates  of  men. 

So  far,  due  to  transferring  personnel  from  and  to  organizations,  lack  of  fixed  personnel  for  the  Psychological 
Division  to  enable  records  to  be  made  quickly,  and  definite  instructions  to  camp  personnel  officers,  no  use  of  value 
has  been  made  of  psychological  ratings  in  organizations,  except  in  depot  brigades.  Camp  personnel  officers  have, 
however,  used  them  to  some  extent  when  called  upon  to  supply  particular  classes  of  men  for  special  services.  The 
application  of  examination  results  is  yet  in  its  infancy.  This  and  continuous  changing  of  drafted  men  to  and  from 
camps  have  prevented  any  systematic  use  of  ratings  by  division  or  camp  personnel  officers. 

The  favorableness  of  Col.  Burt's  report  and  recommendations  were  both  surprising  and 
gratifying  to  the  officers  of  the  Division  of  Psychology,  because  he  had  observed  the  psycho- 
logical service  only  in  camps  in  which  it  was  either  imperfectly  organized  or  unsatisfactory 
because  of  extremely  adverse  conditions. 

The  favorable  results  of  investigation  enabled  the  Division  of  Psychology  to  renew  its 
request  for  additional  officers.     This  was  done  early  in  July  in  the  following  letter: 

July  10,  1918. 
From:  The  Surgeon  General,  U.  S.  Army. 
To:  The  Adjutant  General  of  the  Army. 
Subject:  Officer  personnel,  Sanitary  Corps,  for  psychological  examining. 

1.  At  present,  in  compliance  with  action  taken  by  the  War  Department  January  19,  1918,  the  Surgeon  General's 
Office  is  conducting  psychological  examination  of  drafted  men  in  27  National  Army  and  National  Guard  camps. 
Examinations  should  also  be  in  progress  in  several  additional  camps  and  posts  which  receive  or  train  drafted  men, 
but  the  officer  personnel  allowed  the  Division  of  Psychology  by  the  General  Staff  is  inadequate  to  man  these  additional 
stations. 

2.  The  following  table  indicates  the  existing  distribution  of  officer  personnel  for  this  work  and  the  immediate  need. 
[The  detailed  table  of  the  needs  of  camps  is  omitted.     It  may  be  summarized  as  follows:  Number  of  camps  with 

no  officers  on  duty,  7;  with  1  officer,  6;  with  2  officers,  8;  with  3  officers,  10;  with  4  officers,  3. 

Number  of  camps  requiring  no  officers  or  only  1,  none;  requiring  2  officers,  10;  requiring  3  officers,  5;  requiring  4 
officers,  18;  requiring  5  officers,  1. 

Number  of  camps  without  shortage  of  officers,  5;  with  shortage  of  1  officer,  13;  with  shortage  of  2  officers,  14; 
with  shortage  of  3  officers,  1;  with  shortage  of  4  officers,  1. 

Officers  on  duty  at  camps,  64;  officers  required  at  camps,  112;  shortage  of  officers  at  camps,  48.] 

3.  The  attached  table  of  organization  for  psychological  personnel,  Sanitary  Corps,  indicates,  first,  the  present 
distribution  of  officers  now  on  duty  in  this  service;  second,  the  personnel  imperatively  needed  to  conduct  psychological 
service  effectively  in  accordance  with  the  instructions  of  the  Secretary  of  War. 

4.  The  following  explanatory  statements  supplement  the  data  given  in  the  proposed  table  of  organization.  At  the 
training  school  in  military  psychology,  Fort  Oglethorpe,  Ga.,  four  officers  are  needed  continuously  for  instructional 
and  other  camp  duties. 

The  allowance  for  National  Army  and  National  Guard  camps,  as  indicated  in  paragraph  above,  is  112  men.  At 
present  only  64  are  on  duty  in  these  stations.  This  number  is  adequate  for  approximately  half  the  work  which  should 
be  done.  It  is  clear  that  if  psychological  examining  is  to  be  conducted  it  should  be  provided  with  an  adequate  per- 
sonnel for  complete  and  reasonably  thorough  work  in  every  camp.  The  number  of  officers  needed  varies  with  the 
nature  and  use  of  the  camp — from  two  to  five. 

For  cooperation  with  psychiatric  officers  at  recruit  depots  and  certain  other  stations,  such,  for  example,  as  disci- 
plinary barracks,  Fort  Leavenworth,  either  one  or  two  psychologists  are  needed.  The  allowance  made  in  the  table 
for  these  stations  is  16.  At  least  this  number  is  required  for  immediate  assignment  in  compliance  with  urgent  and 
repeated  requests  from  Col.  Bailey,  Chief  of  the  Division  of  Neurology  and  Psychiatry,  Surgeon  General's  Office. 

Personnel  required  by  Sanitary  Corps,  Medical  Department,  Division  of  Psychology. 


On  duty. 

Required. 

Colo- 
nels. 

Lieu- 
tenant 
colo- 
nels. 

Majors. 

Cap- 
tains. 

First 
lieuten- 
ants. 

Second 
lieuten- 
ants. 

Total. 

Colo- 
nels. 

Lieu- 
tenant 
colo- 
nels. 

Majors. 

Cap- 
tains. 

First 
lieuten- 
ants. 

Second 
lieuten- 
ants. 

Total. 

2 

1 
1 
14 

1 
6 
49 

4 
7 
64 

Medical  officers'   training 

1 

16 

1 
2 

1 
30 

10 

1 

2 

35 

5 

31 

4 

Camps,     National    Army 

1 

112 

Recruit  depots  and  psy- 

2 

1 

1 

4 

1 

1 

Total 

5 

17 

57 

79 

1 

1 

20 

42 

42 

31 

137 

48  MEMOIRS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES.  [vol.xv, 

In  the  Surgeon  General's  Office  for  administration  of  psychological  examining,  development,  revision,  and 
improvement  of  methods,  and  the  analysis  and  reporting  of  results,  and  for  the  conduct  of  such  examining  as  is  requested 
in  and  about  Washington,  five  officers  are  required. 

The  total  of  the  above  items  is  137  officers. 

5.  It  is  desired  that  this  table  of  organization  be  approved  in  order  that  approximately  30  enlisted  men  in  the 
Medical  Corps  who  have  had  two  months'  training  in  military  psychology  at  Fort  Oglethorpe  may  be  appointed  either 
as  second  lieutenants  or  as  first  lieutenants  for  psychological  service,  and  that  approximately  30  psychologists  not  at 
present  in  the  service  may  be  recommended  immediately  for  appointment  in  the  Sanitary  Corps  and  ordered  to  Fort 
Oglethorpe  for  necessary  military  and  psychological  training  in  preparation  for  assignment. 

In  this  connection  it  must  not  be  overlooked  that  training  in  military  psychology  is  absolutely  essential  for  effective 
work  in  examining  stations.  This  office  is  not  willing  to  commission  men  and  assign  them  to  duty  as  examiners  with- 
out the  special  training  given  at  Fort  Oglethorpe.  Since  the  school  of  military  psychology  at  Fort  Oglethorpe  is  the 
only  source  of  officer  supply,  it  is  clearly  important  that  this  office  be  authorized  to  send  additional  psychologists  to 
that  station  at  the  earliest  possible  moment  for  training  in  preparation  for  assignment  to  various  camps  and  posts. 

For  the  Surgeon  General: 

R.  B.  Miller, 
Colonel,  Medical  Corps,  N.  A. 

The  above  request  for  permission  to  increase  the  officer  personnel  of  the  Division  of  Psychol- 
ogy to  a  total  of  137,  which  was  only  five  more  than  the  number  authorized  in  January,  1918, 
by  the  War  Department,  was  disapproved  early  in  August,  in  accordance  with  the  following 
indorsement,  on  recommendation  of  the  Division  of  Operations  of  the  General  Staff  and,  as  later 
appeared,  as  a  result  of  complete  misunderstanding  of  the  nature  and  purpose  of  army  psycho- 
logical examining. 

War  Department,  A.  G.  O.,  August  13,  1918 — To  the  Surgeon  General  of  the  Army. 

1.  The  request  of  the  Surgeon  General  for  additional  Sanitary  Corps  officers  for  psychological  examining  duties  is 
not  favorably  considered. 

2.  It  is  not  considered  necessary  that  every  soldier  passing  through  divisions,  depot  brigades,  replacement  training 
centers,  or  recruit  depots  be  given  a  minute  psychological  examination.  Suspected  or  doubtful  cases  should  be  set 
aside  for  special  examination  and  study. 

3.  A  great  part  of  the  work  connected  with  psychological  examinations  should  be  performed  by  medical  officers 
on  duty  at  depot  brigades,  recruit  depots,  base  hospitals,  etc.,  the  expert  psychologists  being  called  upon  for  advice 
whenever  necessary. 

By  order  of  the  Secretary  of  War: 

C.  S.  McNeill. 

It  is  perfectly  clear  from  this  indorsement  that  the  misleading  reports  of  commanding 
officers  referred  to  above  determined  the  decision  and  the  specific  recommendations. 

Since  the  disapproval  rendered  it  practically  impossible  to  continue  the  service  satisfac- 
torily, and  since  it  also  did  grave  injustice  to  the  personnel  by  rendering  promotion  impossible, 
a  request  for  reconsideration,  accompanied  by  detailed  statement  of  the  principal  facts  concern- 
ing the  service,  was  prepared  for  the  Surgeon  General  by  the  Chief  of  the  Division  of  Psychology 
and  forwarded  to  the  Chief  of  Staff  early  in  September.  This  lengthy  communication  is  repro- 
duced here  in  full  because  it  gives  a  connected  account  of  the  chiefly  significant  incidents  in  the 
provision  of  the  commissioner]  personnel  for  psychological  examining  from  the  beginning  of 
this  work  .to  September,  1918. 

Preparatory  to  the  formulation  of  this  request  for  reconsideration,  the  Chief  of  the  Division 
of  Psychology  conferred  with  various  members  of  the  General  Staff,  and  thus  learned  of  the 
surprising  misunderstandings  and  prejudices  which  had  developed  as  a  result  of  the  misleading 

reports  from  commanding  officers. 

August  31,  1918. 
From:  The  Surgeon  General,  U.  S.  Army. 
To:  The  Chief  of  Staff . 
Subject:  Commissioned  personnel  for  Psychological  Section,  Sanitary  Corps. 

1.  On  July  10, 1918,  the  Surgeon  General's  Office  made  request  through  the  Adjutant  General  for  additional  appoint- 
ments and  grades  in  the  Sanitary  Corps,  Psychological  Section.  This  request  was  disapproved  by  second  indorsement, 
dated  August  13,  1918. 

2.  Almostsimultaneously  with  disapproval  of  request  for  psychological  personnel,  General  Orders,  No. 74,  establishing 
psychological  work  and  definitely  providing  for  its  conduct,  was  approved.  These  two  important  actions  are  so  related 
to  one  another  that  it  is  obviously  impossible  for  the  medical  department  to  comply  with  the  spirit  of  the  general  order. 
It  is  therefore  necessary  to  renew  immediately  request  for  additional  psychological  personnel  and  grades,  basing  estimate 


no.  i.]  PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  ARMY.  49 

of  need  upon  General  Orders,  No.  74,  and  such  existing  special  requests  or  established  relations  of  psychological  work 
as  are  deemed  of  primary  importance. 

3.  The  attention  of  the  staff  is  respectfully  called  to  the  fact  that  by  order  of  the  Chief  of  Staff  psychological  sendee 
has  been  thoroughly  investigated  during  the  past  three  months  and  fully  reported  on;  that  as  a  result  of  this  investi- 
gation and  report  Col.  R.  J.  Burt,  of  the  War  Plans  Division  of  the  General  Staff,  prepared,  by  direction  of  the  Chief  of 
Staff,  general  order  referred  to  above. 

Thus  far,  in  connection  with  provision  of  personnel  for  psychological  work,  the  investigation,  report  and  recommen- 
dations of  Col.  Burt  have  been  ignored. 

Simultaneously  with  investigation  by  the  General  Staff,  the  Assistant  Secretary  of  War  ordered  thorough  inquiry 
concerning  psychological  service.  Such  inquiry  was  made  with  extreme  care  by  Mr.  G.  H.  Dorr,  of  the  Secretary's 
office.  Mr.  Dorr's  report  was  favorable  to  the  continuance  of  psychological  work,  and  especially  called  attention  to  its 
importance  as  supplementing  the  personnel  work  of  the  Army. 

On  recommendation  of  the  War  Plans  Division  a  letter  of  inquiry  concerning  the  value  of  psychological  work,  its 
continuance,  and  the  possibility  of  having  medical  officers  take  charge  of  it  was  sent  to  the  commanding  officer  of  can- 
tonments, camps,  and  posts.  This  letter  elicited  upward  of  90  replies,  most  of  which  had  nothing  to  do  with  psycho- 
logical service,  since  psychological  examiners  had  at  the  time  of  the  inquiry  been  assigned  to  relatively  few  stations. 
Almost  all  of  the  reports  confused  psychological  service  with  neuro-psychiatric  work.  Several  of  the  remainder, 
ostensibly  reporting  on  psychological  service,  were  from  stations  in  which  the  work  had  been  but  recently  established 
and  was  incompletely  organized .  The  conclusion  of  all  officers  of  the  staff  who  considered  these  reports  on  their  merits 
is  that  they  are  entirely  irrelevant  to  the  psychological  sendee,  grossly  misleading,  and  therefore  valueless  as  a  basis  for 
'decision  concerning  the  continuation,  conduct,  or  relations  of  psychological  work. 

The  attention  of  the  staff  is  invited  to  the  fact  that  psychological  service  is  entirely  distinct  and  different  from  neuro- 
psychiatric  service.  The  psychological  work  has  reference  primarily  to  classification  according  to  intelligence  and 
effective  assignment,  whereas  the  neuro-psychiatric  examining  has  to  do  with  mental  diseases  or  pathological  con- 
ditions. 

4.  The  numerous  reports,  memoranda,  and  official  actions  concerning  psychological  service  which  have  accumu- 
lated during  the  past  year  make  it  wholly  clear  (1)  that  there  has  been  much  confusion,  misunderstanding  and  uncer- 
tainty concerning  this  new  work;  (2)  that  whenever  the  staff  has  secured  reliable  information  from  the  department  and 
officers  who  are  responsible  for  the  psychological  service  or  from  line  officers  who  have  had  opportunity  to  judge  of  its 
value,  the  resulting  action  has  been  favorable;  (3)  that  all  unfavorable  decisions  have  been  based  upon  the  mistaken 
idea  that  psychologists  are  attempting  to  do  a  portion  of  the  work  of  the  medical  department  or  that  the  examination 
of  every  individual  is  unnecessary  because  most  men  are  mentally  normal;  (4)  that  although  the  War  Department  has 
ordered  competent  investigators  to  make  exhaustive  inquiry  concerning  the  value  of  psychological  work  to  the  service, 
action  has  sometimes  been  based  upon  fragmentary  or  incorrect  information  instead  of  upon  reliable  and  unprejudiced 
official  reports  of  investigators  and  of  the  Surgeon  General. 

5.  Conferences  with  General  Staff  members  have  indicated  the  extreme  desirability  of  presenting  in  connection 
with  this  request  statements  concerning  the  present  status  of  psychological  service,  its  varieties,  ways  in  which  its 
results  are  being  used,  and  the  judgment  of  various  line  and  medical  officers  on  its  values. 

6.  In  order  that  the  specific  requirements  of  general  orders  No.  74  may  be  complied  with,  it  is  requested  that  in- 
crease in  personnel  as  indicated  below  be  authorized. 

(a)  It  is  ordered  that  the  Psychological  Division  be  established  at  those  points  where  depot  brigades  are  or  will 
be  established.  The  experience  of  the  division  has  proved  that  four  commissioned  officers  are  required  for  the  satis- 
factory organization  and  conduct  of  the  various  kinds  of  psychological  service  demanded  by  depot  brigades  and 
desired  by  personnel  adjutants,  commanding  officers,  and  medical  officers.  Every  cantonment  will  have  a  depot 
brigade.  It  is  estimated  that  during  the  next  few  months  there  will  be  at  least  an  average  of  four  additional  depot 
brigades.  This  statement  is  based  upon  the  best  information  that  the  Division  of  Psychology  has  been  able  to  secure 
from  the  Operations  Division  of  the  General  Staff.  It  is  therefore  indicated  that  for  psychological  staffs  in  20  Depot 
Brigade  camps  80  commissioned  officers  will  be  needed. 

These  officers  will  see  (1)  that  an  intelligence  grade  is  secured  for  every  man  reporting  in  depot  brigade;  (2)  that 
this  grade  is  promptly  entered  by  personnel  adjutant  on  the  qualification  card  and  used  as  relevant  information  in 
connection  with  assignment  of  men  to  duty;  (3)  that  the  mental  grade,  along  with  other  important  personal  data,  is 
promptly  reported  to  the  commanding  officer  to  whom  soldier  is  assigned;  (4)  that  profitable  ways  of  using  information 
concerning  soldier's  mental  rating  shall  be  explained  to  and  discussed  with  commanding  officers;  (5)  that  medical  officers 
shall  be  assisted  as  seems  necessary  or  desirable  in  the  examining  of  men  of  low  grade  mentality  or  those  who  are  difficult 
to  train  or  to  control. 

Psychological  sendee  in  the  depot  brigade  will  be  primarily  personnel  work,  despite  the  fact  that  it  is  conducted 
under  the  supervision  of  the  Surgeon  General.  Its  only  medical  aspect  and  reference  will  be  cooperation  of  psycholo- 
gists with  medical  officers  and  assistance  of  the  latter  in  securing  mental  grades  for  men  who  are  either  feeble-minded 
or  so  nearly  so  that  they  can  not  be  assigned  to  regular  military  organizations. 

It  is  regarded  as  important  by  the  Committee  on  Classification  of  Personnel  in  the  Army  that  intelligence  grade 
be  furnished  by  the  psychological  staff  to  the  personnel  adjutant  for  every  soldier  within  a  few  hours  after  he  reaches 
camp.  Dr.  Walter  D.  Scott,  director  of  the  personnel  committee,  has  prepared  a  statement  of  opinion  which  is 
appended  to  this  letter. 


50  MEMOIRS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES.  [vol.  xv. 

i 

This  task  necessitates  the  group  examining  of  draftees  in  depot  brigade  camps.  All  available  evidence  indicates 
that  intelligence  grade  or  rating  is  of  great  practical  importance. 

The  Division  of  Psychology  urgently  requests  that  in  connection  with  action  on  personnel  for  psychological  work, 
the  personnel  committee  of  the  War  Department  and  the  following  officers,  who  have  made  special  study  of  psycholog- 
ical work,  be  consulted:  Col.  R.  J.  Burt,  Lieut.  Col.  L.  P.  Horsfall,  Lieut.  Col.  Edgar  King,  Dr.  W.  D.  Scott,  and  Mr. 
G.  H.  Dorr. 

Far  more  pertinent  than  would  at  first  seem  is  the  following  paragraph  from  cablegram  received  by  the  War 
Department  from  Gen.  Pershing,  July  17,  1918: 

Prevalence  of  mental  disorders  in  replacement  troops  recently  received  suggests  urgent  importance  of  intensive 
efforts  in  eliminating  mentally  unfit  from  organizations  new  draft  prior  to  departure  from  United  States. 

It  is  doubtful  whether  the  War  Department  can  in  any  other  way  more  importantly  assist  to  lessen  the  difficulty 
felt  by  Gen.  Pershing  than  by  properly  providing  for  initial  psychological  examination  of  every  drafted  man  as  soon 
as  he  enters  camp.  The  examination  is  made  on  men  in  large  groups  and  requires  very  little  time.  It  enables  the 
examiners  to  single  out  for  special  study  and  report  those  cases  which  are  of  doubtful  value  to  the  service  and  which 
perhaps  should  be  used  in  this  country  rather  than  overseas.  In  the  opinion  of  line  officers,  medical  officers  and  psy- 
chologists as  well  as  of  the  civilian  experts  who  have  inquired  into  this  matter  for  the  Secretary  of  War,  it  is  of  prime 
importance  to  use  the  simple  methods  of  mental  rating  which  have  been  devised  to  assist  in  classifying  and  properly 
placing  soldiers  of  the  United  States  Army. 

The  following  description  of  conduct  of  group  psychological  examination  of  drafted  men  as  they  report  in  camp  is 
taken  from  the  report  of  the  chief  psychological  examiner  at  Camp  Dix.  It  at  once  indicates  the  simplicity  and  expe- 
ditiousness  of  the  procedure.  It  is  literally  true  that  no  officer,  so  far  as  this  division  ha3  been  able  to  learn,  who  has 
observed  this  method  of  making  a  mental  survey  of  our  drafted  men  and  of  thus  securing  results  which  are  immediately 
useful  to  personnel  adjutants,  to  company  commanders  and  to  medical  officers,  has  remained  unconvinced  of  the  prac- 
tical importance  of  this  work  for  the  army. 

[A  verbatim  account  of  procedure  in  examining  at  Camp  Dix  is  omitted  here.  The  account  shows  the  dispatch 
with  which  examination  is  conducted  and  its  coordination  with  the  other  procedures  through  which  the  recruit  must 
pass.] 

(b)  "The  psychological  division  shall  be  established  at  Camp  Humphreys,  Virginia.  "  To  comply  with  this  specific 
order  it  is  necessary  to  send  a  staff  of  four  officers  to  this  engineer's  camp.  The  organization  will  be  in  no  wise  different, 
so  far  as  can  be  foreseen,  in  Camp  Humphreys  than  in  any  other  divisional  training  camp. 

The  engineers  of  the  Army  have  been  keenly  and  intelligently  interested  in  psychological  service  and  have  suffi- 
ciently appreciated  its  possibilities  especially  to  request  that  the  work  be  adequately  provided  for  in  their  large 
camp.  In  this  connection  attention  is  directed  to  letter,  which  is  appended,  concerning  psychological  service,  written 
November  22,  1917,  by  Col.  E.  W.  Markham  of  the  303d  Engineers.  This  letter  was  written  very  early  in  the  history 
of  psychological  service  in  the  United  States  Army  and  wnen  methods  were  relatively  crude  and  results  certainly 
much  less  valuable  than  to-day. 

(e)  A  staff  of  five  commissioned  officers  is  required  for  the  proper  conduct  of  service  in  the  Office  of  the  Surgeon 
General.  This  includes,  in  addition  to  an  administrative  officer,  an  assistant  administrative  officer  who  is  also  respon- 
sible for  personnel ;  two  officers  charged  with  the  analysis  of  reports,  revision  of  methods,  and  preparation  of  new  methods ; 
and  an  officer  in  charge  of  materials,  who  serves  in  addition  as  an  examiner,  responding  to  requests  for  psychological 
examinations  in  and  about  Washington. 

During  the  past  year  more  than  5,000  examinations  of  commissioned  officers,  enlisted  men,  and  civilian  personnel 
of  various  corps  of  War  Departments  have  been  made  in  and  about  Washington  by  special  requests  of  commanding 
officers  or  heads  of  departments. 

It  is  further  necessary  to  provide  two  inspectors  who  shall  from  time  to  time  thoroughly  investigate  the  organiza- 
tion and  conduct  of  psychological  service  in  camps  and  other  stations  and  fully  report  thereon  to  the  Division  of  Psy- 
chology, Surgeon  General's  Office.     At  present  two  inspectors  are  on  duty. 

(d)  "A  school  for  military  psychology  shall  be  established  at  Fort  Oglethorpe,  Georgia."  This  portion  of  the 
general  order  has  already  been  complied  with,  since  a  school  was  organized  at  Fort  Oglethorpe  in  February,  1918. 
Since  that  time  more  than  70  officers  of  the  Sanitary  Corps,  psychological  service,  have  been  given  at  least  two  months' 
intensive  training  in  the  school.  There  have  also  been  trained  during  the  same  period  approximately  260  enlisted 
men,  most  of  whom  accepted  voluntary  induction  into  the  army  at  request  of  the  Division  of  Psychology  on  account  of 
their  special  professional  qualifications  and  intellectual  fitness  for  psychological  service.  This  is  probably  by  far 
the  strongest  group  of  enlisted  men  in  the  United  States  Army.  Approximately  25  per  cent  of  the  enlisted  men,  in  the 
judgment  of  the  instructional  staff  and  of  the  commanding  officer  at  Fort  Oglethorpe,  earned  promotion  to  commissioned 
appointments  in  the  Sanitary  Corps  during  their  service  as  students  in  the  School  of  Military  Psychology. 

The  attention  of  the  staff  is  especially  invited  to  the  following  fact:  Practically  all  of  the  enlisted  men  in  the 
psychological  service  are  college  gradviates  who  have  had  in  addition  professional  post-graduate  work  in  psychology 
and  allied  topics.  Is  is  safe  to  say  that  practically  every  one  of  the  nearly  25  per  cent  of  this  personnel  recommended 
for  commission  by  the  authorities  in  Fort  Oglethorpe  would  have  won  commissions  in  an  officers'  training  camp.  Nev- 
ertheless, the  action  of  the  War  Department  in  disapproving  provision  of  adequate  personnel  for  psychological  service 
has  rendered  it  impossible  for  the  medical  department  to  promote  these  men  from  the  enlisted  group.  They  are  to-day, 
as  they  have  been  for  months,  doing  officers'  work  although  they  are  still  enlisted  men.     The  seriousness  of  this  injus- 


No.i.]  PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  ARMY.  51 

tice  can  not  easily  be  overemphasized.  The  Division  of  Psychology  has  done  everything  in  its  power  in  the  first  place 
to  avoid  injustice,  in  the  second  place  to  remedy  it  by  securing  approval  of  additional  appointments. 

For  the  instructional  staff  of  the  School  of  Military  Psychology  at  Fort  Oglethorpe  and  for  the  conduct  of  psycholog- 
ical service  in  Camp  Greenleaf  a  staff  of  five  commissioned  psychologists  is  required. 

(e)  The  Psychological  Division  is  required  by  general  order  to  maintain  at  the  school  for  psychological  personnel. 
Fort  Oglethorpe,  Ga. ,  a  trained  reserve  and  a  reserve  in  training,  composed  of  officers  and  enlisted  men.  In  view  of 
the  varieties  of  psychological  service  now  in  progress,  it  is  believed  that  the  trained  reserve  of  commissioned  officers 
should  number  15  men.  Since  more  than  2G0  enlisted  men  have  already  been  trained  and  are  available  for  duty  in 
the  camps,  it  will  be  unnecessary  to  train  any  considerable  number  of  psychologists  in  the  enlisted  group.  It  is  believed 
to  be  desirable  to  select  so  far  as  possible  for  this  service  limited  service  men  with  proper  educational  and  professional 
qualifications.     This  has  been  done  in  the  past  so  far  as  has  seemed  feasible  and  will  be  continued  in  the  future. 

The  reserve  of  commissioned  officers  in  training  will,  it  is  believed,  be  adequately  provided  for  by  the  regular 
10  per  cent  allowance  granted  in  connection  with  officer  personnel. 

The  above  items  under  letters  (a),  (b),  (c),  (d),  and  (e)  meet  the  specific  personnel  requirements  of  general  order 
No.  74;  but  in  addition  it  is  to  be  noted  that  the  orders  provide  that  commanding  officers  shall  requisition  psychologists 
for  various  lands  of  work  in  accordance  with  need.  It  is  therefore  necessary  to  enumerate,  as  in  the  following  paragraph, 
needs  which  are  existent  and  demands  which,  aside  from  those  listed  in  this  paragraph,  are  urgent. 

7.  It  is  deemed  essential  by  the  Division  of  Psychology,  Office  of  the  Surgeon  General,  that  psychological  personnel 
be  provided  as  follows: 

(a)  The  War  Department  committee  responsible  for  the  organization  and  conduct  of  development  battalions 
desires  that  a  well  trained  and  otherwise  competent  psychologist  be  assigned  in  each  camp  for  service  on  staff  of  develop- 
ment battalion.  It  is  understood  that  he  should  be  responsible  for  morale  work  in  the  battalion  as  well  as  for  specifically 
psychological  work  and  certain  educational  measurements,  and  that  he  should  assist  not  only  with  the  classification 
and  rating  of  men,  but  also  with  their  training.  Since  every  camp  will  have  its  development  battalion,  32  commis- 
sioned officers  will  be  needed. 

On  August  31  a  letter  was  addressed  to  the  Chief  of  Staff  by  the  Surgeon  General  requesting  authorization  for 
appointment  in  the  Sanitary  Corps  of  32  officers  to  be  assigned  to  duty  in  development  battalions  as  officers  responsible 
for  morale,  mental  examining  (aside  from  neuro-psychiatric),  and  measurements  of  soldiers'  response  to  training. 

Evidence  already  accumulated  in  the  form  of  reports  received  by  the  Surgeon  General's  Office,  statements  by  line 
officers  and  officers  of  the  General  Staff,  indicates  convincingly  that  the  assistance  of  psychologists  in  development 
battalions  is  likely  to  prove  of  great  and  increasing  importance  and  to  be  urgently  desired,  requested,  and,  unless  other- 
wise provided  for,  requisitioned  in  accordance  with  General  Orders,  No.  74,  by  commanding  officers  of  these 
organizations. 

It  is  believed  that  the  psychological  officer  assigned  to  development  battalion  service  can  be  adequately  sup- 
ported by  privates  or  noncommissioned  officers  trained  in  military  psychology  and  that  on  the  whole  it  is  likely  to  prove 
desirable  to  use  competent  enlisted  men  for  much  of  this  work  rather  than  commissioned  psychologists.  One  com- 
missioned officer  for  development  work  in  each  camp  will  be  absolutely  essential,  however. 

(6)  At  present  psychological  work  is  organized  and  in  progress  in  27  camps.  It  is  being  organized  in  one  additional 
camp,  and  has  been  requested  by  commanding  officers  in  yet  another  camp.  Several  of  these  camps  will  not  have 
depot  brigades,  and  therefore  would  not  by  order  be  supplied  with  psychologists.  In  view  of  this  situation  the  Division 
of  Psychology  recently  telegraphed  several  camps  which  lack  depot  brigades,  but  in  which  psychological  work  has 
been  organized,  requesting  that  permission  be  granted  to  remove  psychological  officers.  In  every  instance  this  per- 
mission was  refused  on  the  ground  that  the  psychological  work  was  needed  in  the  camp.  The  indications  that  this 
action  is  based  upon  substantial  evidence  of  the  practical  value  of  psychological  work  are  such  that  the  Surgeon  General 's 
Office  does  not  deem  it  either  wise  or  expedient  to  entirely  abandon  psychological  service  in  camps  which  lack  depot 
brigades.  Since,  however,  there  would  be  relatively  little  group  examining  to  be  done  in  these  canps  and  the  work 
would  consist  chiefly  of  the  study  of  individuals  who  proved  inapt,  unruly,  or  otherwise  difficult  to  use  in  the  regular 
organizations,  it  would  be  necessary  to  assign  only  one  psychologist  to  each  of  these  camps  in  addition  to  the  psycholo- 
gist assigned  to  the  staff  of  the  development  battalion. 

It  is  estimated  that  there  will  be  at  least  12  camps  lacking  depot  brigades,  but  in  every  sense  entitled  to  and  almost 
without  exception  desiring  psychological  service.  An  allowance  of  12  commissioned  officers  is  therefore  requested  for 
such  assignment. 

Psychological  service  has  not  been  organized  in  Camps  Beauregard,  MacArthur,  McClellan,  Fremont,  or  in  the  camp 
of  limited  service  men  at  Syracuse.  MacArthur  has  especially  requested  the  assignment  of  a  psychologist,  but  lack  of 
officer  personnel  has  rendered  it  impracticable  to  attempt  to  comply  with  this  request. 

(c)  The  Division  of  Military  Aeronautics  has  recently  requested  the  General  Staff  to  authorize  the  application  of 
psychological  methods  to  its  enlisted  personnel.  This  request  was  indorsed  by  the  Surgeon  General  with  the  recom- 
mendation that  the  existing  organization  and  personnel  for  psychological  service,  medical  department,  should  so  far 
as  possible  be  used  for  conduct  of  work  in  the  Division  of  Military  Aeronautics. 

The  Division  of  Neurology  and  Psychiatry  of  the  Surgeon  General's  Office  has  repeatedly  and  insistently  requested 
assignment  of  a  psychological  examiner  to  each  neuro-psychiatric  board.  It  is  estimated  by  the  chief  of  this  division 
of  the  Surgeon  General's  Office  that  at  least  20  psychologists  should  be  available  for  such  service.  The  Division 
of  Psychology  has  never  been  able  to  assign  men  in  compliance  with  these  requests  because  of  the  shortage  of 


52  MEMOIRS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES.  [vol.  xv, 

officer  personnel.  This  estimated  need  is  not  included  in  the  following  tables,  because  it  is  deemed  desirable  that  the 
Division  of  Neuropsychiatry  should  make  special  request  direct  to  the  Surgeon  General  and  that  if  the  Surgeon  General 
approve  the  assignment  of  psychologists  to  assist  neuro-psychiatric  boards  the  General  Staff  should  be  asked  to  author- 
ize the  necessary  increase  m  psychological  personnel. 

Further,  the  Division  of  Physical  Reconstruction  has  requested  the  assignment  of  psychological  officers,  one  to 
be  stationed  in  each  special  reconstructional  hospital. 

8.  The  following  table  indicates  the  distribution  with  respect  to  assignments  and  grades  of  the  77  officers  of  the 
Sanitary  Corps  authorized  by  the  General  Staff  for  psychological  service. 

[Two  tables,  which  were  included  in  the  memorandum,  are  omitted  here.  They  were  similar  to  the  table  furnished 
The  Adjutant  General — see  p.  47,  but  were  more  detailed.  They  showed  the  number  of  officers  on  duty — majors,  3; 
captains,  16;  first  lieutenants.  56;  total,  75;  and  the  number  of  officers  required — lieutenant  colonel,  1;  majors,  25; 
captains,  46,  first  lieutenants,  43;  second  lieutenants,  40;  total,  155.] 

9.  The  following  information  concerning  the  history  and  status  of  personnel  in  the  psychological  service  is  extsemely 
important  in  connection  with  general  staff  action  on  present  request: 

When  the  medical  department  originally,  in  September.  1917,  undertook  to  make  a  thorough  trial  of  proposed 
methods  of  mental  examining  in  order  to  determine  their  value  to  the  military  service.  16  competent  psychologists 
were  commissioned  as  first  lieutenants  in  the  Sanitary  Corps.  This  grade  was  given  irrespective  of  age,  professional 
status,  previous  military  experience  or  prospective  value  to  the  service.  Some  of  the  men  should  have  been  majors, 
others  captains  and  a  few  second  lieutenants,  but  the  grade  of  first  lieutenant  was  the  only  one  made  available. 

At  the  same  time,  by  authorization  of  the  Secretary  of  War,  24  men  were  given  civil  appointment  as  psychological 
examiners.  This  was  done  because  the  Surgeon  General  deemed  it  undesirable  to  commission  many  psychologists 
prior  to  demonstration  of  the  military  value  of  proposed  methods.  Most  of  these  civil  appointees  were  men  of  pro- 
fessional qualifications  similar  to  the  commissioned  officers,  and  if  appointed  in  the  Sanitary  Corps  they  would  have 
been  entitled  to  ranks  varying  from  second  lieutenant  to  major. 

These  40  psychological  appointees,  16  in  the  Sanitary  Corps  and  24  under  civil  appointment,  have  served  the 
Army  faithfully  and  under  extremely  difficult  conditions,  working  long  hours  and  often  7  days  in  the  week,  with  almost 
no  reward,  for  the  War  Department's  disapproval  of  requests  for  additional  grades  and  appointments  has,  with  a  very 
few  exceptions,  prevented  promotions. 

In  view  of  these  circumstances  it  seems  unreasonable  to  expect  these  original  appointees  and  the  35  psychologists 
who  were  appointed  in  the  Sanitary  Corps  during  the  first  three  months  of  the  present  year  to  continue  to  serve  efficiently 
and  contentedly.  It  is  clearly  the  duty  of  the  War  Department  either  to  provide  for  their  normal  promotion,  as  in  the 
case  of  any  other  military  group,  or.to  order  psychological  service  discontinued  and  request  that  these  officers  either 
choose  other  service  or  resign. 

Approximately  half  of  the  officers  now  in  the  psychological  service  have  already  been  recommended  by  the  Divi- 
sion of  Psychology  for  promotion.  Many  of  these  recommendations  were  made  early  in  April,  1918,  but  it  has  thus  far 
been  impossible  for  the  division  to  secure  the  necessary  authorization  for  favorable  action. 

The  situation  with  respect  to  enlisted  psychologists  is  even  less  satisfactory.  When  the  School  for  Military  Psychol- 
ogy was  organized  it  was  with  the  definite  understanding  that  132  psychologists  could  be  commissioned  in  the  Sanitary 
Corps  in  accordance  with  authorization  of  the  Secretary  of  War  dated  January  19,  1918.  A  copy  of  this  authorization, 
which  was  written  as  fifth  indorsement  to  recommendation  from  the  Surgeon  General  for  extension  of  psychological 
work,  together  with  plan  of  the  medical  department  for  securing  necessary  psychological  personnel,  is  attached  to  this 
letter.  At  the  time  of  the  organization  of  the  school,  February,  1918,  psychologists  were  being  commissioned  as  rapidly 
as  possible  but  owing  to  professional  obligations  there  were  many  delays  in  securing  competent  men,  consequently 
the  entire  number  of  132  was  not  secured  at  once,  but  arrangements  were  made  by  which  groups  of  either  25  or  50  com- 
missioned or  enlisted  men  could  be  sent  to  the  School  for  Military  Psychology  at  Fort  Oglethorpe.  It  was  definitely 
understood  by  the  Division  of  Psychology  that  these  men  could  and  should  be  recommended  for  promotion  to  non- 
commissioned or  commissioned  appointments  according  to  their  performance  in  the  training  school.  No  definite 
promises  were  made  to  individuals,  but  the  understanding  between  the  Surgeon  General's  Office  and  the  students 
involved  was  perfectly  definite  and  is  clearly  justified  by  the  assurances  which  had  been  received  from  the  War 
Department. 

Between  February  and  July,  1918,  approximately  250  carefully  selected  men  accepted  voluntary  induction  for 
training  in  military  psychology.  Thus  far  approximately  50  of  these  men  have  been  highly  recommended  for  promotion 
to  commissioned  appointment.  They  are  among  the  ablest  young  men  in  the  Army.  They  came  into  the  service  by 
special  invitation  and  because  of  special  qualifications  for  a  kind  of  work  which  the  Secretary  of  War  had  ordered. 
They  have  been  cut  off  from  opportunities  for  promotion  and  used  as  privates  or  noncommissioned  officers  for  work  which 
should  be  done  by  commissioned  officers.  It  is  so  obviously  unfair  to  these  young  men  to  have  them  continue  in  their 
present  work  without  promotion  that  the  War  Department  Bnould  immediately  authorize  additional  appointments 
in  the  Sanitary  Corps,  psychological  service. 

A  further  pertinent  consideration  with  respect  to  psychological  appointments  is  this:  suitable  candidates  for 
commissioned  appointments  are  available  in  the  psychological  service.  They  are  highly  trained  and  it  is  merely  a 
case  of  promoting  them  according  to  value  to  the  service  and  merits.  It  is  believed  that  this  is  a  much  more  pertinent 
argument  for  the  creation  of  additional  appointments  for  psychological  work  than  any  other  except  the  urgent  need 
and  demand  by  line  officers  for  various  kinds  of  psychological  service. 


No.i.]  PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  ARMY.  53 

Assurance  may  also  be  given  to  the  War  Department  that  the  men  in  the  psychological  service,  both  enlisted  and 
commissioned,  are  of  such  native  ability,  education,  and  military  experience  thatwith  few  exceptions  they  can  be  used 
effectively  in  other  services  should  the  need  for  them  in  the  psychological  service  disappear.  The  majority  of  them 
would  make  efficient  personnel  adjutants,  others  would  render  admirable  service  as  hospital  adjutants,  many  are 
fitted  and  eager  for  line  service.  Recently  one  commissioned  psychologist  has  been  transferred  to  the  Tank  Corps  and 
is  serving  as  personnel  officer;  a  second  was  recently  requested  by  his  commanding  officer  to  accept  transfer  to  the 
infantry  and  promotion  to  the  rank  of  major  in  order  that  he  might  be  placed  in  command  of  the  development  battalion 
in  his  camp.    There  are  several  officers  in  the  psychological  service  equally  well  fitted  for  such  military  responsibility. 

The  Army  need  have  no  misgivings  about  the  military  usefulness  of  the  350  men  who  have  been  recruited  and 
trained  for  psychological  service,  for,  in  the  first  place,  they  have  been  carefully  selected  on  the  basis  of  personal 
quality,  mental  ability,  and  professional  training;  in  the  second  place,  they  have  been  given  from  two  to  four  months 
of  intensive  military  training  and  training  in  military  psychology  at  Fort  Oglethorpe. 

10.  The  psychological  service  has  now  developed  to  an  important  extent  in  several  different  directions.  These 
are  merely  enumerated  below,  but  the  accompanying  memoranda  more  or  less  adequately  illustrate  the  significance: 

(a)  Psychological  examining  of  drafted  men  by  groups  in  order  that  an  intelligence  rating  or  mental  grade  may  be 
assigned  every  soldier  for  use  by  personnel  adjutant,  company  commander,  or  such  other  officer  as  has  need  of  it  (see 
W.  D.  Scott  letter  attached). 

(6)  Classification  of  soldiers  on  the  basis  of  mental  ability  so  that  promising  material  for  noncommissioned  officers 
may  promptly  be  selected  and  that  satisfactory  candidates  for  officers'  training  camps  may  be  chosen.  The  evidences 
of  the  selectional  value  of  mental  grades  are  now  convincing. 

(c)  Service  in  development  battalions  in  connection  with  the  rating  of  men,  measurement  of  their  response  to  train- 
ing, and  development  and  control  of  morale. 

(d)  Assistance  to  judge  advocate  in  connection  with  court-martial  cases  in  order  that  the  courts  may  be  provided 
with  adequate  and  reliable  information  concerning  the  mentality  of  a  man  before  sentence  is  passed.  This  is  particularly 
important  in  connection  with  men  of  low-grade  mentality  and  conscientious  objectors.  Grave  injustices  are  frequently 
done  by  sentencing  men  irrespective  of  their  degree  of  intelligence  and  responsibility.  In  various  camps  the  judge 
advocates  are  at  present  availing  themselves  of  the  assistance  of  psychologists. 

(c)  Psychologists  are  prepared  to  assist  with  the  development  and  control  of  morale  in  training  camps.  Not  all 
are  especially  qualified  for  this  kind  of  work,  but  they  should  on  the  whole  be  able  to  understand  more  fully  than  any 
other  single  group  of  officers  the  mental  factors  underlying  morale  and  to  deal  effectively  with  many  of  the  serious 
problems  arising  in  connection  with  unsatisfactory  camp  conditions.  Germany  is  using  psychologists  most  effectively 
in  this  field. 

(/)  Assistance  to  neuro-psychiatric  or  other  medical  officers  in  the  examination  of  cases  of  suspected  imbecility, 
moronity,  or  affective  deficiency  has  been  rendered  by  psychologists  in  many  camps  during  the  past  six  months.  This 
service  is  of  such  nature  that  the  neuro-psychiatrists  are  eager  to  have  it  continued.  It  is  in  no  sense  a  duplication  of 
their  work. 

The  methods  of  psychological  work  especially  developed  for  the  benefit  of  the  United  States  Army  have  aroused 
interest  in  France  and  England,  and  undoubtedly  in  Germany  also.  England,  chiefly  because  of  American  initiative, 
has  recalled  her  chief  psychologists  from  other  arms  of  the  military  service  and  has  initiated  various  lines  of  psychological 
work. 

Up  to  the  present  moment  approximately  1,100,000  men  have  been  given  mental  examination  in  the  United  States 
Army.  Some  41,000  of  these  have  been  examined  individually.  The  percentage  of  soldiers  found  to  be  mentally 
unsatisfactory,  aside  from  the  cases  of  pathological  mental  condition  dealt  with  by  neuro-psychiatrists,  is  less  than  one- 
half  of  1  per  cent,  and  under  existing  conditions  not  more  than  half  of  this  number  need  be  discharged  from  the  Army, 
since  development  battalions  and  labor  organizations  provide  for  the  special  study,  assignment,  and  use  of  men  who 
would  be  serious  nuisances  if  placed  in  organizations  for  regular  military  training. 

No  single  criticism  or  complaint  concerning  psychological  work  has  been  more  frequent  than  the  charge  that  it 
results  in  the  rejection  or  discharge  of  too  many  soldiers.  This  complaint  is  entirely  without  foundation.  It  arises  from 
the  confusion  of  psychological  work  with  neuro-psychiatric  work.  Psychologists  discharge  no  one.  They  merely 
report  the  mental  grade  of  a  soldier  to  designated  officers,  chief  of  whom  are  the  personnel  adjutant,  the  soldier's  com- 
manding officer,  and  the  medical  officer.  As  a  matter  of  fact  relatively  few  men,  certainly  well  under  one-quarter 
of  1  per  cent  have  been  rejected  or  discharged  because  of,  or  partly  on  account  of,  report  of  psychological  examination. 

There  is  persistent  misunderstanding  of  the  primary  purpose  of  psychological  examining,  which  is  the  proper 
placement  of  every  soldier  in  the  service,  and  not  his  rejection  from  the  service.  The  main  interest  of  psychological 
officers  is  in  increasing  the  human  efficiency  of  the  Army  and  in  finding  the  proper  place  for  every  soldier  who  has 
sufficient  intelligence  to  labor  effectively. 

For  the  Surgeon  General: 

S.  J.  Morris, 
Lieutenant  Colonel,  Medical  Corps. 


54 


MEMOIRS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES. 


[Vol.  XV, 


Under  date  of  October  1,  1918,  the  Surgeon  General  was  notified  by  the  following  indorse- 
ment of  favorable  action  concerning  request  for  additional  psychological  personnel: 

[Second  indorsement.) 
War  Dept.,  A.  G.  O.,  October  1,  1918.— To  the  Surgeon  Genera!. 

1.  Under  authority  conferred  by  the  act  of  Congress,  "Authorizing  the  President  to  increase  temporarily  the 
military  establishment  of  the  United  States,"  approved  May  18,  1917,  and  July  9,  1918  (public  193),  the  President 
directs  that,  for  the  period  of  the  existing  emergency,  the  medical  department.  Sanitary  Corps,  be  increased  by  1  lieu- 
tenant colonel,  14  majors.  14  captains,  28  second  lieutenants.  The  officers  hereby  authorized  will  be  obtained  as 
provided  in  the  third  paragraph  of  section  1  and  by  section  9  of  the  act  of  May  18,  1917. 

2.  The  number  of  first  lieutenants  will  be  decreased  from  57  to  31;  this  decrease  to  be  accomplished  as  follows: 
no  vacancies  in  the  grade  of  first  lieutenant  shall  be  filled  until  the  number  has  been  decreased,  by  promotion  or  other- 
wise, below  31.  No  vacancies  thus  created  above  the  grade  of  first  lieutenant  shall  be  filled,  except  by  promotion, 
until  the  number  of  first  lieutenants  has  been  reduced  to  31. 

3.  The  authorization  above  is  for  the  purpose  of  providing  personnel  for  the  Psychology  Division  of  the  Sanitary 
Corps,  medical  department,  as  set  forth  in  the  accompanying  table,  marked  "G  1." 

Bv  order  of  the  Secretary  of  War: 

H.  B.  Crea, 

Adjutant  General. 

Table  G  1. — Personnel  required  by  Sanitary  Corps,  medical  department,  Division  of  Psychology. 


Authorized  May  16 

,  1918. 

Recommended  by  Surgeon 
General,  July  9,  1918. 

Total  recommended  October, 
1918. 

V) 

to 

m 

to 

m 

n 

a 

03 

03 

3 

3 

to 

a 

w 

fl 

a 

V 

a 

tn 

Ej 

•73 

a 

05 

3 

■O 

a 

3 

o 

'3* 

P. 

a 
o 
o 

03 
O 

c 

o 

a 

O 

'5* 

P. 

to 

a 

O 

eg 

o 

c 
o 

a 

O 
0? 

p. 

1o 

a 
o 
o 

03 

O 

U 

i-l 

>J 

o 

i* 

CO 

H 

U 

3 

a 

U 

E 

tjl 

H 

U 

5 

a 

o 

pt. 

CG 

t-> 

4 

1 

1 

1 

i 

1 

? 

4 

i 

3 

4 

14 

53 

67 

16 

1 

30 

in 

35 

5 

31 

112 
16 

14 

27 

31 

28 

inn 

2 

1 

1 

4 

1 

1 

2 

i 

5 

1 

2 

1 

4 

Total 

3 

16 

58 

77 

1 

1 

20 

42 

42 

31 

137 

1 

17 

3 
14 

31 

17 

14 

31 

28 
28" 

ins 

57 
-26 

77 

1 

31 

Thus  ended  happily  the  persistent  attempts  of  the  Division  of  Psychology  to  secure  authori- 
zation for  the  essential  officer  personnel.  The  official  communications  tell  the  story  of  initial 
approval,  subsequent  disapprovals,  and,  finally,  return  to  favorable  action;  but  they  do  not 
adequately  indicate  the  bases  for  this  surprising  trend  of  events.  Intimate  knowledge  of 
the  situation  enables  the  chief  of  the  Division  of  Psychology  to  state  that  there  was  seldom, 
if  ever,  anything  which  could  be  characterized  as  personal.  The  service  suffered  from  its 
newness,  its  peculiar  sort  of  novelty,  from  persistent  confusion  with  neuropsychiatric  work, 
from  other  natural  misunderstandings,  from  reasonable  scepticism  concerning  practical  value, 
and,  finally,  from  the  investigation  prematurely  made  by  the  committee  on  organization. 

Section  4. — General  Orders  covering  psychological  examining. 

It  has  already  been  pointed  out  on  page  29  that  general  orders  concerning  psychological 
examining  were  not  issued  by  the  War  Department  during  the  important  period  of  extension 
of  examining.  Indeed,  not  until  August  14,  1918,  were  essential  directions  placed  in  the  hands 
of  commanding  officers  by  the  War  Department. 

The  orders  finally  issued  were  modified  from  those  prepared  by  Col.  Burt  as  a  result  of  his 

thorough  investigation  of  psychological  examining: 

War  Department, 
Washington,  Augvst  14.  191ft. 
General  Orders,  No.  74. 

VII.  The  Psychological  Division  shall  be  primarily  established  in  the  office  of  the  Surgeon  General,  the  School 
for  Military  Psychology,  Fort  Oglethorpe,  Ga.,  at  those  points  where  depot  brigades  are  or  will  be  established,  and  at 
Camp  Humphreys,  Va.     In  addition  the  Surgeon  General  shall  maintain  at  the  school  of  training  for  psychological 


no.  i.]  PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  ARMY.  55 

personnel,  Fort  Oglethorpe,  Ga.,  a  reserve,  trained  and  in  training,  composed  of  officers  and  enlisted  men.  Such 
reserve  will  be  called  upon  to  furnish,  under  direction  from  the  Chief  of  Staff,  psychological  personnel,  either  perma- 
nently or  temporarily,  for  such  other  points  and  at  such  times  as  necessity  for  the  same  may  arise. 

Chiefs  of  staff  corps,  department  commanders,  and  commanding  officers  of  posts  or  stations  may  make  official 
requests  for  permanent  or  temporary  psychological  personnel  for  detail  at  schools,  camps,  or  stations  as  necessity 
arises. 

Psychological  examinations  of  line  officers  will  be  made  only  on  the  recommendations  of  commanding  officers, 
and  of  officers  of  staff  corps,  upon  request  of  the  respective  chiefs  of  staff  corps. 

Psychological  examinations  for  all  candidates  for  officers'  training  camps  will  be  held  where  sufficient  psycho- 
logical personnel  is  present  and  where  time  may  permit  the  results  of  such  examinations  to  be  placed  in  the  hands  of 
organization  commanders  before  final  recommendations  on  candidates  are  made.  These  results  will  be  used  only  as 
assisting  guides  in  making  selections.  No  particular  psychological  rating  shall  be  declared  as  the  minimum  to  be 
attained  by  any  such  candidates.  Directors  of  training  camps  may  request  that  psychological  examinations  of  stu- 
dents be  held  where  ratings  may  be  deemed  of  value. 

Such  recruits  arriving  at  depot  brigades  or  other  points  where  Psychological  Division  is  established  as  may,  in 
the  opinion  of  the  commanding  officer,  require  such  examination,  will  be  examined  psychologically  and  during  their 
two  weeks'  period  of  quarantine  only.  Subsequent  to  that  period  such  examination  will  be  held  for  groups  when 
necessary,  and  individually,  by  direction  of  commanding  officers  as  they  shall  nominate.  Organization  com- 
manders and  camp  or  post  surgeons  where  psychological  examiners  may  be  present  will  recommend  when  necessary 
that  special  examinations  of  particular  cases  be  held. 

Under  direction  of  cantonment  commanders  any  special  branch  or  office  of  the  cantonment  organization  may 
request  the  assistance  of  a  psychological  examiner  where  it  is  deemed  his  service  would  be  of  value.  Commanding 
officers  of  development  battalions  will  requisition  for  these  examiners  whenever  necessary. 

Commanding  officers  other  than  cantonment  commanders  may  make  requisition  for  psychological  examiners 
from  time  to  time  as  necessity  arises. 

Camp  or  post  surgeons  under  whose  jurisdiction  the  psychological  personnel  shall  fall  will  be  responsible  to  their 
respective  commanding  officers  that  the  examinations  are  properly  held;  that  psychological  examiners  reduce  the 
time  occupied  in  individual  examinations  to  the  lowest  practicable  minimum,  in  the  majority  of  cases,  by  question- 
ing and  by  personal  observation  solely,  particularly  where  recommendation  for  transfer  to  a  development  battalion 
is  the  obvious  solution,  and  that  they  resort  to  detailed  standard  psychological  tests  only  in  the  more  doubtful  cases; 
that  the  reports  of  examinations  be  promptly  made;  that  judicious  coordination  be  established  between  the  psycho- 
logical and  psychiatric  divisions  to  the  end  that  the  facilities  of  both  may  be  used  to  obtain  the  most  prompt  action 
on  low  mentality  cases. 

Psychological  reports  where  ratings  only  are  given  will  be  forwarded  to  personnel  adjutants  for  their  use  in  connec- 
tion with  other  qualification  card  information  in  allotting  recruits  to  organizations  and  further  by  such  adjutant  to  proper 
organization  commanders  for  the  information  of  the  latter.  If  this  be  without  the  depot  brigade  the  ratings  should  ac- 
company the  men  concerned  wherever  practicable.  The  information  thus  conveyed  will  be  considered  as  an  assisting 
and  accelerating  guide  to  commanders  in  assigning  their  men  for  particular  duties  and  in  training.  Attention  is  here 
invited  to  the  fact  that  it  may  be  possible  for  regimental  commanders  to  perfect  and' produce  well-balanced  organizations 
by  judicious  use  of  psychological  ratings,  at  time  of  incoming  large  drafts  and  in  connection  with  the  assignment  of  men 
to  companies;  and  possibly  by  company  commanders,  by  special  grouping  with  the  idea  of  speeding  up  training. 

Where,  in  addition  to  ratings,  psychological  reports  recommend  discharge,  individual  examination  or  assignment  to 
development  battalions,  camp  or  post  surgeons,  under  direction  of  commanding  officers,  will  provide  for  special  examina- 
tions of  the  individuals  so  reported,  before  disability  boards.  Such  disability  boards  shall  be  composed  of  medical 
officers  not  all  of  whom  shall  be  of  any  one  class  of  specialists,  as  for  example,  psychiatrists,  and  in  addition  wherever 
practicable,  of  one  experienced  line  officer. 

Psychological  reports  shall  be  placed  in  the  hands  of  organization  commanders  at  the  earliest  practicable  date,  in 
order  that  their  ratings  may  be  made  of  value. 

In  special  cases,  where  time  does  not  permit  that  complete  individual  examinations  be  made,  psychological  exam- 
iners will  make  for  the  information  of  the  surgeon  and  personnel  officer,  some  such  provisional  qualification  card  report 
as  "illiterate"'  or  otherwise,  as  the  case  may  be. 

Under  direction  of  commanding  officers,  the  psychological  personnel  present  will  be  supplemented  when  necessary 
by  enlisted  members  of  the  Medical  or  Sanitary  Corps,  who  shall  remain  on  psychological  duty  only  in  the  rush  of 
examination  of  large  groups  and  while  making  up  rush  reports  on  the  same. 

Commanding  officers  shall  provide  quarters  for  the  psychological  division  while  bearing  in  mind  that  their  principal 
need  is  for  one  or  two  large  rooms  to  hold  groups  of  approximately  100  men  during  examinations.  If  need  be  the  com- 
manding officers  of  base  or  other  hospitals  will  be  called  upon  for  temporary  space,  or  directors  of  the  Y.  M.  C.  A.'s 
temporarily,  where  no  other  space  is  available.  Minor  office  space  and  individual  examination  rooms  will  be  furnished 
in  available  situations.  Centralization  of  the  psychological  division  in  post  or  cantonment  is  desirable  but  not  obliga- 
tory.    If  necessary,  tentage  will  be  used. 

When  deemed  for  the  benefit  of  the  service  at  large,  the  Surgeon  General  may  request  that  commanding  officers  of 
stations  where  psychological  examinations  have  been  held,  be  called  upon  for  recommendation  toward  the  improvement 
of  the  psychological  division  and  its  service. 


56  MEMOIRS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES.  [vol.xv. 

The  Surgeon  General  may  transmit  direct  to  camp  or  post  surgeons  such  technical  instructions  covering  the  psy- 
chological division  as  he  may  desire.  All  such  communications  will  be  laid  before  the  commanding  officers  concerned 
for  their  information. 

None  of  the  above  instructions  shall  apply  to  the  Division  of  Military  Aeronautics. 

[702,  A.G.O.] 

By  order  of  the  Secretary  of  War: 

Peyton  C.  March, 
Official:  General,  Chief  of  Staff. 

H.  P.  McCain, 

The  Adjutant  General. 

This  order  was  unsatisfactory  to  the  Division  of  Psychology  chiefly  because  it  made  the 
psychological  examining  of  enlisted  men  optional  with  commanding  officers.  Fortunately  for 
the  service  psychological  staffs  were  so  well  organized  in  almost  all  camps  and  the  service  so  well 
established  on  its  merits  when  this  order  arrived  that  in  only  two  or  three  instances  was  there  an 
attempt  to  restrict  the  examining  of  enlisted  men.  It  nevertheless  seemed  desirable,  if  the  serv- 
ice were  to  be  continued  on  a  satisfactory  basis  throughout  the  Army,  that  the  order  should  be 
thoroughly  revised  in  the  light  of  the  information  available  in  the  Office  of  the  Surgeon  General 
and  in  accordance  with  demonstrations  of  value.  Consequently  on  November  4,  1918,  a  request 
for  a  revised  order  was  presented  by  the  Division  of  Psychology  to  the  Surgeon  General.  This 
request  was  never  forwarded  to  the  Adjutant  General  of  the  Army  because  of  the  signing  of  the 
armistice. 

The  proposed  revision  of  the  general  order  is  presented  in  full  hi  order  to  exhibit  the  rela- 
tions, conditions,  and  instructions  which  the  staff  of  the  Division  of  Psychology  deemed  essential 

for  the  efficiency  of  the  service : 

November  4,  1918. 
Prom:  The  Surgeon  General,  U.  S.  Army. 
To:  The  Chief  of  Staff. 
Subject:  Revision  of  General  Orders,  No.  74,  War  Department,  1918. 

1.  It  is  requested  that  section  VII,  General  Orders,  No.  74,  War  Department,  1918,  be  rescinded,  and  the  following 
substituted  therefor: 

"  1.  A  Division  of  Psychology  shall  be  established  in  the  Office  of  the  Surgeon  General. 

"  2.  A  school  for  military  psychology  shall  be  established  at  Camp  Greenleaf,  Ga. ,  to  supply  adequately  trained  per- 
sonnel for  the  administration  of  mental  tests  in  the  Army.  In  this  school  the  Surgeon  General  shall  maintain  a  reserve, 
trained  and  in  training,  composed  of  officers  and  enlisted  men.  Such  reserve  will  be  called  upon  to  furnish,  under  the 
direction  of  the  Chief  of  Staff,  psychological  personnel,  either  permanently  or  temporarily,  for  such  points  and  at  such 
times  as  need  may  dictate. 

"3.  The  arm  j' mental  tests  will  be  administered  in  all  cantonments,  camps,  or  other  pointsatwhich  drafted  men  are 
received,  physically  examined,  and  either  temporarily  or  permanently  assigned  to  organizations.  Psychological  per- 
sonnel will  be  assigned  to  other  army  training  stations  or  posts  as  and  when  needed.  Chiefs  of  staff  corps,  department 
commanders,  and  commanding  officers  of  posts  or  stations  may  make  official  request  for  permanent  or  temporary  assign- 
ment of  psychological  personnel  as  seems  necessary. 

Under  direction  of  cantonment  or  camp  commanders,  any  special  branch  or  office  of  the  cantonment  or  camp  may 
request  the  assistance  of  a  psychological  examiner  where  it  is  deemed  his  services  will  be  of  value.  Commanding  offi- 
cers of  development  battalions  will  requisition  for  such  examiners  as  necessary. 

"4.  All  officers  below  the  rank  of  field  officer  will  be  given  the  army  psychological  test  for  officers,  and  the  mental 
rating  thus  obtained  will  be  entered  on  the  officer's  qualification  card. 

All  candidates  for  officers'  training  camps  will  be  given  the  army  mental  tests  and  the  ratings  thus  obtained  will  be 
placed  in  the  hands  of  organization  commanders  before  final  recommendation  of  candidate  has  been  made.  The  mental 
rating  will  be  used  as  an  assisting  guide  in  selection. 

All  recruits  arriving  at  depot  brigades  or  other  receiving  stations  at  which  physical  examinations  are  made,  will  be 
given  the  army  mental  tests.  This  will  be  done  as  promptly  as  feasible  after  a  man  has  arrived,  and  in  any  event  prior  to 
physical  examination  and  accomplishment  of  qualification  card  by  personnel  officer. 

"  5.  A  mental  rating  for  every  recruit  shall  be  reported  within  24  hours  of  examination  to  the  personnel  adjutant. 
This  rating  shall  be  entered  promptly  on  qualification  card  and  service  record,  and  shall  be  made  permanently  avail- 
able to  personnel  adjutant  and  commanding  officers. 

All  recruits  who  receive  a  mental  rating  below  D  as  a  result  of  group  army  mental  tests,  shall  promptly  be  given 
individual  army  mental  examination  by  psychological  officers.  The  mental  rating  obtained  in  such  individual  exam- 
ination shall  be  reported  promptly  to  the  personnel  adjutant. 

All  recruits  rated  in  individual  examination  below  D,  and  in  addition  all  for  whom  special  neuro-psychiatric 
examination  is  indicated  as  desirable,  shall  be  immediately  reported,  either  directly  or  through  the  personnel  adjutant, 
to  the  neuro-psychiatrist. 


no.  i.]  PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  ARMY.  57 

"6.  The  commanding  officer  of  cantonment,  camp,  post,  or  other  station  in  which  mental  teats  are  administered, 
shall  see  that  suitable  building  or  necessary  space  for  proper  conduct  of  this  work  is  provided.  At  those  points  where 
depot  brigades  are  established  it  is  essential  that  a  special  building  with  space  equivalent  to  that  of  small  barracks 
building  be  made  available.  Commanding  officers  of  cantonments  or  camps  may  requisition  special  psychology 
building  if  necessary.  This  should  not  be  done  where  available  building  can  be  assigned  and  suitably  adapted  to 
psychological  needs  by  minor  alterations.  The  psychological  building  or  allotted  space  should  be  located  near  the 
point  of  physical  examination,  personnel  classification  and  assignment. 

"7.  Psychological  staff  shall  be  composed  of  officers  of  the  Sanitary  Corps  and  enlisted  men  of  the  Medical  Depart- 
ment, trained  in  military  psychology. 

Under  direction  of  commanding  officers  the  psychological  personnel  present  will  be  supplemented  when  necessary 
by  enlisted  men  drawn  from  such  organizations  as  can  best  spare  them.  These  enlisted  men  who  are  temporarily 
assigned  shall  remain  on  psychological  duty  only  during  the  examining  of  large  draft  quotas  and  while  rush  reports  are 
in  preparation. 

Psychological  staff  shall  be  attached  to  the  camp  or  other  station,  not  to  the  Division.  It  shall  be  under  the  control 
of  the  chief  medical  officer,  and  will  be  suitably  quartered  by  him. 

"8.  It  shall  be  the  duty  of  the  chief  psychological  examiner  to  see  that  a  reliable  mental  rating  is  secured  and 
reported  for  every  recruit  and  every  officer  below  the  rank  of  field  officer.  In  addition  the  chief  psychological  examiner 
shall,  so  far  as  possible,  render  special  service  to  medical  officers,  to  judge  advocates,  to  commanding  officers  of  organ- 
izations, to  morale  officers  and  educational  directors  by  making  special  examination  of  individual  cases  or  gr.ups 
referred  for  examination  and  report. 

"  9.  The  mental  rating  of  officers  or  enlisted  men  shall  be  considered  in  connection  with  assignment,  promotion, 
demotion,  rejection,  discharge,  or  court  sentence.  It  shall  be  used  by  the  personnel  adjutant  to  assist  in  selecting 
men  of  adequate  intelligence  for  a  given  type  of  organization,  to  secure  an  adequate  level  of  intelligence  in  different 
organizations,  to  guarantee  the  immediate  rejection  or  discharge  of  men  whose  intelligence  is  so  inferior  that  they 
can  not  be  used  in  the  Army,  to  assist  in  the  prompt  assignment  of  men  of  inferior  intelligence  to  development  battalions 
or  labor  organizations,  to  safeguard  the  interests  of  the  individual  and  assist  the  judge  advocate  in  connection  with  court- 
martial  proceedings. 

"10.  When  deemed  for  the  benefit  of  the  service  at  large,  the  Surgeon  General  may  request  that  commanding  officers 
of  stations  where  psychological  examinations  have  been  held  be  called  upon  for  recommendation  toward  the  improve- 
ment of  the  psychological  division  and  its  service. 

The  Surgeon  General  may  transmit  direct  to  camp  or  post  surgeons  such  technical  instructions  covering  the  psycho- 
logical division  as  he  may  desire.  All  such  communications  will  be  laid  before  the  commanding  officers  concerned 
for  their  information." 

2.  This  revision  of  General  Orders  No.  74  is  necessary ,  first,  because  the  order  is  not  interpreted  uniformly  in  different 
camps,  and  second,  because  it  does  not  provide  for  the  examining  of  officers  and  of  all  enlisted  men. 

Instructions  issued  by  the  Adjutant  General  of  the  Army,  October  8,  1918,  require  that  the  intelligence  rating  of 
an  officer  be  made  available  to  the  personnel  board  in  its  review  of  the  qualifications  of  the  officer  when  he  is  summoned 
by  said  board.  The  examining  of  officers  below  the  rank  of  field  officer  is  necessary  in  order  that  intelligence  rating 
may  be  supplied. 

Paragraph  5  of  General  Orders  No.  74  as  originally  approved  by  the  Surgeon  General  and  by  the  General  Staff  reads: 
"All  recruits  arriving  at  depot  brigades  or  other  points  where  the  psychological  division  is  established,  will  be  examined 
psychologically  *  *  *  ,"  etc.  This  was  subsequently  changed  as  a  result  of  misunderstanding  of  the  nature  and 
purpose  of  psychological  examining  to  read:  "Such  recruits  arriving  at  depot  brigades  or  other  points  where  the 
psychological  division  is  established,  as  may  in  the  opinion  of  the  commanding  officer,  require  such  examination,  will 
be  examined  *  *  *,"  etc.  This  alteration  is  extremely  unfortunate  in  its  effect  because  it  renders  uncertain  the 
availability  of  the  intelligence  rating  of  an  enlisted  man. 

All  camps  and  cantonments  in  which  psychological  service  is  organized  have  issued  orders  requiring  that  the 
intelligence  rating  be  entered  on  the  service  record  and  the  qualification  card. 

Section  5. — Provision  of  buildings  for  psychological  service. 

In  preparing  plans  for  the  extension  of  psychological  examining,  following  the  request  of 
the  Secretary  of  War,  dated  December  24,  1917,  the  staff  of  the  Division  of  Psychology  sought 
the  advice  of  various  officers  of  the  General  Staff  and  the  Medical  Department,  and  in  accordance 
therewith  requested  that  a  special  building  for  psychology  be  constructed  in  each  training 
camp  (pp.  27-29). 

That  this  request  seemed  reasonable  to  the  committee  of  the  General  Staff  which  prepared 
the  recommendation,  is  indicated  by  the  last  paragraph  of  the  approval,  which  reads: 

The  Quartermaster  General  will  construct  the  necessary  building  at  each  cantonment  for 
the  Examining  Board  in  Psychology,  furnish  the  necessary  plain  furniture  for  these  buildings, 
in  accordance  with  plans  and  specifications  submitted  by  you. 
121435°— 21 5 


58  MEMOIRS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES.  [vol.  xv, 

Following  this  indorsement,  and  in  accordance  with  the  general  plan  which  had  been 
approved,  the  Division  of  Psychology  completed  a  detailed  plan  and  description  of  the  proposed 
psychological  building.  The  plans  were  submitted  to  the  Division  of  Hospitals,  Office  of  the 
Surgeon  General,  which  prepared  and  forwarded  to  the  Office  of  the  Quartermaster  General, 
construction  department,  the  necessary  blueprints.  While  this  work  was  in  progress  Maj. 
Yerkes  proceeded  in  accordance  with  authorization  of  the  hospitals  division  to  secure  tentative 
designation  of  location  for  building  in  each  camp.     To  this  end  the  following  letter  was  dispatched 

to  division  surgeons: 

January  24,  1918. 
From:  The  Surgeon  General,  U.  S.  Army. 

To:  The  Division  Surgeon,  Camp . 

Subject:  Location  of  psychology  building. 

1.  The  War  Department  has  approved  plans  for  the  psychological  examining  of  company  officers  and  all  newly 
drafted  and  enlisted  men  in  indorsements  copies  of  which  are  attached. 

2.  In  order  that  these  examinations  may  De  properly  conducted  a  special  building  is  to  be  provided  by  the 
Quartermaster  General  in  each  divisional  training  camp.  The  proposed  building  will  be  120  feet  long,  30  feet  wide, 
two-story,  as  per  rough  sketch  inclosed.  [Plans  for  this  building  are  shown  in  the  Examiners'  Guide,  pp.  197  ff.  of 
this  volume.] 

3.  Psychological  examining  will  be  conducted  under  direction  of  the  division  surgeon.  The  results  will  be 
reported  to  him,  to  division  headquarters,  and,  as  desirable,  to  the  commanding  officer  of  the  base  hospital. 

4.  In  the  opinion  of  this  office  it  is  important  that  the  building  for  psychology  be  located  near  division  head- 
quarters, and  if  possible  between  division  headquarters  and  the  base  hospital.  Where  there  is  no  available  space 
close  to  division  headquarters  it  will  probably  be  preferable  to  seek  a  location  near  the  base  hospital. 

5.  You  are  requested,  in  consultation  with  the  commanding  general  of  the  division  and  the  camp  quartermaster, 
to  select  what  would  appear  to  be  a  suitable  site  for  the  proposed  building  and  to  advise  this  office  at  the  earliest 
possible  moment,  attention  Maj.  Yerkes,  Division  of  Psychology,  concerning  decision. 

6.  It  is  desired  that  the  site  selected  be  so  designated  that  satisfactory  directions  may  be  given  to  the  con- 
structing quartermaster  from  this  office. 

7.  If  additional  information  is  desired  or  uncertainties  develop  you  will  address  the  Division  of  Psychology, 
this  office. 

By  direction  of  the  Surgeon  General: 

Robert  M.  Yerkes. 
Major,  Sanitary  Corps. 

As  a  result  of  this  letter  suitable  location  was  selected  and  designated  by  the  command- 
ing general  in  almost  all  of  the  camps  and  cantonments,  but  before  this  information  could  be 
used  action  by  the  General  Staff,  reported  below,  rendered  it  irrelevant. 

In  order  to  expedite  preparation  of  plans,  estimates,  and  all  necessary  preliminaries  to 
construction,  Maj.  Yerkes  kept  in  touch  with  the  Division  of  Hospitals  of  the  Office  of  the 
Surgeon  General  and  with  the  construction  department  of  the  Office  of  the  Quartermaster 
General.  With  everything  in  readiness  for  construction,  the  Acting  Quartermaster  General  on 
February  5,  1918,  addressed  the  following  memorandum  to  the  Chief  of  Staff: 

February  5,  1918. 
Memorandum: 

From:  The  Acting  Quartermaster  General. 
To:  The  Chief  of  Staff. 
Subject:  Psychological  buildings  for  National  Army  cantonments  and  National  Guard  camps. 

1.  Attached  hereto  is  request  from  the  Surgeon  General  of  the  Army  requesting  the  construction  of  a  psycho- 
logical building  at  each  National  Army  cantonment  and  each  National  Guard  camp. 

2.  The  following  instructions  in  reference  thereto  have  been  given  by  the  Secretary  of  War  to  the  Quartermaster 
General: 

You  will  establish  at  each  cantonment  a  bmlding  for  the  use  of  the  psychological  examining  board  and  furnish 
the  necessary  benches,  tables,  etc.,  in  accordance  with  plans  submitted  by  the  Surgeon  General.  The  estimated  cost 
of  each  building,  including  furniture  is  $12,000,  and  funds  for  this  purpose  will  be  charged  to  the  deficiency  authorized 
by  the  Assistant  Secretary  of  War. 

3.  Later  advice  from  the  Surgeon  General  is  that  one  of  these  buildings  is  desired  at  each  divisional  camp. 

4.  It  is  estimated  that  the  cost  of  this  construction  for  16  cantonments  and  16  National  Army  camps  will  be: 
Construction  and  repair  of  hospitals,  $3GS,000;  supplies,  services,  and  transportation,  $16,000.  Funds  are  not  avail- 
able under  the  appropriation  "Construction  and  repair  of  hospitals,"  but  this  amount  has  been  included  in  the 
deficiency  estimate  submitted  to  Congress  for  inclusion  in  the  urgent  deficiency  bill  now  pending.  Funds  reqmred 
under  "Supplies,  services,  and  transportation"  can  be  charged  to  the  amount  authorized  as  a  deficiency  by  the 
Assistant  Secretary  of  War  on  December  14,  1917. 


Nai.]  PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  ARMY.  59 

5.  The  Surgeon  General  urges  the  construction  of  these  buildings  as  a  war  necessity,  for  the  mental  examination 
of  men  before  going  to  over-sea  duty,  and  authority  is  therefore  requested  to  proceed  with  the  work. 

6.  Return  of  the  original  papers  to  this  office  for  its  records  is  requested  when  action  is  taken. 

Geo.  W.  Goethals, 
Acting  Quartermaster  General. 

This  memorandum  went  to  the  equipment  committee  of  the  General  Staff,  which,  after 
consideration  of  the  matter,  recommended  "disapproval  of  the  construction  of  special  buildings 
until  such  time  as  funds  may  be  made  available  for  this  construction  by  act  of  Congress." 
Official  notice  of  disapproval  was  sent  to  the  Surgeon  General,  February  14,  1918. 

On  receipt  of  this  information  it  was  learned  through  conference  with  War  Department 
officials  that  the  equipment  committee  deemed  it  wholly  feasible  and  desirable  that  psychological 
examining  be  done  in  hospital  buildings,  as  originally,  instead  of  in  buildings  especially  con- 
structed for  this  purpose.  This  fact  was  presented  to  the  Surgeon  General  who  promptly 
disapproved  the  continued  use  of  hospital  wards  for  psychological  purposes  on  the  ground  that 
they  should  at  all  times  be  available  for  medical  purposes.  Thereupon,  in  accordance  with 
the  desires  of  the  Surgeon  General,  the  Chief  of  the  Division  of  Psychology  prepared  for  his 

signature  the  letter  which  follows : 

February  14,  1918. 
From:  The  Surgeon  General,  U.  S.  Army. 
To:  The  Adjutant  General  of  the  Army. 
Subject:  Expenditure  for  psychological  building  in  each  divisional  training  camp. 

1.  Disapproval  by  Assistant  Secretary  of  War,  on  recommendation  of  General  Staff,  of  deficiency  expenditure 
amounting  to  $384,000  for  psychology  building  in  each  National  Army  and  National  Guard  camp,  is  acknowledged 
with  the  following  information: 

2.  Reversal  of  decision  of  General  Staff  concerning  plan  for  psychological  examining  and  recommendation  that 
the  work  be  conducted  in  base  hospitals  instead  of  in  special  building  is  evidently  based  upon  serious  misunderstanding 
of  requirements  and  relations  of  psychological  work  and  practical  availability  of  hospital  space. 

3.  The  base  hospital  space,  as  extended  by  recent  action,  is  provided  and  required  for  medical  purposes.  It 
can  not,  in  fairness  to  the  health  of  the  Army,  be  assigned  permanently  for  psychological  use. 

4.  Temporary  assignment  of  requisite  base  hospital  space  for  psychological  examining  is,  in  the  opinion  of  the 
Medical  Department,  both  undesirable  and  wasteful  (1)  because  the  conduct  of  said  work  in  accordance  with  plan 
originally  approved  and  fully  authorized  by  the  Secretary  of  War  will  require  special  furnishing  of  two  large  hospital 
wards  (or  one  of  the  prospective  two-story  hospital  buildings),  this  special  furnishing  as  per  specifications  originally 
submitted  is  in  a  large  measure  built  in,  consisting  of  benched  tables  nailed  to  floor,  platforms,  shelves,  etc. ;  (2)  because 
the  cost  of  adequate  and  appropriate  base  hospital  space  would  be  at  least  $20,000  as  contrasted  with  $12,000  expendi- 
ture for  special  building. 

Obviously  even  should  medical  requirements  permit  it,  it  would  not  be  economical  to  use  base  hospital  space  for 
psychological  use.  Only  dire  necessity  would,  in  the  opinion  of  the  Medical  Department,  justify  the  recommendation 
of  the  General  Staff  that  this  extremely  important  new  work  be  suspended  until  Congress  authorizes  necessary  expendi- 
ture for  provision  of  special  building. 

5.  In  accordance  with  authorization  originally  given  by  the  Secretary  of  War  the  Division  of  Psychology,  this  office 
has  proceeded  («)  to  secure  personnel  of  132  commissioned  officers,  124  noncommissioned  officers,  and  620  enlisted 
men;  (6)  to  establish  school  for  special  training  in  military  psychology  at  Medical  Officers  Training  Camp,  Fort  Ogle- 
thorpe, Ga. ;  (c)  to  devise  and  perfect  the  necessary  methods  of  work  and  to  secure  requisite  apparatus  and  printed 
materials  for  the  examining  of  500,000  soldiers.  At  the  present  time  work  along  these  several  lines  is  well  advanced. 
Approximately  60  men  have  been  commissioned  for  psychological  service.  Approximately  50  have  been  enlisted  in 
the  same  service.  An  enlisted  company  and  also  a  commissioned  company  are  in  training  at  Fort  Oglethorpe.  A 
large  portion  of  the  materials  necessary  for  contemplated  work  has  been  requisitioned. 

Attention  is  called  to  the  fact  that  the  labors  of  the  Division  of  Psychology  and  the  expenditure  thus  far  entailed 
will  be  in  a  large  measure  wasted  unless  the  essential  features  of  the  original  plan  of  work  are  fully  approved  by  the 
War  Department. 

6.  Psychological  examining  was  originally  conducted  at  base  hospitals  in  order  thatits  military  and  medical  values 
might  be  demonstrated  to  the  satisfaction  of  line  and  medical  officers.  This  was  accomplished.  There  resulted 
unqualified  and  enthusiastic  approval  and  endorsement  of  this  work  by  line  and  staff  officers  as  well  as  by  medical  offi- 
cers. On  the  basis  of  this  endorsement  (most  strongly  expressed  by  the  War  College  Division  of  the  General  Staff  in 
memorandum  for  the  Chief  of  Staff  as  follows:  "The  results  of  these  examinations  were  very  remarkable  *  *  *. 
This  subject  of  Psychology  in  its  relation  to  military  efficiency  is  an  entirely  new  one  and  the  War  College  Division 
approached  it  with  a  good  dealtof  doubt  as  to  its  value.  A  very  thorough  study  of  the  reports  submitted,  however, 
has  firmly  convinced  us  that  this  examination  will  be  of  great  value  in  assisting  in  determining  the  possibilities  of  all 
newly  drafted  men  and  all  candidates  for  officers  training  camps")  and  of  the  unqualified  approval  of  the  Surgeon 
General's  plan  for  the  extension  of  psychological  work,  the  Division  of  Psychology  has  proceeded  expeditiously  and 


60  MEMOIRS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES.  ivol.  xv. 

in  accordance  with  good  business  principles  with  all  preparations  necessary  for  bringing  the  plan  into  effect  at  the 
earliest  possible  moment. 

7.  The  prospective  psychological  work  is  not  what  has  been  done.  Instead  it  provides  for  more  varied  and 
important  applications  of  the  methods  of  psychological  examining  and  of  their  results.  For  this  reason  the  inference  of 
the  General  Staff  that  this  work  can  very  well  be  done,  at  least  temporarily,  in  base  hospitals  is  incorrect.  As  a  matter 
of  fact,  even  were  base  hospital  space  temporarily  devoted  to  this  work,  it  would  have  only  a  fraction  of  the  value  to 
the  Army  which  would  result  if  the  work  were  done  as  planned  in  special  building  adjacent  to  division  headquarters. 

8.  Psychological  examining  is  not  a  temporary  bit  of  work  but.  as  planned,  continuous  throughout  the  period  of 
use  of  a  divisional  training  camp.  The  results  of  the  work  are  especially  important  in  connection  with  those  of  the 
personnel  office  in  each  camp.  The  strictly  medical  reference  and  significance  of  psychological  reports  are  quite  over- 
shadowed by  their  military  significance.  All  psychological  records  for  this  reason  should  be  conveniently  accessible 
to  company,  regimental  and  other  commanding  officers,  and  the  psychological  staff  should  be  centrally  located  in  the 
camp  for  purposes  of  consultation  with  line  officers.  The  work  obviously  is  related  most  directly  and  importantly  to 
division  headquarters.  It  has  no  special  or  necessary  connection  with  the  base  hospital,  and  even  if  most  adequately 
housed  in  or  about  the  base  hospital,  it  could  not  be  conducted  there  without  sacrifice  of  certain  of  its  most  important 
values.  Maj.  Yerkes.  of  the  Division  of  Psychology,  has  stated  that  in  his  judgment  this  sacrifice  would  probably 
amount  to  one-half  of  the  prospective  value. 

9.  It  should  further  be  emphasized  that  the  proposed  psychology  building  is  to  provide  not  for  the  examining 
of  an  occasional  individual  but  instead  (a)  for  general  psychological  and  psychiatric  surveys  of  all  enlisted  men  and 
company  officers  in  every  divisional  training  camp;  (6)  for  thorough  psychological  or  psychiatric  examination  of  each 
man  for  whom  such  study  is  indicated  as  desirable  for  military,  medical  or  social  reasons;  (c)  for  conferences  between 
psychologists  and  line  and  medical  officers  concerning  problems  of  human  behavior  and  mental  characteristics  which 
directly  affect  military  efficiency;  (rf)  for  such  instruction  concerning  the  relations  of  psychology  to  military  activities 
as  is  deemed  desirable  by  the  division  commander  and  his  staff;  (e)  for  discussion  of  problems  of  reeducation  and 
rehabilitation,  nervous  instability  or  liability  to  shock,  feeblemindedness,  malingering,  etc.  In  brief,  the  psychology 
building  is  planned  as  a  center  for  the  study,  under  the  direction  of  the  division  surgeon  and  the  commanding  general, 
of  all  problems  of  human  behavior  and  mental  fitness  which  arise  within  the  camp  community. 

Without  such  a  building  most  of  these  proposed  purposes  provided  for  by  the  plan  originally  approved  by  the 
General  Staff  can  not  be  achieved.  The  medical  department  therefore  submits  that  since  this  work  is  important  to 
the  efficiency  of  the  Arm)',  and  should,  in  accordance  with  the  opinion  of  the  General  Staff  already  forcibly  expressed, 
be  conducted  for  the  entire  Army,  the  important  provision  of  special  psychological  buildings  is  an  imperative  necessity. 

10.  The  General  Staff,  having  approved  an  extremely  carefully  prepared  plan  in  which  only  essentials  were  asked 
for,  subsequently  and  after  a  period  of  nearly  a  month  disapproves  one  special  and  fundamentally  important  item  of 
aaid  plan.  The  medical  department  must  direct  attention  to  the  result.  This  partial  disapproval  practically 
destroys  the  value  of  the  original  plan  for  the  extension  of  psychological  examining.  Had  special  building  been 
disapproved  originally  a  new  plan  would  have  been  prepared  by  the  Surgeon  General's  Office  for  consideration  of  the 
General  Staff. 

The  Division  of  Psychology  stands  ready  to  do  its  utmost  to  assist  the  Army  whatever  the  difficulties  or  inconven- 
iences, but  unless  the  psychological  building  can  be  provided  immediately  the  success  of  this  work,  in  accordance  with 
reasonable  predictions  of  the  medical  department  and  expectation  of  the  General  Staff,  is  jeopardized.  The  medical 
department  has  been  placed  in  the  false  position  of  being  forced  to  attempt  to  carry  into  effect  what  it  considers  an 
excellent  plan,  which  after  initial  complete  approval  has  been  emasculated. 

11.  Finally,  the  medical  department  is  compelled  to  disapprove  recommendation  of  the  General  Staff  that 
psychological  work  be  conducted  at  base  hospitals.  The  plan  for  provision  of  special  psychology  building  is  urged  as 
necessary  for  achievement  of  results  which  the  Army  has  a  right  to  expect  and  demand  in  view  of  expenditures 
already  made  for  psychological  service.  These  results  are  briefly  such  as  the  following:  (a)  the  discovery  and  discharge 
of  those  who  are  seriously  mentally  defective;  (b)  the  proper  assignment  within  the  Army  of  men  of  low-grade  intel- 
ligence so  that  the  time  of  officers  in  attempting  to  train  them  beyond  their  capacities  shall  not  be  wasted ;  (c)  assign- 
ment of  men  so  that  organizations  shall  have  adequate  mental  strength  and  similar  organizations,  as  for  example  regi- 
ments of  infantry,  approximately  equal  mental  strength  in  order  that  there  shall  be  no  seriously  weak  points  in  the 
line;  (d)  assistance  in  selection  of  men  intellectually  competent  to  command  (officer  material);  (t)  selection  of  men  for 
special  kinds  of  military  service,  as  for  example  service  which  requires  unusually  good  vision,  hearing,  quickness  of 
reaction,  etc.;  (/)  the  special  study  of  individuals  referred  to  psychologists  by  camp  officers  and  of  any  psychological 
military  problems  which  are  formulated  by  divisional  officers  and  presented  to  the  psychological  staff. 

12.  This  work  is  new  as  was  pointed  out  by  the  War  College  Division  of  the  General  Staff.  The  medical  depart- 
ment in  originally  undertaking  to  test  its  value  accepted  a  risk.  Having  obtained  adequate  evidence  of  remarkable 
military  value,  it  presented  a  definite  and  extensive  plan.  It  now  submits  that  there  is  every  reason  to  believe  that 
this  plan  should  be  carried  out  to  the  letter  and  that  the  prospective  value  of  psychological  work  is  so  great  as  to  justify 
deficiency  expenditure  for  psychological  building  in  each  divisional  training  camp.  Every  division  that  goes  abroad 
without  psychological  survey  and  without  thorough  individual  psychological  examination  of  intellectually  weak 
individuals  carries  with  it  many  men,  perhaps  even  as  many  as»one  per  cent,  who  are  riot  worth  their  transportation  for 
military  purposes. 


no.  i.]  PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  ARMY.  61 

It  is  requested  that  the  facts  submitted  in  connection  with  disapproval  of  psychology  building  be  given  earliest 
possible  consideration  by  the  General  Staff  in  order  that  waste  of  effort  and  expenditure  may  so  far  as  possible  be 
avoided  and  the  Division  of  Psychology,  Surgeon  General's  Office,  enabled  to  fulfill  the  reasonable  anticipation  con- 
cerning its  services  to  the  Army. 

W.    C.   GORGAS, 

Surgeon  General,  U.  S.  Army. 

The  recommendation  of  the  above  letter  was  disapproved  by  the  War  Department  on 
February  19.  This  disapproval  left  the  medical  department  no  choice  but  to  provide  for  psy- 
chological examining  in  hospital  wards,  and  as  such  provision  was  deemed  inexpedient  the 
Surgeon  General  promptly  arranged  to  place  the  matter  before  the  Secretary  of  War.  This 
was  done  on  February  23  with  emphasis  of  the  fact  that  existing  camp  buildings  might  per- 
fectly well  be  utilized  for  psychological  examining  if  made  available.  The  Secretary  of  War 
stated  that,  in  his  opinion,  buildings  were  available  in  most  camps  and  that  he  would  institute 
inquiry  concerning  the  matter. 

The  outcome  of  this  inquiry  and  of  instructions  issued  on  the  basis  of  information  was 
that  in  the  majority  of  National  Army  cantonments  suitable  barracks  buildings  were  assigned 
for  the  use  of  psychological  examiners  and  that  in  National  Guard  camps  more  or  less  satis- 
factory temporary  arrangements  were  made.  The  conditions  varied  extremely  in  the  different 
camps  but  in  very  few  was  the  housing  arrangement  equal  to  that  which  the  War  Department 
had  originally  authorized.  It  was  assumed,  however,  that  funds  would  shortly  be  made  available 
by  Congress  for  the  new  construction  and  that  in  the  meantime  psychological  examining  might 
go  forward  under  difficult  conditions. 

After  the  passage  on  March  28  of  the  deficiency  expenditure  bill,  which  was  supposed  to 
have  carried  an  item  of  $384,000  for  psychological  buildings,  the  Division  of  Psychology,  on 
the  assumption  that  funds  had  been  made  available,  recommended  the  construction  of  build- 
ings in  camps  which  most  needed  them.  This  recommendation  was  met  by  the  information 
both  from  the  construction  department  of  the  Quartermaster  Corps  and  from  the  equipment 
committee  of  the  General  Staff  that  the  funds  had  not  been  made  available  for  this  special 
construction  and  in  consequence  it  could  not  be  authorized.  The  Division  of  Psychology, 
therefore,  prepared  to  make  the  best  of  an  extremely  unfavorable  situation.  However,  in  the 
summer  an  officer  of  the  coordination  section  of  the  General  Staff,  in  searching  for  information 
concerning  various  matters  pertaining  to  psychological  examining,  discovered  that  funds 
actually  had  been  appropriated  by  Congress  in  the  deficiency  bill  of  July  8  for  the  construction 
of  special  buildings  to  facilitate  psychological  examining,  although  no  official  information  had 
been  received  by  the  division.  The  chief  of  the  Division  of  Psychology  referred  this  report  to 
the  construction  department  of  the  Quartermaster  Corps  for  confirmation,  which  was  supplied. 
Thereupon  the  medical  department  recommended  the  construction  of  special  buildings  for 
psychological  examining  in  several  camps.  On  November  11,  1919,  several  buildings  had  been 
authorized  by  the  War  Department,  but  so  far  as  is  known  none  had  been  constructed  except 
the  one  early  provided  for  special  instructional  purposes  at  the  school  of  military  psychology, 
Fort  Oglethorpe,  Ga. 

The  failure  of  the  War  Department  to  provide  special  buildings  for  psychological  purposes  in 
accordance  with  original  plan  and  authorization  proved  a  most  serious  handicap.  The  practical 
value  of  this  work  to  the  Army  was  undoubtedly  seriously  lessened  by  the  unsatisfactory  facili- 
ties temporarily  provided  in  lieu  of  special  examining  buildings. 

Once  more  misfortune  occurred  where  it  could  least  well  be  sustained.  Undoubtedly  differ- 
ence in  point  of  view,  misinformation,  misunderstanding,  and  inadequate  appreciation  of  both 
the  demands  and  values  of  psychological  examining  were  chiefly  responsible  for  the  unfortunate 
series  of  events  which  constitute  the  history  of  buildings  for  psychology  in  army  camps.  It  is 
quite  clear  that,  except  for  certain  misunderstandings  in  the  General  Staff,  the  buildings  would 
have  been  provided  promptly.  It  is  equally  clear  that  they  wTould  have  been  provided  eventually 
in  spite  of  objections  had  it  not  been  for  delay  in  the  appropriation  of  funds. 


62  MEMOIRS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES.  [Vol.  xv, 

In  accordance  with  the  original  plans  of  the  Medical  Department  special  buildings  should 
have  been  ready  for  this  work  not  later  than  April,  1918,  but  as  a  matter  of  fact  it  was  October 
before  the  difficulties  were  so  far  overcome  as  to  guarantee  construction  even  where  buildings 
were  most  sorely  needed. 

The  housing  facilities  for  pyschological  examining  provided  in  the  various  camps  are  briefly 
described  in  Section  6  (infra)  on  camp  organization.  The  situation  in  the  several  camps 
may  be  indicated  briefly.  The  special  building  was  constructed  in  Camp  Greenleaf.  (Supply 
company  barracks,  such  as  were  used  in  many  camps,  are  shown  in  pi.  4,  A  and  B,  and  pi.  6  A, 
this  volume.)  A  reasonably  adequate  barracks  building  or  part  thereof  was  provided  in  Camps 
Bowie,  Dodge,  Funston,  Grant,  Humphreys,  Jackson,  Lewis,  Meade,  Pike,  Sherman,  Taylor, 
Travis,  and  Upton.  Other  types  of  building,  less  suitable,  were  provided  in  Camps  Custer, 
Devens,  Dix,  Lee,  and  the  majority  of  the  National  Guard  camps. 

Section  6. —  The  organization  of  examining  in  camps. 

CAMP    ORGANIZATION. 

The  efficient  organization  of  psychological  examining  in  a  large  training  camp  was  an 
administrative  undertaking  of  considerable  magnitude  and  difficulty.  The  chief  psychological 
examiner  was  held  responsible  for  the  following  important  tasks:  (a)  The  organization  of  an 
adequate  and  efficient  staff;  (b)  the  training  of  a  reliable  clerical  force  at  the  strength  required 
by  the  camp;  (c)  arrangements  for  suitable  space  and  equipment  for  conduct  of  examinations; 
(d)  arrangement  of  schedules  of  examining  and  for  system  of  reporting  results;  (e)  establishment 
of  profitable  cooperative  relations  between  the  psychological  staff  and  the  personnel  adjutant, 
the  headquarters  staff,  medical  officers,  and  the  commanding  officers  of  the  principal  camp 
organizations;  (/)  familiarizing  officers  of  the  camp  or  division  with  the  nature  and  use  of  intel- 
ligence ratings  and  with  the  possible  values  of  psychological  service  to  the  organizations;  (g) 
organization  of  methods  of  classifying,  filing,  and  storing  data  of  examinations ;  (h)  the  discovery 
and  development  of  new  lines  of  service  and  the  maintenance  of  a  state  of  preparedness  to 
respond  to  all  reasonable  requests  for  special  help.  No  commanding  officer  in  the  psychological 
service  complained  that  his  work  was  too  easy  or  that  it  lacked  interest.  On  the  contrary, 
there  was  extreme  eagerness  and  enthusiasm  for  this  new  kind  of  administrative  work  and 
remarkable  success  was  achieved  by  many  chief  psychological  examiners. 

The  following  general  scheme  of  staff  organization  was  proposed  on  the  basis  of  inspection 
of  camp  conditions:  (1)  Chief  psychological  examiner,  responsible  for  general  administration, 
correspondence  and  camp  contacts;  (2)  clinical  psychologist,  responsible  for  direction  of  indi- 
vidual examining,  neuro-psychiatric  contacts  and  the  study  of  the  success  of  low  grade  men ;  (3) 
first  assistant  psychological  examiner,  responsible  for  direction  of  group  examining,  oversight 
of  psychological  building,  scoring  of  examination  papers  and  handling  of  records;  (4)  second 
assistant  psychological  examiner,  responsible  for  psychological  service  to  development  battalions 
and  relations  of  the  psychological  staff  to  such  organizations ;  (5)  third  assistant  psychological 
examiner,  responsible  for  personnel  office  relations,  uses  of  intelligence  ratings,  and  special 
assignments. 

To  facilitate  improvement  of  psychological  service  and  increase  its  practical  values  through 
the  interchange  of  ideas  and  varied  sorts  of  information,  a  monthly  bulletin  was  prepared  by 
the  staff  of  the  division  of  psychology  and  issued  to  all  examining  stations  between  June  and 
September,  1918.  This  bulletin  proved  extremely  valuable.  Its  content  was  varied  and  it 
served  at  once  as  a  medium  of  news  and  of  information  relating  to  the  conduct  of  the  service. 
Suggestions  from  psychological  staffs  of  material  that  might  properly  be  included  in  the  reports 
were  solicited,  although  it  was  necessary  to  emphasize  the  military  and  practical  nature  of  the 
report.  The  following  quotation  is  from  a  letter  from  the  Surgeon  General  of  the  Army  which 
accompanied  the  first  number  of  the  report : 

In  this  monthly  report  the  extreme  necessity  of  intensely  practical  psychological  service  will  constantly  be  em- 
phasized. The  psychological  staff  which  renders  maximal  service  to  the  Army  is  incomparably  more  important  than 
that  which  conducts  special  investigations  or  makes  interesting  statistical  studies  for  more  or  less  impractical  scientific 


No.  i.]  PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  ARMY.  63 

ends.  It  is  hoped  that  the  report  may  serve  to  increase  rapidly  and  over  a  long  period  the  value  of  psychological  mili- 
tary work  and  that  it  may  stir  every  psychologist  to  more  enthusiastic  and  determined  effort  to  understand  the  problems 
of  human  behavior  which  are  presented  by  his  camp  and  to  do  his  utmost  to  assist  in  their  solution. 

Service  is  the  only  excuse  for  the  presence  of  professional  psychologists  in  the  Army.  It  is  the  only  thing  which 
will  keep  them  there  and  enable  them  to  command  the  respect  and  admiration  of  the  officers  and  enlisted  men  for 
whom  and  with  whom  they  work. 

To  illustrate  the  materials  of  this  monthly  bulletin,  that  for  August,  1918,  is  reproduced 
below 

Office  of  the  Surgeon  General, 

Division  of  Psychology, 

August,  1918. 

Third  monthly  report,  issued  September  3,  1918. 

*  *  # 

I.  Activities  of  the  division  of  psychology . 

During  the  last  few  weeks  the  activities  of  the  division  have  considerably  increased  in  variety  as  well  as  in  evident 
value  to  the  Army.  The  organization  of  development  battalions  has  offered  an  important  additional  opportunity  for 
usefulness.  The  same  is  true  of  morale  work.  From  many  examining  stations  the  division  of  psychology  is  receiving 
reports  which  clearly  indicate  that  various  lines  of  psychological  service  are  now  organized  effectively  and  are  coming 
to  be  appreciated  in  a  lively  manner  by  officers  of  the  line  as  well  as  by  many  medical  officers.  In  the  majority  of 
examining  stations  the  psychological  staffs  evidently  appreciate  the  fact  that  practical  service  is  the  only  justification 
for  the  continuation  of  psychological  examining  or  any  other  kind  of  psychological  work  in  the  Army.  The  chiefs 
of  the  psychological  service  are  coming  to  appreciate  the  fact  that  they  must  in  every  sense  justify  their  work  in  the 
eyes  of  the  commanding  general  of  the  camp  as  well  as  in  the  judgment  of  the  medical  officers.  Indeed,  a  most  impor- 
tant single  word  of  advice  from  this  office  is:  Demonstrate  your  usefulness  to  the  officers  of  your  camp  and  thus  com- 
mand their  interest  and  cooperation. 

The  division  of  psychology,  for  reasons  which  need  not  be  explained  to  the  professional  psychologist,  has  had  to 
contend  with  many  varied  difficulties  in  the  organization  and  administration  of  its  work.  Some  of  these  difficulties 
are  obviously  accidental  and  merely  unfortunate.  Others  are  due  to  weaknesses  in  our  methods  or  in  the  ways  in 
which  we  have  attempted  to  use  our  results.  Recently  the  War  Department  approved  general  orders  concerning 
psychological  work  which  definitely  establish  it  and  provide  for  its  conduct  in  the  Army.  General  Orders,  No.  74  has 
been  forwarded  in  mimeographed  form,  pending  publication  by  the  War  Department,  to  all  psychological  staffs.  Two 
copies  were  sent — one  for  the  camp  surgeon,  to  be  submitted  by  him  to  the  commanding  officer  of  the  camp,  the  other 
for  the  chief  psychological  examiner. 

Additional  copies  of  these  orders  can  be  sent,  but  unless  they  are  especially  requested  no  additional  copies  will 
be  sent  until  the  printed  form  is  available. 

Almost  at  the  same  time  that  the  general  orders  were  approved  a  request  for  additional  personnel  and  grades  was 
disapproved.  This  disapproval  was  based  upon  unfortunate  misapprehension  and  misunderstanding  concerning 
the  existing  needs  for  psychological  service  and  the  status  of  the  personnel  which  is  employed.  Unfortunately  a 
letter  stating  that  no  additional  personnel  would  be  granted  for  psychological  service  was  sent  to  each  camp.  This 
letter  was  sent  in  ignorance  of  the  fact  that  general  orders  concerning  psychological  work  had  been  approved.  It  is 
clearly  contradictory  of  the  general  orders  and  will  doubtless  be  ignored  by  camp  authorities.  It  is  only  fair  to  the 
service  to  state  that  the  assistant  chief  of  staff  attempted  to  recall  the  letter  before  it  was  dispatched  but  was  too  late 
to  prevent  distribution. 

The  Division  of  Psychology  has  made  a  new  request  for  additional  appointments  and  ranks,  based  upon  the  require- 
ments of  the  above  orders  and  upon  such  needs  as  are  evident  and  such  special  requests  as  are  available.  There  is 
every  reason  to  believe  that  the  staff  will  fairly  and  carefully  consider  tliis  new  request  and  it  is  believed  by  this  division 
that  favorable  action  will  be  taken. 

The  above  statements  are  made  to  assure  members  of  the  psychological  service,  whether  commissioned  or  enlisted, 
that  psychological  work  in  a  variety  of  forms  is  to  be  continued  in  the  Army  and  in  all  probability  extended;  that 
the  opportunities  for  promotion  according  to  merit  are  likely  to  be  as  good  in  this  service  as  in  any  other;  that  every 
thoroughly  trained  and  otherwise  competent  psychologist  is  urgently  needed  and  should  by  all  means  stick  to  the 
sendee  instead  of  requesting  transfer.  Patience  is  required,  sacrifice  also,  but  every  man  should  remember  that  the 
injustices  which  he  is  suffering  are  suffered  by  thousands  of  men  who  are  equally  competent  and  meritorious. 

The  chief  of  the  Division  of  Psychology  believes  that  never  in  the  history  of  the  service  have  conditions  been 
so  encouraging  as  at  present.  Although  fully  realizing  the  danger  of  prophecy,  he  feels  impelled  to  say  that  there  are 
numerous  indications  that  the  tide  has  turned  and  that  military  opinion  is  rapidly  becoming  favorable  to  various  lines 
of  psychological  work.  It  is  clearly  our  duty  to  work  determinedly,  and  with  constantly  increasing  appreciation 
of  military  needs,  for  the  improvement  of  military  efficiency. 


64 


MEMOIRS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES. 


[Vol.  XV, 


II.   Methods  and  results. 

Since  the  last  monthly  report  instructions  have  been  issued  for  the  modification  of  examination  beta  by  the  omission 
of  test  S  and  elimination  of  weighting,  and  for  the  use  of  abbreviated  forms  of  the  three  methods  of  individual  examina- 
tion. It  is  believed  that  the  simplification  of  methods  thus  effected  and  the  resulting  economy  of  time  should  greatly 
enhance  the  value  of  the  psychological  service  by  making  possible  a  larger  amount  of  attention  to  the  new  problems 
constantly  arising. 

Data  on  intelligence  score  distributions  in  certain  army  occupations  have  been  received  from  15  camps.  It  is 
hoped  that  a  digest  of  this  material  can  be  completed  in  time  for  the  summary  to  go  to  the  psychological  staffs  before 
the  next  monthly  report  is  issued. 

The  suggestion  in  the  last  monthly  report  regarding  the  desirability  of  gathering  data  which  would  throw  light 
on  the  correlation  between  intelligence  grade  and  value  to  the  service  is  beginning  to  bring  results.  Attention  is 
invited  to  the  report  from  Camp  Kearny,  which  is  summarized  elsewhere  in  this  report.  Data  along  this  and  similar 
lines  should  be  collected  in  large  amount  in  order  to  lay  a  solid  foundation  for  the  future  development  of  the  psy- 
chological service. 

A  number  of  letters  from  commanding  officers  have  lately  been  received  expressing  appreciation  of  the  aid  rendered 
by  the  psychological  staffs.  The  following  excerpt  from  a  letter  written  by  a  camp  commander  to  the  chief  psy- 
chological examiner  is  typical : 

The  psychological  work  done  and  being  done  by  (naming  chief  examiner)  in  this  camp  has  been  consistently 
good  and  has  proved  of  much  practical  value.  At  first,  due  to  the  innate  conservatism  of  line  and  even  of  medical 
officers,  his  task  was  a  rather  uphill  one;  but  now,  largely  due  to  his  own  energy  and  tact,  and  to  the  thoroughness 
and  honesty  of  Ms  work,  practically  all  officers  have  been  convinced  of  its  practical  value  and  unique  assistance  in 
rating,  sorting  and  disposing  of  the  divers  kinds  of  men  as  well  as  officers  who  pass  through  such  a  camp  *  *  *  / 
consider  such  an  expert  and  his  specialty  among  the  most  useful  aids  lately  given  the  Army  toward  the  scientific  and  non- 
wasteful  utilization  of  man  power. 

The  following  statement  made  by  Secretary  Baker  in  an  address  before  the  School  for  Personnel  Adjutants  at 
Camp  Meigs  will  also  be  of  interest: 

The  rating  scale  (for  officers)  and  the  tests  for  mental  alertness  (psychological  tests)  are  the  application  of  a  perfectly 
rational  method  to  the  great  problem  of  putting  a  man  in  the  position  where  he  can  be  of  the  most  service  to  the  country 
and  to  the  common  cause. 

Such  statements  are  very  gratifying  and  should  encourage  us  to  bend  every  effort  toward  increasing  the  practical 
value  of  the  psychological  work  and  toward  enlarging  its  applications. 

In  order  to  indicate  the  types  of  problem  arising  in  the  various  camps  and  the  ways  in  which  these  problems  are 
being  met,  a  considerable  part  of  this  report  has  been  devoted  to  summary  notes  from  letters  of  chief  psychological 
examiners. 

III.  Inspection  of  psychological  service. 

Systematic  inspection  of  the  work  of  psychological  staffs  was  initiated  on  August  29  when  Maj.  Yoakum  and 
Capt.  Poster  started  on  itineraries  that  include  all  stations  where  examining  is  in  progress.  In  addition  to  inspection 
of  present  work,  investigations  will  also  be  made  regarding  the  desirability  of  organizing  psychological  service  at 
certain  new  stations.  It  is  planned  to  have  inspections  completed  at  as  many  camps  as  possible  within  the  next  six 
weeks. 

The  visit  of  the  inspector  should  in  numerous  ways  benefit  the  service.  Inspectors  will  report  concerning  the 
satisfactoriness  of  buildings,  equipment,  and  personnel.  Methods  of  examining,  filing,  and  reporting  grades  will 
be  investigated.  Inquiry  will  also  be  made  concerning  the  use  made  of  grades  by  personnel,  medical,  line,  and  staff 
officers.  The  usefulness  of  psychologists  in  dealing  with  the  problems  centering  about  the  development  battalions 
and  other  special  military  organizations  will  also  be  investigated. 

This  new  provision  in  military  psychology  should  aid  in  coordinating  the  work  of  various  psychological  staffs. 
Examiners  are  expected  to  cooperate  with  the  inspector  in  every  way  by  furnishing  promptly  and  fully  any  information 
or  assistance  required. 

IV.  Examining  for  the  month  of  July,  1918. 

1.  Number  of  stations  in  which  psychological  examinations  are  being  made:  National  Army  camps,  16;  National 
Guard  camps,  11 ;  other  stations,  4.     Number  of  camps  reporting,  28. 

2.  Number  of  men  examined: 


White. 

Colored. 

Total. 

Total  to  date. 

254,407 
3,139 

37, 426 

291,833 
3,139 

847, 419 
22,967 

294,972 

870,386 

3.  Number  of  men  given  individual  examination,  12,623;  total  to  date,  27,766. 

4.  Number  of  examinations:  alpha  only,  184,084;  beta  only,  84,386;  both  alpha  and  beta,  19,724;  individuals — 
P.  S.,  2,145;  S.  B.,  5,658:  Pf.,  5,102;  total,  12,905. 

5.  Number  of  E.  grades:  In  alpha,  21,340;  in  beta,  21,289;  in  beta  following,  2,094;  in  individual— P.  S.,  571; 
S.  B.,  2,307;  Pf.,  2,070;  total,  4,927. 


No.i.]  PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  ARMY.  65 

6.  Number  of  cases  reported  for  discharge,  1,193;  service  organizations,  2,245;  development  battalion,  2,425; 
regular  training,  7,187;  special  service  or  training,  300. 

7.  Mental  age,  6  years  or  below,  851;  7  years,  1,481;  8  years,  2,882;  9  years,  2,661;  10  years,  1,583;  11  years,  896; 
12  years,  620;  13  years  or  above,  426. 

Orders  have  been  requested  for  the  transfer  of  examiners  from  various  stations  to  Camp  Humphreys,  Va.,  for 
the  organization  of  a  new  staff  in  response  to  recent  demands  for  examining  at  that  station.  The  orders  provide  for  the 
transfer  of  Capt.  Joseph  W.  Hayes  from  Camp  Upton;  First  Lieut.  Harold  A.  Richmond,  formerly  at  Camp  Dix,  from 
Camp  Greenleaf ;  and  First  Lieut.  Garry  C.  Myers  from  Camp  Gordon.  In  addition  10  enlisted  men  are  to  be  transferred 
from  Camp  Greenleaf  to  complete  the  staff  organization  at  Camp  Humphreys.  Regular  psychological  service  should 
become  well  established  at  this  station  early  in  September. 

V.   Morale  work. 

Morale  work  has  gone  forward  with  increasing  success  in  Camp  Greenleaf.  It  has  been  extended  from  the  detention 
section  to  other  sections  of  the  camp,  and  it  is  the  intention  of  the  commanding  officer  to  make  it  camp  wide.  Copies 
of  Maj.  Yerkes's  report  on  the  Camp  Greenleaf  work  have  been  requested  by  numerous  officers  in  Washington  as  well 
as  in  the  camps.  Everything  indicates  that  it  is  highly  important  for  the  chief  psychological  examiner  in  each  camp 
to  bring  this  matter  to  the  attention  of  the  chief  of  staff  or  commanding  officer  in  his  camp,  and  in  case  of  interest  to  do 
everything  possible  to  further  the  organization  of  morale  work  and  to  assist  with  its  conduct.  The  division  of  psychology 
is  not  officially  responsible  for  morale  work,  and  there  is  no  thought  of  attempting  to  transform  psychologists  into  morale 
officers,  but  just  as  in  the  case  of  Capt.  Bassett,  who  was  recently  requested  by  his  commanding  general  to  take  command 
of  the  development  battalion  of  Camp  Logan  as  a  major  of  Infantry,  so  the  division  of  psychology  would  feel  compelled 
in  case  a  psychologist  could  clearly  render  greater  service  in  that  capacity,  to  approve  the  transfer  necessary  for  appoint- 
ment as  morale  officer.  Our  sole  interest  is  in  the  advancement  of  the  military  service.  The  development  of  our  own 
special  and  professional  interest  should  constantly  be  subordinated  to  military  efficiency.  The  situation  must  be 
viewed  in  the  large. 

VI.  The  School  of  Military  Psychology. 

Formal  instruction  in  military  psychology  at  Camp  Greenleaf  was  temporarily  suspended  on  August  1 .  All  psy- 
chological officers  and  nearly  all  enlisted  psychologists  had  completed  their  courses  of  training  on  that  date.  It  is 
expected  that  about  50  enlisted  men  required  as  psychological  aids  in  reconstruction  work  will  shortly  be  sent  to  the 
school  when  formal  training  will  be  resumed. 

For  the  present,  informal  instruction,  consisting  chiefly  of  actual  examining,  has  been  substituted.  Some  20,000 
soldiers  of  the  detention  camp  and  other  medical  units  have  now  been  examined.  Arrangements  are  completed  for  the 
examination  of  new  recruits  as  they  arrive  at  camp. 

Lieut.  Anderson  has  been  appointed  instructor  in  psychology  and  Chief  Examiner,  Lieut.  Frost  is  extending  the 
scope  and  improving  the  character  of  morale  work.  Qualified  substitutes  have  been  provided  for  all  except  12  of  the 
enlisted  psychologists  who  were  on  duty  as  morale  soldiers.  Lieut.  Mertz  has  been  relieved  from  duty  with  psychological 
company  No.  1,  and  assigned  to  the  Camp  Greenleaf  infirmary  to  assist  in  the  mental  examination  of  incoming  recruits. 

VII.  Development  battalions. 

The  formation  of  development  battalions  has  given  rise  to  some  of  the  most  important  problems  which  have  con- 
fronted the  psychological  service.  The  following  notes  from  letters  of  chief  psychological  examiners  show  the  great 
need  for  practical  help  in  the  classification,  training,  and  placement  of  men  in  such  organizations: 

Camp  Sherman,  July  22.  1918:  *  *  *  I  have  suggested  to  our  educational  director  that  he  classify  the  men  to 
be  developed  into  three  groups  according  to  the  intelligence  as  shown  by  our  records.  I  also  suggested  to  him  that  he 
select  his  teaching  staff  with  reference  to  our  grading.  He  has  accepted  both  suggestions  and  incorporated  them  in  a 
letter  to  the  proper  authorities.  The  psychological  examiner  in  this  camp  will  undertake  to  cooperate  with  the  educa- 
tional director  as  to  the  best  method  of  instructing  the  men  in  the  development  battalion.  He  will  also  cooperate  with 
the  director  in  reporting  progress  which  these  men  make. 

Camp  Cody,  July  20,  1918 :  Psychological  ratings  have  been  made  of  all  men  in  the  development  battalion.  About 
150  were  discharged  on  mental  grounds,  and  the  men  retained  were  classified  according  to  mental  ability. 

Camp  Sevier,  July  18,  191S:  At  request  from  division  surgeon  examinations  were  given  to  75  men  who  had  been 
recommended  by  their  company  officers  to  summary  court  officer  for  transfer  to  development  battalion  on  the  ground  of 
mental  deficiency  or  inaptitude.  The  psychological  board  concurred  in  the  recommendation  of  company  officers  in 
44  per  cent  of  the  cases.  The  ruling  has  been  made  in  this  camp  that  in  the  future  the  summary  court  officer  must  have 
the  recommendation  of  the  psychological  board  before  ordering  transfers  for  mental  deficiency  or  inaptitude. 

Camp  Sevier,  July  15, 1918:  The  division  surgeon  here  thinks  General  Orders,  No.  45  should  be  rewritten  to  include 
formal  recognition  of  the  necessity  of  obtaining  the  recommendation  of  psychological  board  before  transfers  for  inapti- 
tude or  mental  deficiency.  Previous  to  ruling  to  this  effect  at  Camp  Sevier  there  was  great  lack  of  uniformity  among 
commanding  officers  in  recommending  transfers. 

Camp  Sevier,  July  25,  1918:  Preparatory  to  sending  the  Eighty-first  Division  abroad,  company  commanders  were 
asked  to  recommend  the  unfit  for  the  development  battalion.  Over  300  men  were  recommended,  a  number  which  the 
camp  surgeon  believed  to  be  unnecessarily  large.  As  a  result  of  the  difference  of  opinion,  359  men  were  marched  in  a 
body  to  the  psychological  examining  board  for  individual  psychological  examination.     Within  two  days  abbreviated 


66 


MEMOIRS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES. 


[Vol.  XV, 


examinations  had  been  made  of  these  men  with  the  result  that  of  the  359  recommended  for  development  battalion,  162 
(45  per  cent)  were  recommended  by  the  psychologists  for  development  battalions,  and  197  (55  per  cent)  were  recom- 
mended for  regular  service.  Of  those  above  the  mental  age  of  9,  all  but  about  15  per  cent  were  considered  fit  for  regular 
service;  of  those  between  8  and  9,  about  60  per  cent;  of  those  between  7  and  8,  about  10  per  cent;  of  those  below  7,  none. 

Camp  Travis.  July  25,  1918:  The  commanding  officer  of  development  battalion  has  agreed  to  cooperate  by  allowing 
the  psychological  board  to  select  low  grade  men  (9  to  11  mentally)  in  development  battalion,  and  try  out  methods  of 
training.  The  commanding  officer  will  furnish  noncommissioned  officers  for  the  purpose,  and  the  psychological  exam- 
ining board  will  furnish  a  plan  and  a  supervisor. 

Camp  Taylor,  August  13,  1918 :  Of  the  individual  examinations  made  during  the  past  week  a  large  percentage  of  the 
cases  were  referred  to  us  by  various  organizations  in  camp.  All  mental  cases  for  discharge  are  referred  by  the  disability 
board  for  mental  rating.  We  are  assisting  in  every  way  with  proper  classification  of  mental  cases  in  the  development 
battalion.  Company  commanders  are  referring  to  us  those  men  who  appear  hopeless  as  far  as  drill  is  concerned. 
Organizations  preparing  for  immediate  service  overseas  refer  many  cases  to  us. 

Camp  Lewis,  August  7,  1918:  The  commander  of  the  development  battalion  has  felt  the  need  of  a  psychologist 
attached  directly  to  the  development  battalion  to  assist  in  the  problems  arising  in  the  instruction  and  training  of  the 
men  in  his  charge.  As  a  temporary  arrangement,  one  of  our  trained  enlisted  men  is  being  sent  over  daily  to  assist  in 
whatever  way  he  can.  *  *  *  We  are  conducting  experiments  to  determine  the  rate  of  learning  of  men  in  the  devel- 
opment battalion,  with  a  view  to  recommending  those  who  are  very  slow  to  learn,  to  labor  units. 

Psychological  examinations  have  been  made  of  the  development  battalions  at  Camps  Wadsworth,  Meade,  and  a  num- 
ber of  other  places.     The  results  show,  as  would  be  expected,  an  extremely  large  proportion  of  low  letter  grades. 

Camp  Meade  has  been  designated  as  a  station  for  special  study  of  the  problems  of  the  development  battalion.  At 
the  request  of  Lieut.  Col.  Lentz,  of  the  general  staff,  for  the  assignment  of  a  psychologist  to  this  station,  Lieut.  Paterson 
has  been  transferred  from  Camp  Wadsworth  to  study  psychological  problems  and  to  observe  the  kinds  of  service  psy- 
chology is  prepared  to  render.  Capt.  Bassett,  of  Camp  Logan,  and  Lieut.  Houser,  of  Camp  Kearny,  have  been  sent 
by  their  commanding  officers  for  observation  of  development  battalion  work  at  Camp  Meade. 

VIII.  Cooperation  vith  neuro-psychiatric  officers. 

Among  the  varieties  of  psychological  service  enumerated  in  an  earlier  monthly  report,  satisfactory  cooperation 
with  neuro-psychiatric  officers  was  emphasized.  The  following  notes,  selected  to  suggest  possibilities,  indicate  what 
has  been  and  is  being  done  in  this  important  field  at  various  stations: 

Camp  Upton,  July  1,  1918:  One  individual  examiner  has  been  placed  permanently  on  the  special  medical  board, 
also  one  in  the  base  hospital.  The  latter  works  constantly  with  the  psychiatrist;  the  former  helps  weed  out  cases  for 
further  examination. 

Camp  Custer,  August  3,  1918:  At  the  suggestion  of  the  neuro-psychiatric  board,  four  men  have  been  detailed  to 
work  with  the  special  psychiatric  board  which  handles  referred  cases.  All  recommendations  are  accepted  without 
question.  Of  10,542  drafted  men,  175  were  referred  for  psychological  examination  (1.7  per  cent);  23  of  these  were 
rejected. 

Camp  Custer,  July  27,  1918:  Four  individual  examiners  have  been  working  with  the  psychiatrists. 

Camp  Hancock,  July  27,  1918:  One  member  of  the  staff  and  two  assistants  have  been  detailed  to  work  with  the 
psychiatrists. 

Camp  Grant,  July  2,  1918:  Effective  cooperation  has  been  established  with  the  psychiatrists.  Many  found 
defective  are  sent  home  without  having  completed  their  enlistment  papers,  thus  effecting  a  great  saving. 

Camp  Wadsworth,  July  13,  1918:  It  has  been  arranged  that  in  the  future,  while  troops  are  being  received,  a  staff 
of  psychological  examiners  will  work  with  the  psychiatrists  during  the  medical  examination. 

IX.  Significance  of  intelligence  scores. 

Camp  Kearny,  August  14,  1918:  Under  authorization  of  the  chief  of  staff  of  the  Fortieth  Division,  the  chief  psy- 
chological examiner  secured  the  cooperation  of  the  commanding  officers  of  11  different  organizations  in  an  experiment 
to  determine  the  value  of  psychological  ratings  in  picking  men  who  are  superior  or  inferior  in  military  value.  In  each 
organization  the  commanding  officers  designated  from  15  to  30  whom  they  had  found  to  be  especially  valuable,  about  an 
equal  number  who  were  so  inferior  they  were  barely  able  to  perform  their  duties,  and  about  an  equal  number  who  were 
deemed  of  average  value.  The  officers  had  been  with  their  men  for  from  six  months  to  a  year  and  knew  them 
thoroughly.  After  the  men  were  given  psychological  examination  the  median  alpha  scores  were  found  to  be  as  follows 
for  the  superior,  average,  and  inferior  groups  of  the  different  organizations: 


Median 
superior. 

Median 
average. 

Median 
inferior. 

97.5 
110 
103.5 
101 
120 

95.5 
115 

93 
112 

157 
107 

SI 
80 
76 
67 
89 
82 

126.5 
63 
9S 

101 
84 

47.5 
48.5 
47 
46 
56 
68 
105 
43 
56 

70.5 
58 

One  hundred  and  fifty-seventh' and  One  hundred  and  fifty-ninth 

No.i.]  PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  ARMY.  67 

The  above  figures  are  deemed  significant.  It  will  be  noted  that  the  median  score  for  the  superior  group  is  in  most 
cases  almost  twice  as  high  as  the  median  for  the  inferior  group.  The  Signal  Battalion  is  the  exception  to  the  rule, 
but  here  the  entire  battalion  is  bo  highly  selected  that  large  differences  could  not  be  expected. 

Camp  Lee,  July  16, 1918:  In  the  fourth  Engineer  Reserve  Officers'  Training  Camp,  80  men  were  recommended  for 
commissions  and  60  for  elimination.  The  percentage  of  elimination  in  the  various  letter  groups  were  as  follows:  A,  69 
cases,  34. 8per  cent  eliminated;  B,  49  cases,  38.8  per  cent  eliminated;  C+,  17  cases,  76.5  per  cent  eliminated;  C,  5  cases. 
80  per  cent  eliminated. 

Records  of  final  eliminations  from  the  Fourth  Officers'  Training  Camp  at  Camp  Cody  show  the  following  percentage 
of  elimination  for  those  receiving  various  letter  grades:  A,  2.7  per  cent;  B,  14.8  per  cent;  C+,  18.3  per  cent;  C,  17  per 
cent;  C  — ,  55  per  cent;  D,  100  per  cent. 

Camp  Lewis,  July  21, 1918 :  Psychological  examination  was  given  to  candidates  before  their  admission  to  the  Fourth 
Officers'  Training  Camp.  No  candidates  below  200  were  accepted;  17  per  cent  of  the  candidates  were  rejected  on  this 
basis.  The  committee  on  selection  said  it  was  "fine  business."  After  three  weeks'  training,  19  men  who  had  made 
below  230  were  marked  for  failure.     As  a  result  of  the  rigid  selection  the  officers  state  that  they  have  a  remarkably 

bright  group  of  men  to  deal  with. 

X.  Methods  of  conducting  examinations. 

Camp  Dix,  August  12,  1918:  In  the  morning  of  the  next  day  after  arrival  the  recruit  is  given  the  psychological 
examination.  In  the  afternoon  of  the  same  day  he  is  given  the  various  physical  examinations  and  the  psychiatric 
examination.  All  recruits  who  are  to  be  examined  in  the  morning  are  ordered  to  report  in  two  groups — one  at  7.30  and 
one  at  8.30.  After  segregation  according  to  literacy,  the  alpha  examination  is  given  in  groups  up  to  500;  the  beta  test 
in  groups  as  large  as  100.  As  soon  as  100  beta  men  have  been  selected,  they  are  marched  into  the  beta  room,  given  a 
book  and  pencil  as  they  enter,  and  seated  for  the  examination.  When  the  examination  is  completed  the  men  are 
marched  into  the  scoring  room,  and  another  group  at  once  enters  the  beta  room  for  examination.  In  the  scoring  room 
the  headings  are  filled  out  by  the  clerks,  and  the  men  are  then  passed  out  through  another  door.  The  clerks  in  the  scor- 
ing room  now  proceed  to  score  the  100  beta  books  of  the  men  just  examined.  This  is  finished  by  the  time  the  next 
beta  group  has  been  examined.  In  this  way  1,100  may  be  given  the  beta  examination  in  one  day,  and  the  papers  for 
each  group  scored  within  40  minutes  after  it  is  marched  out  of  the  room.  The  scoring  of  alpha  examinations  is  similarly 
speeded  up,  so  that  every  man  making  E  in  alpha  is  held  for  beta  without  recall.  Those  making  below  D  in  beta  are 
held  until  individual  examination  has  been  given.  Thus  2,000  to  2,400  men  are  handled  daily  in  this  camp  without 
the  necessity  of  any  recalls.  Lists  of  low  score  men  found  in  the  forenoon  are  sent  to  the  psychiatrist  for  use  in  the 
afternoon  of  the  same  day.  All  but  a  few  of  the  psychological  grades  are  reported  to  the  personnel  office  within  24 
hours,  and  the  remainder  within  36  to  48  hours. 

It  would  seem  that  the  above  arrangement  is  as  near  to  the  ideal  as  possible.  There  is  every  argument  in  favor  of 
giving  the  psychological  examination  almost  immediately  after  the  men  have  been  received  in  camp.  The  men  are  in 
better  physical  condition  than  after  inoculation;  it  insures  that  the  results  will  be  available  for  use  by  psychiatrists 
during  the  medical  examination;  and  it  gives  the  greatest  possible  opportunity  for  use  of  the  grades  by  the  personnel 
officer. 

Camp  Meade,  August  16,  1918:  Capt.  LaRue  has  reported  to  the  office  of  the  Surgeon  General  an  experiment 
designed  to  obviate  the  recall  of  subjects  for  a  second  examination.  Two  men  skilled  in  individual  examining  were 
stationed  beside  the  psychiatrists  in  the  general  medical  examining  line.  These  two  examiners  interviewed  each 
recruit  as  he  passed  and  then  handed  him  a  card  A,  B,  or  I,  indicating  that  he  should  enter  alpha,  beta,  or  individual 
examining  room.  Of  1,617  recruits  thus  classified,  21  per  cent  were  given  A  cards,  69  per  cent  B  cards,  and  10  per 
cent  I  cards.  In  order  to  find  out  whether  the  right  man  had  been  picked  for  the  three  different  examinations,  those 
who  received  below  D  in  alpha  were  recalled  for  beta,  and  those  who  received  below  D  in  beta  were  recalled  for 
individual  examination. 

It  was  found  that  of  those  who  had  been  given  A  cards  only  3.6  per  cent  failed  to  earn  a  grade  as  high  as  D  in  alpha 
examination,  and  none  of  these,  after  recall  for  beta,  failed  to  earn  a  score  of  D  or  higher  on  the  beta  examination. 

Of  those  given  B  cards  33.8  per  cent  earned  a  grade  below  D  on  the  beta  examination,  but  when  these  beta  failures 
were  given  individual  examination  it  was  found  that  97.7  per  cent  of  them  were  found  fit  for  regular  sendee. 

Of  those  given  I  cards  85  per  cent  were  recommended  f  orregular  service  and  15  per  cent  for  Development  Battalion. 

The  loss  of  special  recommendations  in  the  one  examination  plan  is  less  than  one-half  of  1  per  cent  of  the  total 
number  examined.  It  is  possible  that  even  this  loss  is  over  balanced  by  the  failure  to  secure  men  who  are  recalled  on 
the  repeated  examination  plan.  A  special  technique  of  interviewing  would  probably  render  the  sorting  still  more 
effective. 

Camp  Greenleaf ,  August  16,  1918:  A  short  method  of  scoring  alpha  papers  has  been  devised  to  do  away  with  the 
recalls  from  alpha  to  beta.  By  study  of  1,000  alpha  papers  it  was  found  that  tests  2  and  3  gave  the  highest  correlations 
between  number  of  attempts  and  total  alpha  score — viz,  0.82.  It  was  found  that  if  the  number  of  attempts  on  2  and  3 
equals  13  the  total  score  will  be  more  than  15,  if  less  than  13  the  papers  are  scored  until  15  points  have  been  earned 
and  then  laid  aside  for  later  scoring.  The  method  requires  scoring  or  partial  scoring  of  only  about  10  per  cent  of  alpha 
papers.  One  hundred  papers  can  be  scored  by  five  men  in  five  minutes.  The  operation  of  this  rule  loses  only  5  per 
cent  who  should  be  recalled. 

Camp  Wadsworth,  August  23,  1918:  The  psychological  staff  in  this  camp  is  organized  as  follows:  individual 
examining  staff,  1  lieutenant,  3  sergeants,  and  4  privates;  group  examining  staff,  1  sergeant,  and  3  privates  for  alpha 


68  MEMOIRS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES.  [VoL  xv, 

examinations,  and  1  sergeant,  1  corporal,  and  3  privates  for  beta  examinations;  development  battalion  staff,  1  corporal 
and  1  private;  office  staff,  1  sergeant  in  charge,  aided  by  16  privates  in  the  scoring  section,  3  privates  in  the  stenographic 
section,  2  privates  in  the  statistical  section,  3  privates  in  the  checking  section,  1  private  in  charge  of  filing  and  records, 
1  private  in  charge  of  stockroom,  and  1  private  in  charge  of  mail.  In  addition,  4  privates  are  detailed  for  service  in 
the  personnel  section,  depot  personnel  office.     The  chief  psychological  examiner  (a  lieutenant)  has  a   sergeant  as 

adjutant. 

XI.  Miscellaneous  lines  of  service. 

Camp  Bowie,  July  6,  1918:  The  psychological  service  in  this  station  has  proved  to  be  of  great  value  in  the  handling 
of  recruits  aside  from  giving  regularly  prescribed  examinations.  The  psychological  examiners  assist  in  the  medical 
examinations,  in  cooperation  with  the  psychiatrists  during  rush  work,  by  aiding  in  the  selection  of  low  grade  men  for 
reexamination,  and  the  chief  examiner  frequently  assists  in  selecting  men  of  superior  intelligence  for  emergency  work, 
special  detail,  etc. ,  within  the  detention  camp,  as  well  as  in  the  selection  of  men  for  vacancies  in  different  camp 
organizations. 

Camp  Taylor,  July  31,  1918:  Company  commanders  now  refer  to  us  for  examination  those  men  who  do  not  get  on 
well  at  drill  *  *  *  The  disability  board  refers  all  mental  cases  to  us  for  mental  rating  before  they  act  on  the 
cases.     Our  recommendation  usually  decides  the  matter. 

Camp  WadsWorth,  June  22,  1918:  The  adjutant  of  the  First  Pioneer  Regiment  says  that  he  has  been  greatly  helped 
by  the  psychological  grades;  that  he  is  now  able  to  pick  out  any  type  of  man  he  wants.  He  has  called  in  all  privates  who 
scored  A,  and  selected  a  number  of  them  for  responsible  positions. 

Camp  Funston,  July  15,  1918:  On  request  of  the  psychological  examiner  the  camp  surgeon  ordered  the  psycho- 
logical grades  placed  on  all  service  cards.  The  chief  psychological  examiner  will  meet  the  company  commander  of 
each  regiment  to  explain  the  ratings.  The  reports  to  company  commanders  are  delivered  in  person  so  that  questions 
may  be  answered. 

Camp  Logan,  July  15,  1918:  The  chief  psychological  examiner  now  makes  lists  of  the  men  examined  with  score, 
occupation,  education,  and  wages  tabulated  opposite  the  man's  name.  The  officers  report  that  it  is  the  most  valu- 
able data  they  have.  *  *  *  As  a  result  of  frequent  conferences  with  company  officers,  many  promotions  and 
transfers  have  been  made. 

Camp  Bowie,  August  3,  1918:  Arrangements  have  been  made  with  the  judge  advocate  for  referring  to  the 
psychologist  all  cases  on  which  special  information  is  desired. 

Camp  Bowie,  July  20,  1918:  Tests  will  be  made  of  prisoners  not  already  tested.  Close  cooperation  has  been 
effected  with  the  judge  advocate.  *  *  *  Conference  has  been  held  with  the  camp  adjutant  on  the  use  of  the 
psychological  service  in  the  problems  of  education,  training,  and  morale.  *  *  *  The  commanding  general  desires 
further  help  in  the  development  battalion  than  the  routine  psychological  examinations.  The  director  of  the  Y.  M. 
C.  A.  desires  the  cooperation  of  the  psychological  board  in  connection  with  his  problems.  *  *  *  Conference  has 
been  held  with  the  prison  officer  at  military  police  headquarters.  In  the  future  all  prisoners  awaiting  trial  will  be 
sent  for  examination,  and  report  will  be  made  on  intelligence. 

Camp  Jackson,  August  17,  191S:  The  psychological  board  at  this  camp  has  been  made  the  final  authority  on  liter- 
acy. A  new  stamp  has  been  made  by  the  personnel  officer  which  shows  the  psychological  grade  indicating  literacy 
or  illiteracy.  The  psychological  staff  has  been  called  upon  to  mark  the  psychological  grade  and  literacy  or  illiteracy 
on  the  back  of  overseas  card. 

Camp  Bowie,  August  17,  1918:  The  psychological  staff  in  this  camp  has  prepared  outlines  for  psychological  service 
in  connection  with  the  following  problems: 

(a)  Information  for  the  judge  advocate  on  cases  referred. 

(6)  Information  on  general  and  summary  court  cases. 

(c)  Information  from  company  officers  on  men  of  high  psychological  rating  who  make  poor  soldiers. 

(d)  Information  from  company  officers  on  men  with  low  psychological  ratings  who  make  good  soldiers. 

(e)  Information  for  company  officers  on  drill  tests  on  the  psychological  problems  involved  in  educating  and  drill 
ing  troops. 

XII.  Students'  Army  training  corps. 

The  following  letter  from  the  Committee  on  Classification  of  Personnel  in  the  Army,  having  unusual  significance 
for  psychological  staffs,  is  quoted  entire.  It  emphasizes  the  importance  of  securing  ratings  of  all  draftees  by  psycho- 
logical examining  staffs  in  their  respective  stations: 

Room  528,  State,  War,  and  Navy  Building, 

Washington,  D.  C,  August  31,  WIS. 
Maj.  Robert  M.  Yerkes, 

Surgeon  General  Dept.,  Washington,  D .  C. 
My  dear  Major  Yerkes:  At  a  joint  meeting  yesterday  of  the  Committee  on  Classification  of  Personnel  in  the 
Army  and  of  the  Committee  of  the  General  Staff  for  Education  and  Special  Training  the  method  of  selecting  students 
for  the  Students'  Army  Training  Corps  was  discussed.  It  was  decided  by  a  unanimous  vote  that  the  psychological 
tests  now  being  given  by  you  to  recruits  should  be  used  as  a  standard  in  selecting  recruits  for  the  schools.  The  two 
committees,  therefore,  urged  that  you  take  all  necessary  steps  to  see  that  all  the  recruits  are  given  the  psychological 
tests  as  soon  as  they  enter  the  depot  brigade,  or  other  recruiting  points  from  which  students  are  sent  to  the  Students' 
Army  Training  Corps  institutions. 
Yours  truly, 

Walter  Dill  Scott. 


no.  l.]  PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  ARMY.  69 

Psychological  service  was  more  or  less  completely  organized  in  35  stations  before  the 
signing  of  the  armistice.  These  stations  fall  into  four  groups:  (a)  Those  in  which  examining 
was  originally  organized  in  September  or  October,  1917,  and  where  the  work  continued 
throughout  the  period  of  the  emergency;  (b)  those  which  were  provided  for  as  soon  after  the 
official  order  for  extension  of  psychological  examining  as  suitable  officers  could  be  supplied 
(this  group  included  the  majority  of  camps  which  received  drafted  men  in  considerable  num- 
bers) ;  (c)  stations  which  seldom,  if  ever,  received  drafted  men  directly  and  in  which  there- 
fore the  need  of  psychological  examining  was  less  urgent  than  in  the  former  group;  and  (d) 
camps  which  could  not  be  supplied  with  psychologists  until  the  fall  of  1918  because  of  short- 
age of  officer  personnel  (this  group  included  a  few  camps  which  were  not  authorized  by  the 
War  Department  until  late  in  1918). 

It  has  seemed  desirable  both  for  the  purpose  of  giving  definite  and  concise  information 
concerning  the  principal  characteristics  of  the  psychological  organization  and  its  service  in 
various  camps,  and  to  give  due  credit  to  the  responsible  officer,  to  devote  a  few  paragraphs  to 
an  account  of  the  conditions  in  each  of  the  35  stations. 

CAMP  BEAUREGARD,  LA. 

In  October,  1918,  the  inspector  of  psychological  examining  reported  that  the  camp  com- 
mander at  Camp  Beauregard,  the  chief  of  staff  of  the  Seventeenth  Division  (then  in  process  of 
formation),  and  the  temp  surgeon  favored  immediate  establishment  of  psychological  service. 
The  division  and  the  acting  camp  personnel  adjutants  urged  that  the  examining  be  estab- 
lished in  time  to  assist  in  the  classification  and  assignment  of  the  recruits  expected  to  fill 
the  Seventeenth  Division.  The  camp  authorities  reported  that  temporary  buildings  could  be 
supplied.  The  inspector  urged  that  personnel  be  sent  as  soon  after  the  passing  of  the  highest 
peak  of  the  influenza  as  possible. 

On  November  4  Lieut.  Manuel  reported  from  Camp  Pike  as  chief  of  the  psychological 
service.  Subsequently  Lieut.  Metcalf,  from  Camp  Devens,  and  Sergt.  Larrabee  were  added 
to  the  staff;  Lieut.  Manuel  was  assigned  to  base  hospital  No.  1,  San  Antonio,  in  December. 
Lieut.  Metcalf  remained  in  charge  until  January. 

The  psychological  staff  upon  arrival  made  immediate  arrangements  for  examining  the 
enlisted  personnel  in  camp  and  for  handling  the  expected  draft.  The  camp  surgeon  requested 
that  all  men  grading  A  in  physical  examination  in  the  development  battalion  be  examined 
mentally  as  basis  of  selection  for  transfer  from  the  battalions.  Temporary  buildings  for  the 
staff  and  for  examining  space  were  obtained  in  infirmaries  and  Y.  M.  C.  A.  buildings.  A 
clerical  force  of  57  men  was  organized  to  handle  the  draft  that  was  suddenly  stopped  by  the 
armistice  of  November  11,  1918.  Since  no  draft  arrived  this  force  was  reduced  to  a  staff  of 
6  to  12  men  until  the  practical  discontinuance  of  all  work  early  in  December.  The  principal 
work  during  November  was  the  carrying  out  of  special  investigations  requested  by  the  Wash- 
ington office.  Data  were  obtained  on  the  relation  between  ratings  by  officers  and  alpha  scores 
with  several  hundred  representative  literates,  and  on  the  effect  of  doubling  the  time  in  the 
tests. 

Number  enlisted  men  examined,  2,375;  officers,  12.     Total  individual  examinations,  25. 

CAMP  BOWIE,  TEX. 

Lieut.  Wheeler  reported  as  chief  of  the  psychological  service  at  Camp  Bowie  on  April  26f 
1918;  Sergt.  Paynter  and  Pvt.  Coxe,  from  Camp  Greenleaf,  in  June;  and  Sergt.  Russell  and 
Corpl.  Jennings  in  August. 

The  staff  at  this  camp  was  established  slowly  and  never  reached  an  adequate  total.  Clerical 
assistance  was  difficult  to  obtain  because  of  incomplete  camp  organization.  The  number  of 
men  on  special  detail  varied  from  6  to  40. 

One  entire  mess  hall  and  half  of  an  adjoining  one  were  assigned  by  the  surgeon  for  this 
service.  In  May  the  half  building  was  used  for  other  purposes,  though  still  open  for  exami- 
nations. Late  in  June  two  entire  buildings  were  assigned  the  psychological  service.  In 
October  the  staff  moved  to  two  one-story  supply  buildings  more  centrally  located. 


70  MEMOIRS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES.  [vol.  xv, 

Men  reported  for  examination  in  companies  of  250,  and  were  first  separated  into  two 
groups,  those  who  had  and  those  who  had  not  finished  fourth  grade.  Each  group  was  then  ques- 
tioned as  to  reading  and  writing  ability,  and  necessary  changes  made.  The  lower  group  was 
then  sent  to  the  beta  room,  the  upper  to  alpha.  Those  who  had  difficulty  in  filling  out  the  head- 
ings of  the  alpha  blank  were  also  sent  to  beta.  Whenever  possible,  both  groups  were  held 
while,  by  short-scoring  or  other  methods,  failures  were  picked  out  for  further  examination. 

Selection  for  individual  examining  was  especially  studied;  in  October  the  individual  ex- 
aminer, during  the  beta  examination,  selected  low-grade  cases,  who  were  sent  at  once  to  the 
individual  examining  room.  The  beta  group  was  held  during  the  short-scoring  of  tests  1  and 
6,  and  failures  sent  direct  to  individual  examination.  Reports  of  examination  were  delivered 
in  person  to  regimental  commanders,   and  conference  held. 

The  Thirty-sixth  Division  moved  out  of  Camp  Bowie  early  in  July.  Permanent  organiza- 
tions were  examined  until  later  drafts  arrived.  In  September  the  psychological  examina- 
tion was  taking  place  as  soon  as  the  men  had  been  registered  and  assigned  to  companies.  It 
preceded  the  physical  examination,  which  in  turn  preceded  the  equipment  and  personnel  inter- 
view. Reports  were  made  out  and  sent  to  commanding  officers  within  24  hours.  Personnel 
cards  and  service  records  were  sent  to  the  psychological  building,  where  ratings  were  entered 
by  men  from  the  personnel  detachment  on  special  duty  with  the  psychological  board.  For 
the  limited-service  draft  the  intelligence  rating  was  entered  on  the  qualification  card  at  the 
meeting  of  the  final  board  and  considered  before  the  men  were  definitely  classified;  and  reports 
of  cases  for  service  organizations  or  discharge  were  acted  upon  by  this  board.  Before  the 
end  of  September  intelligence  grades  were  entered  on  service  records. 

Since  the  officer  personnel  changed  rapidly,  the  chief  examiner  found  that  a  large  por- 
tion of  his  time  was  spent  in  acquainting  new  officers  with  the  nature  of  his  work  and  its  uses. 
The  development  battalion  was  serving  primarily  as  a  source  from  which  special-duty  men 
were  drawn — a  condition  which  hindered  careful  psychological  work  and  full  development  of 
the  service.  In  spite  of  this  the  personnel  services  of  the  chief  examiner  and  his  staff  were 
unusually  numerous,  varied,  and  satisfactoiy.  The  chief  examiner  became  practically  an 
associate  member  of  a  medical  board  to  examine  court  cases  suspected  of  mental  defect.  In 
cooperation  with  the  camp  judge  advocate  an  outline  for  "Certificate  and  report  of  psychological 
examination ' '  was  prepared  for  reporting  court  cases,  and  by  arrangement  with  military  police 
headquarters,  all  prisoners  were  examined  while  awaiting  trial.  By  June  an  individual 
examiner  was  working  directly  with  the  psychiatrist,  passing  the  men  on  with  a  verbal  recom- 
mendation; no  blank  was  used.  In  July  Pvt.  Coxe  was  detailed  to  work  regularly  with  the 
psychiatrist.  On  occasion,  too,  the  staff  helped  the  personnel  officer  in  selecting  men  for 
special  detail,  even  making  out  a  series  of  examination  questions  to  aid  in  choosing  personnel 
interviewers. 

Total  number  enlisted  men  examined,  27,339;  officers,  125.  Total  individual  examina- 
tions, 1,220. 

CAMP  CODY,  N.  MEX. 

Lieuts.  Moore  and  Wood  reported  for  duty  in  May,  1918;  Sergt.  Katz,  Corpl.  Schmidt,  and 
Pvt.  Karn  in  June;  Sergt.  Jenkins  and  Corpl.  Weber  in  September;  and  Lieut.  Ream,  from 
Camp  Humphreys,  in  November.  The  clerical  staff  was  small;  seldom  over  20  men  on  spe- 
cial detail.  Facilities  for  everything  but  group  examining  were  excellent.  The  shortage 
of  officers  was  especially  noticeable  at  this  camp  on  account  of  the  unusual  number  of  important 
services  that  could  have  been  rendered. 

The  building  in  use  by  the  psychological  staff  was  an  infirmary  assigned  temporarily  to 
this  work.  There  was  unusual  space  for  individual  examining  rooms  and  scoring  rooms.  The 
rooms  in  which  it  was  necessary  to  do  a  certain  amount  of  group  examining  were  small  and 
accommodated  groups  of  50  men  or  less.  It  was  necessary,  therefore,  to  use  the  Liberty 
Theater  and  the  outdoor  stadium  during  periods  of  rush  examining.  These  buildings  were 
located  about  a  quarter  of  a  mile  from  the  staff  headquarters. 


No.i.]  PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  ARMY.  71 

Characteristics  of  examining  at  Camp  Cody  were  largety  due  to  the  number  of  Spanish- 
speaking  Mexican  recruits.  Examination  alpha  was  given  to  English-speaking  men  with 
more  than  fourth  grade  schooling.  The  remainder  were  given  examination  beta,  with  which 
verbal  instructions  (in  English  and  in  Spanish)  were  in  use  after  August  1.  The  performance 
scale  was  little  used,  being  replaced  by  a  Spanish  translation  of  the  Point  Scale.  It  was  never 
possible  to  give  individual  examination  to  all  low-grade  cases.  In  making  recommendations  a 
man's  company  record  was  used  to  supplement  low  group-examination  grade. 

An  unusually  complete  statement  of  meaning  and  use  of  pyschological  ratings  was  pre- 
pared for  camp  use.  The  staff  made  a  study  of  intelligence  levels  in  different  branches  of  the 
service.  The  Thirty-fourth  Division  having  been  in  training  nine  months,  the  officers  were 
able  to  indicate  men  most  valuable  to  their  branch  of  the  service  after  practically  all  transfers 
had  been  completed.  On  the  basis  of  this  study  the  draft  quotas  were  distributed  to  the  different 
arms  in  accordance  with  the  previously  determined  intelligence  requirements.  At  the  request 
of  the  intelligence  officer,  the  psychological  board  made  a  study  of  the  mental  and  emotional 
characteristics  of  the  Mexican  draft,  with  suitable  recommendations.  Psychologist  and 
psychiatrist  worked  together  in  many  individual  examinations,  and  especially  in  cases  for 
courts-martial,  on  which  ratings  were  regularly  supplied  the  judge  advocate  and  made  a  part 
of  the  record.  An  officer  of  the  psychological  board  served  for  a  time  as  assistant  judge  advo- 
cate on  a  general  court-martial  which  tried  conscientious  objectors. 

The  statistical  work  of  the  staff,  besides  the  study  of  arms  of  the  service,  dealt  mainly 
with  results  of  examining,  including  relation  of  intelligence  to  schooling.  Comparisons  were 
well  expressed  in  graphs. 

Number  eidisted  men  examined,  42,533;  officers,  949.     Total  individual  examinations,  517. 

CAMP    CUSTER,     MICH. 

Lieut.  Toll  reported  as  chief  examiner  in  April,  1918.  Lieut.  Jones  reported  as  assistant 
examiner  at  the  same  time.  Sergts.  Taub  and  Dimmick  reported  from  Camp  Greenleaf  in  May; 
Corpls.  Clarke  and  Johnson,  Pvt.  First  Class  Lefton,  and  Pvt.  Kellogg  in  June;  Corpls.  Hoche 
and  Jackson  in  August.  The  permanent  clerical  detail  assigned  by  camp  order  averaged  14 
men.  The  temporary  detail  varied  from  6  to  20  additional  clerical  assistants,  according  to 
the  size  of  the  draft  and  speed  required  in  the  examining  and  reporting.  The  regular  staff 
was  too  small  for  the  size  and  importance  of  this  camp. 

The  building  finally  assigned  to  psychological  staff  for  office  quarters  was  a  one-story 
building,  20  by  60  feet,  previously  used  as  a  guardhouse.  This  space  was  divided  into  two 
large  rooms  and  two  very  small  offices.  Routine  work  and  individual  examining  were  carried 
on  in  this  building.  Group  examinations  were  held  in  the  various  recreation  buildings  and 
in  certain  school  buildings,  such  as  the  building  of  the  division  bayonet  school.  The  particular 
building  used  was  selected  according  to  its  location  with  respect  to  the  organization  being 
examined.  The  usual  arrangement  where  these  larger  auditoriums  were  used  was  to  have  one 
assigned  permanently  for  certain  hours,  and  for  all  recruits  and  units  being  examined  to  report 
to  that  building  regardless  of  location.  The  office  of  the  psychological  staff  was  located  near 
the  receiving  barracks  and  depot  brigade  headquarters.  The  staff  at  this  camp  was  assigned 
to  duty  under  the  depot  brigade  surgeon.  This  in  effect  localized  its  activities  and  limited  its 
authority  and  opportunity  for  service. 

Examination  alpha  was  given  to  white  men  who  were  "able  to  read  and  write  English 
pretty  well"  and  to  negroes  who  had  gone  as  far  as  the  fifth  grade  in  school.  Men  unable  to 
take  alpha,  or  making  less  than  50  (weighted  score),  were  reported  as  "illiterate"  and  were 
given  examination  beta.  Short  scoring  of  alpha  blanks  before  the  group  was  dismissed  was  at 
first  the  regular  procedure.     Beta  faUures  were  recalled  for  individual  examination. 

The  psychological  examination  took  place  after  all  others;  intelligence  ratings  were  there- 
fore not  available  at  the  time  of  the  personnel  and  other  interviews.  During  the  July  draft, 
however,  four  examiners  were  detailed  to  work  with  the  psychiatric  board  dealing  with  recruits 
referred  for  rejection.     Practically  all  the  lowest-grade  recruits  were  rejected  by  this  procedure. 


72  MEMOIRS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES.  [Vol.xv. 

The  psychological  staff  at  Camp  Custer  constantly  informed  officers  concerning  the  intel- 
lectual strength  of  their  commands  by  means  of  comparative  graphs,  but  was  even  more  con- 
spicuous by  the  quantity  and  quality  of  its  statistical  work  on  methods.  Its  reports  ranged 
from  details  of  technique  in  giving  and  scoring  tests  to  the  larger  revision  of  examination  plans, 
from  "  psychographs  "  of  occupations  to  effect  of  typhoid  inoculation,  and  were  suggestive  and 
stimulating  to  the  Division  of  psychology,  Washington. 

Number  enlisted  men  examined,  54,2S4;  officers,  70.     Total  individual  examinations,  2,004. 


CAMP    DEVENS,    MASS. 


About  the  1st  of  October,  1917,  Lieut.  Foster  reported  for  duty.  Lieuts.  Anderson, 
English,  and  Metcalf  reported  at  approximately  the  same  time.  Examining  continued  through- 
out the  fall  of  1917,  but  in  the  winter  of  1918  the  entire  staff,  with  the  exception  of  Lieut.  Met- 
calf, reported  for  special  training  at  Camp  Greenleaf.  This  officer  remained  in  charge  until 
June,  1918,  when  Capt.  Hunter  reported  as  chief  examiner.  Lieut.  Scott  reported  in  July. 
The  enlisted  staff  trained  at  Greenleaf  consisted  of  Sergts.  Tomlinson,  Hitchcock,  Wood,  Stone, 
Stein,  and  Finkelhor. 

The  examining  of  the  fall  of  1917  has  been  reported  elsewhere  (pp.  14  f.)  In  the  sum- 
mer of  1918,  with  the  increase  in  the  staff,  changes  in  procedure  were  inaugurated.  Camp 
examining  was  taken  up  so  that  all  recruits  reporting  were  examined.  Alpha  was  given  to  men 
who  professed  ability  to  read  and  write  English.  Early  in  August,  orders  were  issued  that 
the  psychological  examination  should  precede  the  physical.  A  bulletin  was  issued  by  the 
psychological  staff  on  the  range  of  intelligence  for  the  different  occupations  needed  in  the  Army. 
Complete  statement  of  the  mental  status  of  the  Twelfth  Division  was  prepared  for  use  in 
balancing  mental  strength  of  the  different  units.  A  report  of  special  interest  was  prepared 
on  the  geographic  distribution  of  intelligence  and  illiteracy. 

The  number  of  men  and  officers  examined  previous  to  April  27,  1918,  was  21,397.  Number 
enlisted  men  after  April  27,  48,978;  officers,  1,053.  Individual  examinations  after  April  27, 
2,886. 

CAMP   DIX,    N.    J. 

The  psychological  staff  reported  at  Camp  Dix  in  September,  1917.  Lack  of  examining 
space  prevented  the  examining  of  troops  in  large  numbers  before  the  end  of  November.  From 
the  beginning  of  the  work  at  Camp  Dix  to  its  close  in  December,  1918,  the  chief  examiners  were 
Capt.  Hayes,  Lieut.  Richmond,  Capt.  Berry,  and  Capt.  DeVoss.  As  assistant  examiners  the 
following  were  on  duty  for  varying  periods:  Lieuts.  Brigham,  Richmond,  Manuel,  Harlan, 
Doll,  Farber,  and  Woodruff.  The  Greenleaf-trained  enlisted  men  and  noncommissioned 
officers  were  Sergts.  Ellis,  Bernard,  Campbell,  Fisher;  Corpls.  Sweeting,  Roloff,  Fogelman, 
Aitken,  Veazie;  and  Pvts.  Werner,  Kornhauser,  Edwards,  Denton,  Custer,  Faulkner,  and 
Goldberg. 

The  overcrowded  condition  of  the  camp  prevented  the  assignment  of  a  satisfactory  building 
for  the  major  portion  of  the  time.  At  the  beginning  of  the  work  (p.  15)  wards  in  the 
base  hospital  were  used.  In  the  winter  of  1918  the  medical  and  psychological  examining  staffs 
were  moved  to  a  temporary  wooden  structure  previously  used  as  a  cafeteria  by  the  construct- 
ing contractors.  This  remained  the  headquarters  of  the  physological  staff  until  the  close  of 
examining. 

At  Camp  Dix  about  28  per  cent  of  the  draft  was  foreign-born  and  about  20  per  cent  negro. 
To  avoid  excessively  large  beta  groups,  standards  for  admission  to  examination  alpha  were 
set  low — ability  to  read  and  write  English  and  completion  of  third  grade  for  white  men  and 
fifth  grade  for  negroes.  Men  making  below  10  (weighted  score  alpha)  were  reported  as  illiterate. 
Time  was  saved  in  the  beta  room  by  having  the  headings  of  the  beta  blanks  filled  out  by  clerks 
in  the  scoring  room  as  the  group  passed  out.  Groups  were  held  while  low  booklets  were  picked 
by  inspection  and  scored;  E  men  were  immediately  sent  on  to  further  examination,  to  the 
capacity  of  the  staff;  the  remainder  were  listed  for  recall.  In  June  it  was  found  impossible  to 
recall  a  thousand  men  listed  for  individual  examination.     In  July  alpha  failures  among  negroes 


No.i.]  PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  ARMY.  73 

were  not  recalled.  During  later  rush  periods  up  to  3,000  men  per  day  were  examined,  this 
being  the  capacity  of  other  camp  examining  boards.  After  June  the  psychological  examina- 
tion preceded  all  others  except  sanitary  inspection  and  fumigation,  and  intelligence  ratings 
were  in  the  hands  of  psychiatric  and  personnel  officers  when  the  men  came  before  them.  Each 
D  or  E  case  was  marked  on  the  identification  tag,  which  each  recruit  wears  about  his  neck, 
with  his  intelligence  rating  in  red  ink.  The  psychiatric  board  received  a  list  of  the  E  cases, 
as  a  check.     Disposition  of  cases  was  reported  back  to  the  psychological  board. 

Late  in  July  Lieut.  Doll  spent  several  days  with  the  psychiatric  board  in  an  endeavor  to 
increase  cooperative  work,  for  professional  adjustment  here  had  proved  more  difficult  than  at 
other  stations.  Constant  readjustment  of  methods  of  clinical  examining,  in  attempts  to  dis- 
cover common  standards,  finally  met  with  success  in  October. 

Camp  Dix,  during  its  enforced  vacation  in  the  fall  of  1917,  produced  a  great  deal  of  valuable 
statistical  work.  The  reports  of  1918  also  show  a  number  of  important  studies.  We  may  note 
here  statistical  analyses  of  successive  draft  quotas;  a  report  on  instruction  in  the  English 
classes  and  the  relation  of  intelligence  ratings  thereto;  a  statistical  study  of  the  foreign- 
born  men  in  the  July  draft;  a  study  on  the  relation  of  intelligence  to  court  cases,  promotions, 
and  special  duty  assignments,  and  a  detailed  clinical  report  prepared  by  the  clinical  examiner. 

Previous  to  April  27,  1918,  the  number  of  men  and  officers  examined  was  21,026.  From 
April  27  to  the  close  of  examining  the  number  of  enlisted  men  examined  was  67,766;  of  officers, 
2.     The  number  of  individual  examinations  given  was  3,024. 

CAMP    DODGE,    IOWA. 

Lieut.  Miller  reported  as  chief  examiner  and  Lieut.  Sylvester  as  assistant  examiner  in  mid- 
April,  1918.  Lieut.  Van  Houten,  Sergts.  Oppenheimer  and  Williams,  Corps.  Fenn  and  Hudson, 
and  Pvts.  Johnson  and  Brockbank  reported  in  June,  Corpl.  King  in  August.  About  37  men 
constituted  the  temporary  detail. 

At  Camp  Dodge  the  personnel  office  and  psychological  office  were  in  the  same  barracks 
building.  Psychological  service  occupied  the  second  floor.  Practically  all  of  the  work  of  the 
staff,  including  group  examining,  was  handled  in  the  building.  A  few  groups  were  examined 
out  of  doors  when  the  weather  permitted.  The  mustering  office  and  medical  examining  offices 
were  in  the  adjoining  barracks  building. 

Camp  Dodge  received  a  large  negro  draft.  Examination  alpha  was  given  to  all  men  who 
had  had  6  grades  of  schooling  or  could  read  English  readily.  During  the  alpha  examination, 
men  who  gave  evidence  of  illiteracy  in  tests  2  or  3  or  in  filling  out  the  headings  were  sent  to  beta. 
Both  groups  were  held,  in  good  weather,  while  the  blanks  were  scored,  and  failures  promptly 
given  further  examination.  Beta  procedure  strictly  followed  the  Examiner's  Guide  until  Sep- 
tember, when  verbal  instructions  were  developed  for  the  negro  groups  which  made  up  one- 
fourth  of  the  draft  at  Camp  Dodge. 

The  general  scheme  of  examining  appears  in  the  following  paragraphs  from  a  report  of 
September  11: 

Psychological  examination  of  recruits  is  given  at  Camp  Dodge  before  the  physical  examination  and  before  the 
filling  out  of  the  qualification  cards.  The  intelligence  ratings  are  placed  upon  the  qualification  cards  before  the  men 
are  assigned. 

The  reports  of  the  individual  examinations  are  in  the  hands  of  the  psychiatrist  at  the  time  of  the  general  medical 
examination.  The  psychiatrist's  orderly  indicates  with  black  chalk  the  mental  age  on  the  breasts  of  all  men  whose 
mental  age  is  under  10  years. 

On  the  day  that  recruits  report  for  the  psychological  examination  they  have  no  other  examinations.  As  a  rule 
the  physical  examination  of  the  companies  occurs  24  hours  after  the  psychological  examination.  This  gives  us  ample 
time  to  score  and  record  the  result  of  the  examination.  During  the  present  draft  we  have  been  48  hours  ahead  of  the 
physical  examination. 

Intelligence  ratings  were  favorably  received  by  line  officers,  partly  because  at  the  outset 
a  camp  order  directed  that  all  officers  who  had  not  had  psychological  examination  should  re- 
port at  once  to  the  chief  examiner  for  such  examination.     By  direction  of  the  chief  of  staff 
121435°— 21 6 


74  MEMOIRS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES.  [Vol.  xv, 

the  personnel  adjutant  planned  to  use  psychological  scores  in  making  assignments  to  the 
nineteenth  Division.  The  commanding  officer  of  the  depot  brigade  used  the  psychological 
rating  in  connection  with  promotions  of  officers  in  his  command,  both  to  check  the  recom- 
mendations of  his  officers  and  to  check  the  significance  of  the  score  itself.  He  reported  an 
unusual  degree  of  agreement  between  the  two  ratings.  The  records  on  individual  examin- 
ing at  Camp  Dodge  constitute  one  of  the  most  useful  sets  obtained.  It  was  usual  to  have 
practically  the  entire  trained  portion  of  the  staff  giving  individual  examinations  during 
draft  periods. 

Number  enlisted  men  examined,  68,019;  officers,  1,908.  Total  individual  examinations, 
4,632. 

CAMP  FREMONT,    CALIF. 

Capt.  Roberts  reported  for  duty  in  October,  1918.  No  trained  assistants  were  sent  to  this 
camp.  Capt.  Roberts  was  assigned  an  infirmary  as  his  permanent  headquarters  shortly  after 
arriving.  His  principal  work  was  in  connection  with  the  development  battalions  and  courts- 
martial  cases.  He  was  also  requested  to  give  ratings  on  officers.  A  staff  of  14  enlisted 
men  was  assigned  to  assist  him  in  the  work.  The  usefulness  of  psychological  examining  devel- 
oped rapidly  but  lasted  only  a  short  time  owing  to  the  close  of  active  recruiting. 

The  number  of  men  examined  during  this  short  period  of  time  was  3,165;  of  officers,  320. 
Total  individual  examinations,  758. 

CAMP   FUNSTON,    KANS. 

Lieut.  Stech  reported  as  chief  examiner  in  April,  1918,  and  was  transferred  to  Camp  Logan 
as  chief  examiner  in  October,  1918.  Capt.  Rowe  reported  as  chief  examiner  in  June,  1918. 
Lieut.  Shumway  was  assistant  examiner.  Sergts.  Augenblick,  Bird,  Erickson,  and  Harry, 
Corpls.  Blake  and  Woellner,  and  Pvts.  Hansen,  Neal,  Rachofsky,  and  Riggs,  who  received 
training  at  Greenleaf,  constituted  the  permanent  detail.  The  temporary  detail  varied,  but  was 
approximately  22  additional  enlisted  men. 

The  psychological  building  was  permanently  assigned.  It  was  located  near  depot  brigade 
headquarters  and  the  staff  was  attached  to  the  brigade  staff.  Much  of  the  examining,  however, 
was  done  in  distant  detention  camps,  necessitating  much  travel  and  extra  administrative  work. 

Examination  alpha  was  given  to  men  who  could  read  fairly  well  and  had  fourth-grade  school- 
ing. Small  alpha  groups  were  held  during  the  short-scoring  of  the  blanks ;  with  large  groups  a 
recall  system  was  used.  During  examination  beta  obviously  low-grade  men  were  selected  by 
the  orderlies  and  sent  to  the  individual  examiner.  Doubtful  papers  were  short-scored.  One- 
fourth  of  all  men  examined  were  negroes,  and  of  these  30  to  60  per  cent  made  E  on  beta.  Only 
the  lowest  cases  (selected  on  inspection  by  the  chief  examiner)  were  examined  individually 
with  a  view  to  discharge.  The  remainder  were  recommended  for  development  and  labor 
battalions.     Ratings  were  entered  on  service  records  (camp  order,  July  9). 

A  psychologist  was  assigned  to  work  in  the  psychiatric  office  at  the  receiving  station  during 
several  drafts,  but  this  was  later  discontinued  under  pressure  of  work. 

Considerable  work  was  done  in  examining  men  for  special  assignments.  The  Medical 
Officers'  Training  Camp  at  Fort  Riley  was  examined  from  Funston.  The  chief  examiner  was  a 
member  of  the  examining  board  for  the  development  battalion.  Through  the  personnel 
office  20,000  men  were  transferred  from  the  depot  brigade  to  permanent  organizations  on  the 
basis  of  occupational  requirements  and  intelligence  tests.  This  transfer  occupied  but  a  few 
hours  and  proved  an  unusually  successful  method.  Intelligence  ratings  were  entered  on 
the  service  records. 

Camp  Funston  used  the  opportunity  afforded  by  its  negro  draft  to  contribute  a  note- 
worthy report  on  the  distribution  of  intelligence  among  negroes  from  different  States,  and  a 
detailed  comparison  of  negro  with  white  performance  in  the  tests  of  the  Stanford-Binet  scale. 

Number  enlisted  men  examined,  75,677;  officers,  1.     Total  individual  examinations,  2,497. 


No.  i.]  PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  ARMY.  75 

CAMP    GORDON,    GA. 

Maj.  Waugh  reported  as  chief  examiner  at  this  camp  in  March,  1918.  Lieut.  Estabrook 
reported  in  April  and  became  chief  examiner  in  September;  Lieut.  Myers  reported  in  May; 
Lieut.  Layton,  in  June.  The  men  trained  at  Greenleaf  were  Sergts.  Humphreys  and  Lecky, 
Corpl.  Headrick,  Pvt.  first  class  Hagner,  and  Pvts.  Fitch,  Bailor,  and  Feldman.  Approx- 
imately 39  enlisted  men  acted  as  assistants  during  rush  examining. 

An  infirmary  building  was  used  as  office,  scoring  room  and  store  room  for  the  psychological 
staff.     This  building  was  located  in  the  depot  brigade  organization. 

Among  white  men  alpha  and  beta  groups  were  separated  on  the  basis  of  ability  to  read 
and  understand  English  newspapers  and  write  letters  home.  Men  receiving  D  in  either  alpha 
or  beta  were  recalled  for  individual  examination.  Negroes,  however,  were  all  given  examina- 
tion beta  only;  a  list  of  the  D—  men  was  sent  to  the  commanding  officer  that  he  might  send 
men  not  making  good  as  soldiers  for  individual  examination. 

The  psychological  examination  followed  the  physical  examination  and  personnel  inter- 
view. Reports  of  results  were  sent  to  personnel  officer,  camp  surgeon,  and  commanding  officers 
in  from  24  to  96  hours.  In  July  it  was  ordered  that  intelligence  ratings  should  be  placed 
on  service  records.  They  were  entered  also  on  qualification  cards,  except  in  the  case  of  imme- 
diate transfers. 

In  September  the  depot  brigade  was  transferred  to  Camp  McClellan.  Examining  lessened, 
and  the  psychological  staff  was  correspondingly  reduced,  six  of  its  members  being  sent  to 
Camp  McClellan. 

Emphasis  at  Camp  Gordon  was  laid  on  methods  of  instruction  in  the  training  of  troops  and 
lectures  on  educational  methods  to  new  officers.  For  a  time,  the  work  of  the  chief  was  primarily 
connected  with  this  educational  program.  Men  who  received  a  rating  below  C  were  given 
extra  drills  and  attempts  were  made  to  improve  their  mental  condition  by  school  instruction. 

Number  of  enlisted  men  examined,  62,859;  officers,  789.  Total  individual  examina- 
tions, 2,951. 

CAMP    GRANT,    ILL. 

Capt.  Trabue,  as  chief  examiner,  and  Lieut.  Benson  reported  for  duty  in  April,  1918. 
Capt.  Deerwester  and  Lieut.  Terry  reported  in  May.  Capt.  Trabue  was  transferred  to  The 
Adjutant  General's  department  for  work  on  the  classification  of  personnel  and  Lieut.  Sylvester, 
succeeded  him  in  October.  Sergt.  Habberstad,  Corpls.  Johanson,  Beck,  and  Lynd,  and  Pvts. 
Elterich,  Marvin,  and  Baird  constituted  the  other  members  of  the  staff  trained  at  Camp  Green- 
leaf.  During  rush  examining  the  temporary  detail  varied  from  50  to  60  additional  men.  Psy- 
chological examining  began  the  latter  part  of  May  and  during  the  week  ending  June  1  the  two 
officers  who  had  reported  examined  13,321  men;  on  a  single  day  of  this  week  they  gave  alpha 
and  beta  examinations  to  2,927  men. 

Until  the  middle  of  September  the  office  space  available  was  not  very  satisfactory.  In 
addition  to  being  too  small  it  was  also  of  uncertain  tenure.  About  the  middle  of  September 
the  psychological  service  was  assigned  for  permanent  use  a  large  two-story  barracks  building 
located  near  the  administrative  center  of  the  camp.  The  organization  of  office  work  was 
unusually  systematic. 

Men  who  could  read  and  write  rapidly  and  those  who  had  had  at  least  seventh-grade  school- 
ing were  given  examination  alpha.  At  first  alpha  and  beta  failures  were  recalled,  but  by  Sep- 
tember the  groups  were  held  while  low  papers  were  scored  and  further  examination  followed 
at  once. 

The  psychological  examination  here  preceded  the  physical  from  the  very  start.  Moreover, 
when  new  recruits  were  examined,  the  clinical  psychologist  and  his  assistants  worked  in  con- 
junction with  the  medical  staff.  Names  of  men  who  failed  in  beta  and  individual  examination 
were  before  the  psychiatrist  at  the  time  of  physical  examination;  intelligence  ratings  on  all 
men  went  to  the  personnel  officer  before  the  personnel  interview  with  such  prompt  regularity 


76  MEMOIRS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES.  [vol.  xv, 

as  to  call  forth  favorable  comment  from  the  inspector  of  personnel  work.  Ratings  were 
entered  on  qualification  cards  on  the  evening  of  the  day  they  were  made  out,  and  on  all  service 
records  (camp  order,  July  21). 

Relations  with  all  camp  authorities  were  particularly  cordial.  Special  psychological 
service  was  in  frequent  request  and  recommendations  were  very  generally  accepted  by  psy- 
chiatrist, judge  advocate,  and  other  officers. 

Number  enlisted  men  examined,  81,341;  officers,  1,888.  Total  individual  examinations, 
3,496. 

CAMP    GREENE,    N.    C. 

Lieut.  Chamberlain  reported  as  chief  examiner  in  April,  1918;  Lieut.  Owens  reported  in 
September.  Sergts.  Rosenfield,  Moore,  Cribbs,  and  Sides,  and  Corpl.  Terrell  were  the  Green- 
leaf  trained  assistants.  Group  examinations  were  conducted  in  Y.  M.  C.  A.  buildings  near  the 
small  building  assigned  as  temporary  offices  for  the  psychological  staff. 

Alpha  and  beta  groups  were  separated  on  the  basis  of  ability  to  read  newspapers  and  write 
letters  home  and  of  fourth  grade  schooling.  Alpha  failures  were  not  given  beta,  but  individual 
examination.  Thirty-eight  per  cent  of  the  recruits  were  negroes,  most  of  whom  had  to  be  given 
beta  and  half  of  whom  received  D  — .  With  the  approval  of  the  inspector  of  psychological 
service,  this  condition  was  met  by  substituting  a  standardized  five-minute  interview  for  the 
individual  examination.  On  this  basis  negroes  were  recommended  for  combat  battalions  or 
for  labor  battalions. 

At  the  receiving  station,  psychological  examination  preceded  the  physical,  at  which  D 
men  were  designated  by  the  letter  P  plainly  painted  on  their  bodies;  two  psychologists  on  duty 
with  the  psychiatrist  gave  individual  examinations  at  this  time  and  sent  the  mental  ages  at 
once  to  the  psychiatrist.  Intelligence  ratings  were  reported  promptly  to  the  personnel  officer 
and  commanding  officers,  usually  within  24  hours  after  the  examination.  Lack  of  clerical  help 
in  the  personnel  office  sometimes  prevented  entry  of  ratings  on  qualification  cards;  entry  was 
made  on  service  records. 

The  chief  psychological  examiner  at  this  station  was  eventually  put  in  charge  of  the  educa- 
tional program  in  the  development  battalion. 

Number  enlisted  men  examined,  27,331;  officers,  476.     Total  individual  examinations,  914. 

CAMP    GREENLEAF,    GA. 

Examination  of  recruits  was  not  the  main  aspect  of  the  psychological  service  at  Camp 
Greenleaf.  The  School  of  Military  Psychology,  reported  in  section  2  of  this  chapter,  took  iirst 
place.  The  examining  staff  changed  continuously  as  its  members  were  ordered  out  to  other 
stations.  It  was,  however,  the  only  station  at  which  was  erected  a  permanent  building  espe- 
cially designed  for  the  work. 

Those  men  were  given  examination  alpha  who  could  read  newspapers  and  write  letters 
home  in  English,  had  completed  the  fourth  grade,  and  had  been  five  years  in  the  United  States. 
All  others  took  beta.  Short  scoring  methods  were  used  on  both,  and  failures  held  for  imme- 
diate further  examination.  No  recalls  were  possible.  Until  November  the  psychological 
examination  was  the  last  on  the  recruit's  program.  The  first  inoculation  for  typhoid  had 
usually  occurred  the  day  before;  the  men  had  to  march  a  mile  and  a  half  to  the  psychological 
building.  A  psychologist  was,  however,  in  attendance  during  the  physical  examination,  who 
selected  obviously  low-grade  cases  and  gave  immediate  individual  examinations.  Rejections 
were  made  on  these  recommendations,  while  later  discharge  was  hard  to  secure. 

Report  of  intelligence  ratings  was  made  within  24  hours;  they  were  entered  on  service 
records  and  on  qualification  cards  (camp  order,  July  31).  In  the  spring,  organizations  at 
Camp  Forrest  were  examined  by  the  Greenleaf  staff.  Daily  examination  was  made  of  officers 
reporting  at  the  Medical  Officers'  Training  School.  The  psychologists  here  made  a  valuable 
contribution  toward  the  abbreviation  of  the  Point  Scale;  they  also  produced  a  Yiddish  trans- 
lation of  the  Point  Scale.     A  rapid  alpha  short-scoring  scheme  based  on  the  number  of  attempts 


no.i.]  PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  ARMY.  77 

in  tests  2  and  3  was  developed.     Systematic  morale  work  had  its  inception  at  Camp  Greenleaf 
and  owed  much  to  the  psychological  staff. 

Number  enlisted  men  examined,  50,011;  officers,  6,086.  Total  individual  examinations, 
2,187. 

CAMP    HANCOCK,    GA. 

Lieut.  Morgan  reported  as  chief  examiner  in  April,  191 8 ;  Lieut.  Hood  did  not  report  until  July, 
1918.  Assistant  examiners  were  Sergts.  Williams,  Kenner,  Blanchette,  and  Borden,  and  Pvts. 
Holley,  Jones,  and  McCarthy. 

Camp  examining  and  official  work  began  here  in  a  room  40  by  20  feet;  later  a  regimental 
infirmary  was  assigned  for  office  work  and  individual  examining.  The  latter  building  was  cen- 
trally located. 

The  Ordnance  training  groups  here  were  highly  selected;  the  draft  was  relatively  low. 
To  avoid  recalls,  only  white  men  who  could  read  and  write  fairly  well,  and  had  sixth  grade 
schooling,  and  negroes  who  had  attended  high  school  were  given  examination  alpha.  Short- 
scoring  methods  were  developed  for  both  alpha  and  beta;  failures  from  either  were  recalled  for 
individual  examination. 

Until  September  the  psychological  examination  followed  the  medical,  but  a  psychologist 
and  two  assistants,  working  with  the  medical  board,  examined  cases  suspected  by  the  psychi- 
atrist of  mental  deficiency  and  reported  back  the  mental  age  found.  Later,  the  psychological 
examination  was  given  first.  Ratings  were  reported  within  24  hours,  entered  on  the  qualifica- 
tion card  and,  after  September,  on  the  service  record. 

It  was  ordered  at  Camp  Hancock  that  every  paper  having  to  do  with  promotions  or  demo- 
tions must  show  the  intelligence  rating  on  it.  The  chief  examiner  was  appointed  to  serve  on 
the  board  to  examine  men  found  unfit  for  overseas  service. 

Number  enlisted  men  examined,  44,052;  officers,  381.  Total  individual  examinations 
2,210. 

CAMP   HUMPHREYS,    VA. 

Capt.  Hayes  reported  as  chief  examiner  in  September,  1918.  Lieuts.  Paterson,  Richmond, 
and  Myers  were  assistant  examiners  and  also  chief  examiners  for  short  periods.  Sergts.  Doerman, 
Wickman,  Giesel,  Ream,  Nau;  Corpls.  Perla,  Josey;  and  Pvts.  Corzine,  Hines,  and  Schneider  were 
Greenleaf  trained  assistant  examiners.  Well-located  and  spacious  office  rooms  and  quarters  were 
permanently  assigned  the  psychological  staff.  Line  officers  were  favorably  impressed  with  the 
value  of  psychological  service.  The  distinctive  feature  of  the  work  at  Camp  Humphreys  was 
the  full  statistical  report  of  the  examination  of  each  organization  with  distribution  of  intelli- 
gence scores  illustrated  by  graphs.  These  reports  included  comparative  data  from  the  draft  as 
a  whole  and  enabled  camp  officials  to  appreciate  differences  in  mental  strength  between  organi- 
zations as  well  as  within  their  own  command.  An  experimental  combination  of  alpha  and 
beta  tests  was  tried  out  and  reported.  Especially  did  Camp  Humphreys  afford  opportunity, 
which  was  well  used,  for  study  of  intelligence  qualifications  of  various  engineering  organizations. 

Number  enlisted  men  examined,  13,192;  officers,  789.     Total  individual  examinations,  436. 

CAMP    JACKSON,    S.    C. 

Capt.  Edwards  reported  as  chief  examiner  in  April,  1918;  his  assistants  were  Capt.  Ash 
and  Lieut.  Roberts,  Corpls.  Pearson,  Whitehead,  and  Zimmerly.  First  Sergt.  Lancaster,  Pvts. 
White,  Wembridge,  Tea,  Thorpe,  Shefveland,  and  Chambliss  of  the  examining  staff,  were  also 
Greenleaf  trained  men.  An  average  of  about  40  men  worked  on  special  detail  with  the  psycho- 
logical staff. 

The  examining  station  was  moved  several  times  in  the  latter  part  of  its  work;  the  original 
building  was  a  large  two-story  barracks  building  with  sufficient  space  for  all  of  the  activities 
of  the  psychological  service. 

Camp  Jackson  was  one  of  the  camps  handling  the  largest  number  of  men;  the  psychological 
staff  was  thus  forced  to  try  out  various  short  cuts  in  the  examining  program.     Segregation  for 


78  MEMOIRS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES.  [vol.  xv, 

alpha  was  on  the  basis  of  ability  to  read  and  write.  (The  psychological  examining  board  was 
made  the  final  authority  on  literacy  in  Camp  Jackson,  and  made  a  literacy  report  concerning 
each  man  examined.)  No  recalls  were  made  from  alpha  to  beta;  failures  in  each  or  men  who 
were  observed  to  be  doing  little  or  nothing  dining  group  examination  were,  in  rush  periods,  (as 
in  July,  when  60  per  cent  of  the  negro  draft  failed  on  group  examination)  handled  as  follows: 
Twelve  men  were  trained  to  give  seven  of  the  tes  ts  of  years  X  and  XII  of  the  Stanf  ord-Binet  scale, 
and  all  who  showed  a  mental  age  of  10  years  were  passed;  the  remainder  received  regular  indi- 
vidual examination.  The  procedure  was  carefully  worked  out  and  received  the  approval  of 
the  inspector.     Even  with  this  abbreviation,  several  hundred  failures  were  missed  in  June. 

By  camp  order  no  examination  could  be  made  within  48  hours  after  inoculation.  September 
1,  psychological  examination  was  placed  before  inoculation,  but  was  still  preceded  by  the  physical 
examination  and  personnel  interview.  During  the  physical  examination,  the  psychiatrist  sent 
doubtful  cases  for  psychological  examination;  during  psychological  examination,  men  recom- 
mended for  psychiatric  examination  were  sent  directly  to  that  board.  Cooperation  was  good. 
Lists  of  the  men  recommended  for  labor  or  development  battalion  were  sent  twice  a  day  to 
psychiatrist,  personnel  officer,  and  commanding  officers.  Ratings  were  reported  in  12  to  24 
hours  and  were  entered  on  qualification  card  and  on  a  special  "overseas  slip"  attached  to 
service  record.  No  transfer  could  be  made  until  psychological  and  literacy  ratings  had  been 
received. 

Aside  from  routine  examining  the  staff  rendered  excellent  and  varied  service.  The  staff 
conducted  examinations  of  aviators;  the  chief  examiner  became  a  member  of  the  aviators 
examining  board.  Special  educational  examinations  were  standardized  for  the  Field  Artillery  Re- 
placement Depot.  Capt.  Ash  rendered  valuable  service  in  the  development  brigade.  No  illit- 
erate could  be  transferred  from  this  brigade  until  he  could  make  D  on  examination  alpha;  no 
transfer  was  made  into  the  brigade  without  both  medical  and  psychological  examination.  The 
whole  educational  program  was  under  the  direction  of  the  camp  psychologist. 

After  September,  when  the  depot  brigade  moved  to  Camp  Sevier,  there  was  no  labor  bat- 
talion, but  it  was  ordered  that  all  men  recommended  for  labor  should  be  assigned  to  such  work. 
All  prisoners  in  Camp  Jackson  were  examined. 

The  commanding  general  ordered  that  no  men  with  grades  less  than  D  should  be  trans- 
ferred to  artillery  replacement  regiments.  Batteries  were,  in  a  number  of  instances,  organized 
by  platoons,  according  to  intelligence.  The  progress  of  the  men  was  indicated  by  transfer 
from  the  lower  platoons  to  those  more  advanced  in  their  training.  Those  failing  to  learn  with 
sufficient  rapidity  in  the  poorest  platoons  were  finally  transferred  to  the  supply  company  or 
to  development  battalions. 

A  most  interesting  study  was  the  preparation  of  substitute  alpha  and  beta  examinations 
during  a  shortage  of  blanks.  The  ingenious  alpha,  requiring  only  pencil  and  blank  paper,  was 
successfully  used  during  the  emergency;  beta  was  less  successful. 

Number  enlisted  men  examined,  95,594;  officers,  3,402.  Total  individual  examinations, 
6,257. 

CAMP    KEARNY,  CALIF. 

Lieut.  Houser  reported  as  chief  examiner  in  April,  1918.  Sergt.  Rollins  reported  from 
Camp  Greenleaf  in  June;  Sergt.  Doe  in  August;  Pvt.  Ruch,  from  Fort  McDowell,  in  August; 
and  Sergt.  Hauck  and  Corp.  Wills,  from  Camp  Greenleaf,  in  October.  Only  one  officer  was 
ever  stationed  at  this  camp. 

This  was  a  tent  camp,  hence  no  two-story  buildings  were  available  for  psychological  service. 
Part  of  the  time  the  psychological  board  used  mess  hall,  but  the  major  portion  of  its  office  work 
was  done  in  a  tent  which  also  served  as  a  storeroom.  This  tent  was  well  located  in  the  point  of 
view  of  accessibility  but  wholly  unsuited  to  office  work. 

Very  few  negroes  and,  except  in  the  June  draft,  few  illiterates  and  foreigners  were  sent  to 
Camp  Kearny.  Alpha  and  beta  groups  were  separated  on  the  basis  of  ability  to  read,  write, 
and  speak  English,  and  completion  of  the  fifth  grade.     The  recall  system  was  used  with  failures. 


Memoirs  National  Academy  of  Sciences  XV. 


Part  I,  PI.  4. 


SUPPLY    COMPANY    BARRACKS    ASSIGNED    TO    PSYCHOLOGICAL    EXAMINING    BOARD. 


SUPPLY  COMPANY  BARRACKS  ASSIGNED  TO  PSYCHOLOGICAL  BOARD  AT  CAMP  GRANT,  SHOWING  TYPICAL 

PSYCHOLOGICAL  STAFF. 

Of  the  four  officers  in  front,  the  captain  at  the  left  is  the  psychiatrist,  the  three   lieutenants  (Sylvester,  Benson,  Terry)  are  psychologists. 


no.  i.]  PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  ARMY.  79 

Intelligence  ratings  were  entered  on  qualification  cards  and  on  service  records,  and  were  thor- 
oughly utilized. 

Lack  of  assistance  also  hindered  effective  work.  Emphasis  was  placed  upon  studies  to 
determine  the  significance  of  mental  examinations  in  relation  to  men  considered  best  and 
poorest  in  the  different  companies  and  organizations  and  upon  examination  of  special  groups 
in  order  that  additional  information  should  be  available  on  the  level  of  intelligence  suitable 
for  different  branches  of  the  service.  A  large  chart  was  prepared  at  the  request  of  the  chief  of 
staff  for  his  office,  giving  the  information  obtained  from  the  above  studies.  Orders  were  issued 
that  the  organization  of  units  should  be  based  upon  occupational  data  and  intelligence  ratings. 
The  statistical  unit  of  the  psychological  staff  took  full  charge  of  the  assignment  of  men  from 
the  draft  to  existing  organizations  in  the  camp.  From  Camp  Kearny  was  received  the  first 
extensive  report  on  the  comparison  of  officers'  ratings  and  alpha  scores  as  determined  for  differ- 
ent branches  of  the  service. 

Number  enlisted  men  examined,  18,510;  officers,  411.     Total  individual  examinations,  436. 

CAMP    LEE,  VA. 

Psychological  examining  began  at  Camp  Lee  in  September,  1917.  The  chief  examiners 
for  the  entire  period  of  examining  were  Lieuts.  Yoakum,  Hunter,  and  Ferguson.  Assistant 
examiners  for  the  period  of  examining  were  Lieuts.  Jones,  Bates,  and  Otis.  Noncommissioned 
officers  and  privates  trained  at  Greenleaf  were  Sergt.  first  class  Folsom,  Sergt.  Rawlson,  Corpls. 
Greenberg  and  Leach,  and  Pvts.  Lincoln,  Cowdery,  Amdursky,  and  Myrick. 

Experimental  examining  during  the  fall  and  winter  has  been  described  in  detail  elsewhere. 
In  April,  1918,  the  continual  moving  of  psychological  headquarters  ended  in  the  assignment 
of  a  building  near  the  center  of  the  camp  and  near  camp  headquarters  for  this  work. 

The  proportion  of  negroes  and  of  native  and  foreign  illiterates  was  high  at  Camp  Lee. 
Segregation  for  alpha  was  on  the  basis  of  abfiity  to  read  newspapers  and  write  letters  home. 
During  the  first  part  of  the  examination,  men  obviously  failing  were  sent  to  join  the  beta  group. 

Group  but  not  individual  examinations  preceded  the  physical  examination,  and  were 
reported  in  from  6  to  24  hours.  A  list  of  D  men  was  sent  within  six  hours  after  the  group 
examination  to  the  clerk  at  the  mustering  office.  As  the  men  appeared  this  clerk  marked  on 
the  body  of  each  D  man  a  letter  P ;  then  the  psychiatrist,  if  he  considered  the  man  at  all  doubtful, 
had  him  examined  by  the  psychologist  in  attendance.  Later  all  marked  men  were  examined 
individually  at  this  point  in  the  process.  This  plan  eliminated  recalls,  and  presented  the  intelli- 
gence rating  as  a  partial  basis  for  immediate  rejection  rather  than  later  discharge. 

Distinctive  work  at  Camp  Lee  was  the  abbreviation  of  Stanford-Binet  and  Performance 
Scales  and  the  preparation  of  a  set  of  reading  lessons  for  the  English  classes. 

Previous  to  April  27,  1918,  44,338  officers  and  men  were  examined.  After  April  27,  the 
number  of  enlisted  men  examined  was  82,071 ;  of  officers,  370.  Number  of  individual  exami- 
nations made  after  April  27  was  3,008. 

CAMP    LEWIS,  WASH. 

Lieut.  Brueckner  was  chief  examiner  at  Camp  Lewis.  He  and  Lieut.  English  reported  in 
April,  1918.  From  Camp  Greenleaf,  Sergts.  Kolstad  and  Woody  and  Corpl.  Heller  reported  as 
assistant  examiners.  Sergts.  Howard  and  Teachout  were  reported  by  voluntary  induction  to 
assist  in  the  examining  work  at  Camp  Lewis. 

The  budding  was  a  large  barracks  budding  situated  some  distance  from  the  center  of  the 
camp  but  near  the  mustering  office  and  receiving  office.  The  upper  floor  was  divided  into  a 
number  of  separate  rooms  for  individual  examining.  Facilities  for  group  and  individual  exam- 
ining were  therefore  unusually  satisfactory. 

Conditions  and  procedure  at  Camp  Lewis  were  unusual  in  more  ways  than  one.  The  draft 
was  mainly  white,  and  unusually  intelligent  and  well  educated.  Nowhere  else  was  the  original 
scheme  of  examination  so  closely  followed.     Men  who  could  read  and  write  were  given  alpha; 


80  MEMOIRS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES.  [vol.xv, 

the  short-scoring  procedure  was  used  to  hold  D  as  well  as  D-  men  for  examination  beta.  Failures 
on  beta  and  men  seen  to  be  failing  during  the  examination  were  given  individual  examination. 

Psychological  preceded  physical  examination  and  muster.  The  psychiatric  board  examin- 
ing recruits  referred  many  cases  for  individual  examination,  and  all  discharge  cases  not  yet 
mustered  were  reported  to  that  board  for  rejection.  Intelligence  ratings  were  entered  on 
service  records,  and  qualification  cards  from  the  beginning  of  May,  long  before  this  was  the 
practice  at  other  stations.  Entry  was  made  immediately  after  the  personnel  interview  and 
used  in  trade  tests,  in  nagging  cards,  and  in  making  assignments. 

There  was  excellent  cooperation  with  other  camp  authorities,  including  personnel  office, 
commanding  officers,  neuro-psychiatric  board  (through  Sergt.  Howard,  who  was  assigned  here 
during  drafts),  development  battalion,  judge  advocate,  and  morale  agencies.  Many  unusual 
lines  of  service  were  quickly  perceived  and  well  developed.  The  Fourth  Officers'  Training  Camp 
used  intelligence  ratings  from  the  start,  admitting  only  applicants  scoring  200  or  more  (weighted 
score).  An  interesting  and  practical  study  of  the  factors  involved  in  steadiness  and  trigger 
squeeze  in  rifle  fire  was  carried  through,  and  formed  the  basis  of  improved  methods  of  selection 
and  training.     Training  bulletins  were  issued  to  those  doing  the  individual  examining. 

Number  enlisted  men  examined,  73,636;  officers,  1,883.  Total  individual  examinations, 
2,679. 

CAMP    LOGAN,  TEX. 

Capt.  Basset  reported  as  chief  psychological  examiner  at  Camp  Logan  in  April,  1918;  Sergt. 
Cascaden  reported  in  June;  Sergt.  Turets  and  Corpls.  Loomis  and  Wechsler  in  August;  and 
Pvt.  Baird,  by  transfer  from  Camp  Grant,  and  Sergt.  Bradish  and  Corpl.  McMahon  in  Sep- 
tember. Lieut.  Stech  reported  as  chief  examiner  from  Camp  Funston  in  October.  The  number 
of  men  on  special  detail  as  clerical  assistants  varied  from  2  to  22. 

Considerable  difficulty  was  experienced  at  this  camp  in  obtaining  proper  housing  space 
and  clerical  assistance.  Mess  halls  were  used  as  long  as  these  were  available  and  the  con- 
struction of  a  special  building  was  frequently  urged  by  the  camp  surgeon  and  the  commanding 
general.  Recommendation  of  the  necessary  building  construction  was  finally  obtained  late  in 
the  summer  of  1918. 

Alpha  and  beta  groups  were  separated  on  the  basis  of  ability  to  read  newspapers  and  write 
letters  home  in  English.  Recruits  were  examined  after  physical  examination;  ratings  were 
entered  on  service  records. 

Very  few  recruits  were  ordered  to  Camp  Logan;  examinations  made  were  mainly  of  camp 
organizations.  The  chief  examiner  prepared  a  tabulated  report  on  all  the  men  in  the  57th 
Infantry  by  companies.  This  report  gave  in  alphabetical  form  the  psychological  score, 
the  occupation  in  civil  life,  wages,  and  education,  and  proved  to  be  of  special  value  to  the 
company  officers.  Unusual  value  also  attached  to  the  detailed  individual  personnel  work 
carried  on. 

The  development  of  this  valuable  type  of  detailed  individual  personnel  work  led,  at  the 
request  of  the  camp  commander,  to  the  transfer  of  Capt.  Basset  to  the  line  as  commanding 
officer  of  the  development  battalion,  in  order  that  this  especially  valuable  service  might  be 
continuously  available  to  that  organization. 

Number  enlisted  men  examined,  19,310;  officers,  674.     Total  individual  examinations,  319. 

CAMP    MaCARTHUE,    TEX. 

Capt.  Harold  C.  Bingham  reported  as  chief  examiner  in  October,  1918.  He  completed  his 
work  at  the  end  of  November.  Lieut.  Fryer  and  Sergt.  first  class  Ten  Hoor  assisted  him. 
An  infirmary  was  assigned  as  permanent  quarters  for  the  psychological  staff.  It  was  located 
near  the  personnel  office  and  near  camp  headquarters.  Preparations  were  made  for  examining 
the  incoming  draft,  but  no  draft  reported.  The  principal  work  of  the  staff  was  the  examination 
of  certain  special  units  and  the  collection  of  data  requested  by  the  Washington  office. 

Number  enlisted  men  examined,  17,010;  officers,  60.     Total  individual  examinations,  4. 


No.i.]  PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  ARMY.  81 

CAMP    MCCLELLAN,    ALA. 

Maj.  Waugh  reported  as  chief  examiner  in  October,  1918;  Lieut.  Layton  reported  at  the 
same  time  as  assistant  examiner,  and  Sergt.  Lecky,  Pvt.  first  class  Hagner  and  Pvts.  Fitch  and 
Feldman  as  trained  assistants.     All  were  transferred  from  Camp  Gordon. 

On  October  8  the  inspector  of  psychological  examining  reported  that  psychological  per- 
sonnel and  authority  for  the  construction  of  a  building  for  psychological  use  had  been  requested 
by  the  camp  commander.  Recruits  were  expected  and  the  removal  of  the  depot  brigade  from 
Camp  Gordon  to  Camp  McClellan  made  it  advisable  to  supply  psychological  service  at  once. 
The  mam  work  of  the  staff  when  it  reported  was,  therefore,  to  examine  existing  camp  personnel 
and  make  preparations  for  the  expected  draft.  Prisoners  in  camp  and  depot  stockade  were 
examined. 

Number  enlisted  men  examined,  6,566;  officers,  21.     Total  individual  examinations,  45. 

CAMP    MEADE,  MD. 

Capt.  LaRue  reported  as  chief  examiner  and  Lieuts.  Malmberg  and  Pedrick  as  assistant 
examiners  in  April,  1918.  Lieut.  Wembridge  reported  in  November.  Lieut.  Paterson  was 
assigned  in  August  as  special  examiner  of  the  development  battalion.  Sergts.  Rich,  Fossler, 
and  Dealey,  Corpls.  Tyson  and  Morton,  and  Pvts.  Glenn,  Perrin,  Cutolo,  and  Grosnickle  were 
assistant  examiners. 

The  original  building  assigned  the  psj'chological  staff  was  a  two-story  convalescent  ward 
in  the  base  hospital.  Later  a  large  two-story  barracks  building  near  the  receiving  offices  of  the 
camp  was  assigned  for  permanent  use. 

Alpha  was  given  to  men  who  professed  ability  to  read  and  write  and  who  had  reached  the 
fifth  grade.  The  psychological  examination  followed  the  physical ;  this  facilitated  the  operation 
of  a  "one  examination  plan"  used  in  the  later  examining.  This  consisted  in  placing  two  expert 
interviewers  at  the  exit  from  the  medical  examination  board,  who  examined,  each  man  briefly 
and  decided  whether  he  should  report  at  once  for  the  alpha  examination,  the  beta,  or  for  an 
individual  examination.     By  this  means  they  prevented  repeated  examining. 

Reports  were  made  within  12  hours;  intelligence  ratings  were  entered  on  the  qualification 
cards  and  "illiterate"  was  checked  on  cards  of  all  men  who  were  unable  to  take  and  pass  exami- 
nation alpha.  Recommendations  for  discharge  were  few  because  of  the  attitude  of  medical 
officers. 

The  development  battalions  at  Camp  Meade  were  of  special  interest  in  connection  with  the 
school  for  development  battalion  officers.  Lieut.  Paterson,  who  was  ordered  here  from  Camp 
Wadsworth  in  response  to  a  request  from  the  General  Staff  that  psychology  be  represented, 
developed  the  possibilities  of  psychological  service  in  this  connection.  He  made  a  complete 
survey  and  classification  of  the  battalions,  demonstrated  the  usefulness  of  intelligence  ratings  in 
selecting  men  for  the  noncommissioned  officers'  school,  and  made  recommendations  concerning 
education  and  training. 

Number  enlisted  men  examined,  64,045;  officers,  1,655.  Total  individual  examinations 
4,013. 

CAMP    PIKE,  ARK. 

Lieuts.  Stone  and  Manuel  reported  as  chief  and  assistant  examiners  in  April.  Lieut. 
Manuel  was  sent  to  Camp  Beauregard  in  November  to  organize  psychological  service  there. 
Lieut.  Breitwieser  reported  in  July.  Sergts.  Swindle,  Noble,  and  Given,  and  Corpls.  Grainger, 
Schneider,  Schoonmaker,  Franklin,  and  Brown,  and  Pvt.  Wade  were  sent  as  assistant  examiners 
from  Camp  Greenleaf . 

A  supply  company  barracks  was  used  as  office  and  headquarters  for  the  psychological  staff. 

Camp  Pike  received  very  few  recruits  of  foreign  birth,  but  many  illiterate  Americans. 
Ability  to  read  and  write  letters  home  was  made  the  basis  of  segregation  for  alpha.  About  half 
the  men  reported  for  psychological  before  physical  examination;  thus  neither  had  to  wait  for  the 


82  MEMOIRS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES.  [vol.xv. 

other.  At  the  receiving  station,  men  suspected  of  mental  deficiency  were  sent  to  the  psycho- 
logical board,  where  they  were  given  beta,  and  according  to  their  success  either  a  brief  interview 
or  an  individual  examination.  Ninety-six  per  cent  of  all  recommendations  were  confirmed  by 
the  psychiatrist.  The  performance  scale  was  little  used;  foreigners  were  few,  and  a  verbal  scale 
worked  better  with  the  negroes.  Ratings  were  reported  within  36  hours  and  were  entered  on  a 
new  card  designed  to  accompany  the  service  record.  This  card  bore  also  a  statement  as  to 
literacy,  and  the  disposition  recommended.  After  September  the  entry  was  made  directly  on 
the  service  record  and  on  the  qualification  card. 

Cooperation  with  other  agencies  was  excellent.  Examinations  were  made  regularly  of 
central  officers'  training  school  applicants,  of  recruits  in  the  replacement  camp  to  fill  the  non- 
commissioned officers'  schools,  and  of  prisoners.  Cordial  working  relations  existed  with  psychia- 
trists, personnel  officers,  and  officers  of  the  development  battalion.  The  first  request  for  the 
attachment  of  a  psychologist  to  the  division  was  received  from  the  commanding  officer  of  this 
camp. 

Number  enlisted  men  examined,  74,041;  officers,  1,901.  Total  individual  examinations, 
5,720. 

I  PORT  OF  EMBARKATION,  NEWPORT  NEWS,  VA. 

Dr.  Bridges  arrived  as  civilian  examiner  in  April,  191S.  Officers  at  Camp  Stuart  were 
given  group  examination  alpha,  but  the  work  consisted  mainly  of  individual  examinations  in 
connection  with  the  neuro-psychiatric  board.  Aero  and  balloon  squadrons  were  examined  at 
the  aeronautical  general  supply  depot  and  concentration  camp  at  Morrison.  Dr.  Bridges  was 
recalled  to  the  Office  of  Surgeon  General  in  May. 

Capt.  Paterson  and  Lieut.  Mertz  reported  December  1,  to  assist  the  neuro-psychiatric  staff 
in  the  classification  of  nervous  and  mental  cases  from  overseas  and  the  checking  of  overseas 
diagnoses.  The  group  method  was  found  not  to  be  particularly  apphcable  to  this  problem; 
the  value  of  individual  examining  was  obvious,  but  the  time  allotted  for  classification  was  so 
short  as  to  limit  the  possibility  of  its  thorough  use.  Capt.  Paterson  was  recalled  early  in 
January  and  Lieut.  Mertz  at  the  end  of  March. 

Additional  services  were  the  examination  of  medical  detachments  of  the  embarkation  and 
debarkation  hospitals  and  of  women  in  the  detention  home,  Newport  News. 

Number  enlisted  men  examined,  1,435;  officers,  217.     Total  individual  examinations,  106. 

CAMP  SEVIER,  S.  C. 

Lieut.  Elliott  reported  from  Camp  Wadsworth  in  May  as  chief  examiner.  Lieuts.  Kefauver 
and  Lane  reported  as  assistant  examiners.  Lieut.  Lane  was  transferred  to  Camp  Wadsworth 
as  chief  examiner  in  July.  Sergts.  Hawes  and  Holmes  and  Corp.  Evans  and  later  Sergt.  Sprankle 
and  Corp.  Wittenburg  reported  from  Camp  Greenleaf.  Lieut.  White  was  added  to  the  exam- 
ining force  in  November. 

At  different  times  one  or  another  of  the  camp  infirmary  buildings  supplied  space  for  offices, 
scoring  rooms,  and  rooms  for  individual  examinations.  Group  examinations  were  given  in 
Y.  M.  C.  A.  halls,  mess  halls,  and  later  in  warehouses  adapted  for  this  purpose. 

Methods  at  Camp  Sevier  were  affected  by  the  low-grade  draft  received.  Fourth-grade 
schooling  was  made  the  basis  of  segregation  for  examination  alpha,  but  it  was  found  necessary 
to  raise  this  to  sixth  grade.  Alpha  and  beta  groups  were  held  while  the  papers  were  scored, 
thus  obviating  recall,  except  over  the  meal  hour.  Failures  were  then  given  further  examina- 
tion. Eleven  per  cent— an  extraordinarily  large  proportion — was  examined  individually. 
This  was  made  possible  by  training  a  number  of  enlisted  men  each  to  give  a  single  test  of  the 
Performance  or  Stanford-Binet  Scale.  Each  man  examined  passed  the  rounds  and  was  finally 
interviewed  and  rated  by  the  clinical  examiner.  Psychological  examinations  followed  physical ; 
ratings  were  entered  on  service  records  and  qualifications  cards.  Close  cooperation  with  the 
psychiatrists  and  discharge  boards  resulted  in  prompt  action  on  the  psychologist's  recommenda- 
tion for  discharge  of  low-grade  men. 


no.  i.]  PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  ARMY.  83 

Excellent  relations  with  the  development  battalion  were  established  at  its  inception,  when 
psychological  board  was  called  on  to  decide  immediately  the  fitness  for  overseas  duty  of  359 
low-grade  men  rejected  by  their  commanders.  Rush  methods  were  adopted  for  the  emergency 
and  acceptable  recommendations  made.  Recommendation  of  the  psychological  board  was 
thereafter  made  a  prerequisite  to  transfer  to  the  development  battalion  for  mental  deficiency 
or  inaptitude.  The  staff  was  too  small  to  undertake  educational  work  in  the  battalion.  The 
chief  examiner,  together  with  one  representative  each  of  the  camp  surgeon  and  the  camp  per- 
sonnel adjutant,  constituted  a  board  with  authority  to  act  on  all  cases  of  misfit  arising  in  the 
camp. 

On  November  1  a  complete  mental  survey  -of  the  Twentieth  Division  as  constituted  at  that 
time  had  been  finished.  For  every  organization  the  proportion  of  men  of  each  intelligence  grade 
was  tabulated.  All  cooperative  arrangements  with  the  camp  personnel  officer  were  completed 
so  that  with  the  arrival  of  the  expected  draft  on  November  1 1  the  assignment  of  recruits  would 
have  been  governed  by  the  aim  of  balancing  in  mental  strength  all  coordinate  organizations. 
This  appeared  especially  desirable  as  the  draft  would  have  come  in  about  equal  proportion  from 
Louisiana  and  Massachusetts.  ; 

Study  of  negro  examining  was  undertaken  at  Camp  Sevier;  comparison  of  negro  perform- 
ance in  each  alpha  and  beta  test  with  that  of  white  men  of  equal  mental  age  and  study  of 
individual  scales  to  discover  tests  particularly  easy  or  hard  for  negroes  were  the  main  lines  of 
this  work. 

Number  enlisted  men  examined,  24,130;  officers,  9.     Total  individual  examinations,  2,344. 

CAMP  SHELBY,  ALA. 

Capt.  Rowe  was  sent  to  Camp  Shelby  as  chief  examiner  in  May,  1918.  Lieuts.  Breit- 
wieser  and  Hood  reported  as  assistant  examiners  later  in  the  month.  These  examiners  remained 
on  duty  until  July.  In  November  Capt.  Pedrick  reported  to  reorganize  psychological  ex- 
amining; Sergt.  Simon,  Corp.  Tyson,  and  Pvt.  Rosenberry  reported  as  assistants. 

The  number  of  men  examined  during  the  first  period  of  examining  was  6,080,  and  the 
number  of  individual  examinations  made  was  64. 

CAMP  SHERIDAN,  ALA. 

Capt.  Hunter  reported  for  duty  as  chief  examiner  hi  March;  Capt.  Dallenbach  reported 
in  April  and  later  became  chief  at  this  camp.  Lieut.  Clark  reported  in  October.  Sergt.  Emme- 
rich and  Corp.  Rickard  were  the  only  Greenleaf  trained  assistants.  Other  enlisted  men  were 
permanently  assigned  from  camp  organizations. 

No  permanent  building  was  assigned  to  psychological  staff  at  this  camp. 

Men  who  could  read  and  write  English  fairly  well  were  given  examination  alpha ;  later  the 
requirement  of  six  years'  schooling  was  added  to  reduce  the  9  per  cent  who  had  to  be  recalled 
to  beta.  All  negroes  were  given  examination  beta;  only  the  poorest  received  individual  exam- 
ination. 

Practically  the  entire  Thirty-seventh  Division  was  examined  before  it  went  overseas.  Most 
men  coming  into  camp  were  already  organized  and  were  secured  for  examination  through  their 
commanding  officers.  The  white  draft  was  examined  before,  and  the  negro  draft  after,  the 
physical  examination.  Group  examination  results  were  reported  within  24  hours  and  indi- 
vidual examinations  within  5  to  10  days  after  group  examination.  Intelligence  ratings  were 
entered  on  service  records  and  qualification  cards.  Finally  no  transfer  from  camp  was  per- 
mitted without  such  record. 

Cooperative  relations  were  established  with  personnel  officers,  psychiatrists,  commanding 
officers,  development  battalion  and  judge  advocate,  and  the  use  of  psychological  ratings  was 
extensive. 

All  officers  were  examined,  by  order  of  the  camp  commander.  Psychological  ratings  were 
found  valuable  in  considering  applicants  for  the  fourth  officers'  training  camp.  The  following 
rules  were  established  concerning  assignment  of  negro  recruits:  the  highest  5  per  cent  were 


84  MEMOIRS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES.  [vol.xv, 

recommended  as  noncommissioned  officers ;  men  with  mental  age  above  8  were  assigned  to  com- 
batant service;  men  between  7  and  8  years  mental  age  were  assigned  to  labor  battalions  over- 
seas, and  the  men  between  6  and  7  years  mental  age  were  held  for  domestic  service.  Men  rating 
below  6  years  mental  age  were  recommended  for  discharge.  Psychological  work  at  Camp 
Sheridan,  begun  under  unfavorable  circumstances,  gradually  became  one  of  the  important 
activities  of  the  camp. 

A  psychological  report  form  (see  p.  291)  was  filled  out  for  every  man  individually  exam- 
ined in  Camp  Sheridan,  leaving  on  record  a  valuable  mass  of  information.  At  the  close  of  exam- 
ining an  extensive  tabulation  of  the  distribution  of  ratings  of  all  organizations  was  left  on  file. 

Number  of  enlisted  men  examined,  53,818;  officers,  1,347.  Total  individual  examina- 
tions, 2,  117. 

CAMP  SHERMAN,  OHIO. 

Capt.  George  F.  Arps  was  chief  examiner  at  Camp  Sherman.  He  reported  in  April,  1918, 
and  was  followed  in  April  by  Lieut.  Wylie  and  in  August  by  Lieut.  Murchison,  who  eventually 
became  chief  examiner.  Both  Capt.  Arps  and  Lieut.  Murchison  left  the  staff  on  appointment 
as  camp  morale  officer.  Capt.  Deerwester  reported  from  Camp  Grant  in  September  for  a  short 
period.  Sergts.  Wilson  and  Cotter,  Corpls.  Bruder  and  DajT,  and  Pvts.  Coons,  Crowder, 
McCrady,  and  Rubins  were  sent  from  Camp  Greenleaf  as  assistants.  Private  McCrady  was 
acting  first  sergeant  in  charge  of  group  examining.  Sergt.  Wilson  had  charge  of  individual 
examining. 

The  building  for  psychological  service  here  was  the  regular  barracks  building  situated  one 
block  from  the  personnel  office. 

Thirty  per  cent  of  the  men  sent  to  Camp  Sherman  were  negroes.  The  white  draft  was  of 
high  intelligence,  but  since  the  requirements  for  alpha  were  set  high  (whites,  completion  of  fifth 
grade;  negroes,  completion  of  seventh  grade),  examination  beta  and  the  performance  scale  were 
extensively  used.  The  psychological  was  the  last  examination  on  the  recruit's  program.  In 
September  intelligence  ratings  were  regularly  entered  on  qualification  cards  and  service  records. 

It  would  be  impossible  to  detail  the  variety  of  important  psychological  services  which  at 
Camp  Sherman  were  made  a  routine  part  of  the  work.  Beside  well-established  relations  with  per- 
sonnel and  medical  officers,  judge  advocate,  and  commanders  of  regular  and  development 
battalion  organizations,  examinations  were  regularly  made  in  the  officers'  training  camp,  in  the 
camp  of  conscientious  objectors  (where  the  commanding  officer  developed  an  interesting  use  of 
the  ratings),  and  among  the  various  welfare  organizations.  Army  nurses  were  rated.  The  chief 
health  officer  of  Chillicothe  requested  examination  of  women  arrested  in  and  about  camp.  At 
request  of  the  intelligence  section  three  tests  were  worked  out  to  measure  discrimination  of  minute 
movement,  localization  of  light,  and  deductive  reasoning.  Lieut.  Murchison  was  largely  respon- 
sible for  an  ambitious  educational  program  which  was  planned  and  put  into  effect  in  the  develop- 
ment battalions  and  training  schools.  Statistical  work  was  not  neglected;  a  graphical  presenta- 
tion of  comparison  between  organizations  accompanied  reports,  and  an  abbreviated  point  scale 
was  prepared. 

Total  number  of  enlisted  men  examined  62,968 ;  officers,  1,440.  Number  of  individual  exami- 
nations 2,762. 

CAMP  TAYLOR,  KY. 

Psychological  examining  began  at  Camp  Taylor  in  September,  1917.  Lieuts.  Trabue, 
Cummings,  and  Doll  were  the  first  officers  to  report  for  duty.  Lieut.  Norton  was  in  charge 
of  the  individual  examining  during  the  summer  of  1918.  Lieut.  Bare  reported  for  duty  in  April, 
1918.  Lieut.  DeVoss  was  commissioned  in  February  and  reported  for  duty  almost  immediately 
after  as  assistant  examiner.  Among  the  enlisted  personnel  on  service  at  this  camp  were  Sergts. 
McWharter,  Bowie,  Jackson,  Uhrbrock,  and  Denslow  and  Corpls.  Donovan  and  Parker,  trained 
at  Camp  Greenleaf.     Examining  in  the  fall  of  1917  is  described  on  pages  16  and  17. 

A  regular  supply-company  barracks  was  finally  opened  for  the  headquarters  of  the  psycho- 
logical staff  at  Camp  Taylor. 


no.  i.]  PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  AKMY.  85 

Men  able  to  read  newspapers  and  write  letters  home,  who  had  completed  the  third  grade 
(negroes,  sixth  grade),  were  given  examination  alpha.  All  others  took  beta,  but  were  not 
reported  as  "illiterate"  unless  totally  unable  to  read  and  write.  Failures  on  alpha  and  beta 
were  held  during  short  scoring  of  the  blanks  or  were  recalled  for  further  examination,  except  in 
rush  examination  of  negroes. 

Four  psychologists  worked  with  the  psychiatrist  on  the  general  examining  board  during 
physical  examinations,  examining  individually  cases  suspected  of  mental  defect.  Most  of  these 
were  rejected  at  this  point.  Psychological  examination  followed  as  soon  as  possible  after  the 
physical.  It  preceded  the  personnel  interview,  but  the  personnel  officer  did  not  have  the  intel- 
ligence rating  at  this  time.  Report  was  made  to  personnel  and  commanding  officers  on  the  day 
following  examination,  and  for  entry  on  the  qualification  card.  The  disability  board  referred 
all  cases  before  it  for  psychological  examination  before  taking  action. 

One  of  the  most  distinctive  features  of  the  work  was  the  large  number  of  individuals  referred 
by  other  authorities  for  psychological  examination.  Examining  was  done  at  Camp  Knox,  and 
a  report  made  on  low-grade  cases.  The  school  for  chaplains  was  examined,  making  an  excep- 
tionally high  record. 

The  staff  made  several  statistical  reports  on  examination  beta,  including  one  on  the  short- 
scoring  method  thejT  developed. 

Previous  to  April  27,  23,237  officers  and  men  had  been  examined.  After  April  27  the  total 
number  of  examinations  given  enlisted  men  was  53,262;  officers,  74.  Number  of  individual 
examinations  given  after  April  27  was  2,319. 

CAMP  TRAVIS,  TEX. 

Capt.  Pittenger  reported  for  duty  in  March  and  Lieut.  Stokes  in  April.  Additional  assistants 
trained  at  Camp  Greenleaf  were  Sergts.  Briggs,  Goldberger,  and  Munroe;  Corpls.  Krutch  and 
Rich,  and  Pvts.  Rees  and  Gray.  In  the  permanent  detail  was  Sergt.  Ullrich,  whose  services 
proved  invaluable  in  establishing  the  work  at  this  camp  because  of  his  experience  in  army  proce- 
dure. 

Psychological  service  was  permanently  established  here  from  the  first  in  a  f uU-sized  barracks 
building,  which  later  was  remodeled  according  to  plans  prepared  by  the  staff. 

The  basis  for  separation  of  alpha  and  beta  groups  was  ability  to  read  and  write.  Men  who 
did  nothing  on  tests  1  and  2  in  alpha  or  on  tests  1,  2,  and  3  in  beta  were  stopped  and  sent  immedi- 
ately for  individual  examination.  Obviously  poor  papers  were  scored  before  the  group  was  dis- 
missed. In  this  way  the  individual  examining  was  completed,  except  for  a  few  recalls,  by  the 
time  the  papers  were  scored.  To  Spanish-speaking  men  individually  examined  the  Stanford- 
Binet  was  given  in  Spanish.     The  performance  scale  was  used  as  a  check  on  doubtful  cases. 

Psychological  examination  was  not  given  until  48  hours  after  inoculation.  Ratings  were 
reported,  and  entered  on  service  records  and  qualification  cards.  No  transfer  could  be  made 
without  this  information;  if  the  rating  were  E,  or  incomplete,  there  could  be  no  transfer  except 
to  a  labor  assignment  or  development  battalion.  Men  recommended  for  consideration  of  dis- 
charge were  sent  by  orderly  direct  to  the  psychiatrist;  80  per  cent  of  such  cases  were  discharged. 
Others  found  unfit  for  regular  military  service  were  sent,  through  the  camp  surgeon,  to  the  dis- 
ability board;  men  sent  from  other  sources  to  the  disability  board  were  required  to  present  a 
certificate  from  the  psychological  examiner. 

Psychological  scores  were  used  in  the  selection  of  men  for  regular  service,  in  formation  of 
white  labor  battalions,  and  in  filling  reqiusitions  for  special  types  of  men  and  noncommissioned 
officers.  The  transfer  of  men  from  the  depot  brigade  to  the  Eighteenth  Division  was  made  in 
accordance  with  psychological  and  occupational  needs.  The  chief  examiner  assisted  in  the 
reclassification  of  the  development  battalion.  Additional  examining  was  done  at  Brooks 
Aviation  Field  for  the  309th  Cavalry,  Fort  Sam  Houston,  and  at  other  camps  near  Camp  Travis. 

Number  enlisted  men  examined,  76,530;  officers,  1,025.  Total  individual  examinations, 
7,449. 


86  MEMOIRS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES.  [vol.xv, 

UNITED  STATES  DISCIPLINARY  BARRACKS,  FORT  LEAVENWORTH,  KANS. 

In  December,  1918,  Capt.  Norton,  as  chief  examiner,  and  Lients.  Folsom  and  Lincoln  were 
ordered  to  Fort  Leavenworth  to  make  examination  of  prisoners.  Capt.  Norton  and  Lieut. 
Folsom  were  relieved  in  January ;  Lieut.  Lincoln  at  the  end  of  March. 

Alpha  examinations  of  men  who  had  completed  the  fifth  grade  were  conducted  in  the  bar- 
racks auditorium;  beta  groups  were  examined  in  the  schoolroom.  Additional  individual  exami- 
nations were  made  at  the  request  of  the  psychiatric  and  sociological  board  and  of  medical  exam- 
iners. Ratings  were  found  valuable  by  the  personnel  officer  and  by  psychiatric  officers,  who 
recommended  to  the  review  board  the  discharge  of  men  below  8  years  mentally.  All  intelligence 
ratings  were  considered  in  connection  with  modification  of  sentences.  The  statistical  work  in 
connection  with  the  psychiatric  survey  of  the  institution  was  carried  out  mainly  under  the  direc- 
tion of  Lieut.  Lincoln. 

Number  of  men  examined,  3,605.     Individual  examinations,  287. 

CAMP   UPTON,    N.  Y. 

Capt.  Hayes  reported  as  chief  examiner  in  April,  1918.  In  August  he  reported  at  Camp 
Humphreys  to  organize  psychological  examining.  Capt.  Boring  reported  for  duty  in  April,  be- 
coming chief  examiner  in  August;  Lieut.  Adams  reported  in  June.  In  November  Capt.  Boring 
was  called  to  the  Office  of  the  Surgeon  General,  and  Capt.  Pedrick  was  sent  from  Camp  Shelby 
as  chief  examiner  at  Camp  Upton.  Sergt.  Davis,  Corps.  Gill,  Muller,  and  William  Cohen,  and 
Pvts.  J.  Cohen,  Wescott,  Hoffman,  Browdy,  Brown,  Goolsby,  Whitehead,  and  Walker  were 
assistant  examiners  trained  at  Camp  Greenleaf*  All  physical  arrangements  for  examining  were 
exceedingly  satisfactory  at  Camp  Upton. 

Men  who  could  read  newspapers  were  given  examination  alpha.  Failures  in  alpha  were 
recalled  for  beta.  In  October,  a  simple  dictation  and  arithmetic  test  was  introduced  to  reduce 
reexamination.  Negroes  making  D-  on  alpha  were  given  individual  examination;  by  a  short- 
scoring  method  developed  for  examination  beta,  D-  cases  were  held  foi  immediate  individual 
examination. 

Until  September,  the  physical  preceded  the  psychological  examination.  A  psychologist  on 
the  special  medical  board  (which  examined  the  men  selected  by  the  general  medical  board) 
gave  individual  examination  to  cases  suspected  of  mental  defect.  This  arrangement  was 
continued,  although  after  September  the  psychological  examination  was  placed  first;  men 
rated  E  were  tagged  "Report  to  M.  and  N.  Board"  (mental  and  nervous) .  A  psychologist  was 
present  with  the  individual  examination  papers,  and  decision  concerning  rejection  was  made 
conjointly. 

Ratings  were  reported  to  the  personnel  officer  and  to  company  commanders  within  24  hours 
and  entered  on  the  qualification  cards  before  the  men  left  camp.  (Most  of  the  recruits  were 
assigned  to  some  other  camp  at  the  end  of  two  weeks.)  Entry  of  ratings  on  service  records 
was  begun  in  August  hi  connection  with  examination  of  prisoners,  and  made  universal  in  Sep- 
tember (camp  order,  Sept.  22). 

The  staff  at  Camp  Upton  was  carefully  organized  for  efficient  routine  work.  Beside 
examination  of  the  draft,  a  psychologist  stationed  at  the  base  hospital  made  examination  for 
the  psychiatric  staff;  prisoners  were  examined  regularly;  the  development  battalions  were  rated 
on  literacy  and  on  an  ' '  English-speaking  scale' '  as  well  as  on  intelligence. 

Statistical  work  under  Capt.  Boring  was  directed  especially  toward  the  study  of  examina- 
tion methods.  A  variety  of  reports  on  examination  beta,  reports  on  the  test  of  English-speak- 
ing ability  here  devised,  and  on  the  possibilities  of  the  personal  data  blanks  tried  out  for  Prof. 
Woodworth,  of  Columbia  University,  were  of  unusual  value. 

Number  of  enlisted  men  examined,  61,008;  officers,  551.  Total  individual  examinations, 
3,707. 


no.i.]  PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  ARMY.  87 


CAMP  WHEELER,  GA. 

Capt.  Poffenberger  reported  as  chief  examiner  in  April.  On  account  of  his  serious  illness, 
Lieut.  Marcus  acted  as  chief  examiner  until  the  arrival  of  Capt.  Richmond,  in  October.  Sergts. 
Hoffer,  Springstun,  Bishop,  Fromuth,  Corps.  West  and  Peppel,  and  Pvts.  Zoellner  and  Neifekl 
were  the  assistant  examiners  who  had  received  training  in  military  psychology  at  Camp  Greenleaf . 

Office,  scoring  room,  and  storerooms  were  in  an  old  mess-hall  building.  Accommodations 
at  this  camp  were  probably  the  poorest  to  be  found. 

Examination  alpha  was  given  to  those  who  had  completed  the  fifth  (later  the  sixth)  grade, 
and  who  could  read  and  write  Enghsh.  On  the  later  basis  there  were  0.5  per  cent  D-  grades  on 
alpha.  These  were  recalled  for  individual  examination.  Negroes  were  not  reexamined  after 
beta  unless  they  failed  to  make  a  (weighted)  score  of  20.  The  abbreviated  Point  Scale  was 
chiefly  used.  Twenty  per  cent  of  the  limited  service  draft  at  this  camp  required  individual 
examination. 

The  examination  program  finally  worked  out  was  as  follows:  Psychological  examination 
f ollowed  within  an  hour  after  inoculation  for  influenza.  The  recruit  then  went  before  the  medical 
examining  board  with  which  there  were  two  or  three  psychologists.  Intelligence  rating  on 
group  examination  was  reported  on  the  temporary  identification  card;  D-  cases  were  at  this 
point  given  individual  examination  by  the  psychologists  present,  and  mental  age  considered 
with  other  causes  for  rejection.  At  the  personnel  interview  later,  the  recruit  had  with  him  quali- 
fication card,  service  record,  and  temporary  identification  card,  and  the  intelligence  rating  was 
recorded  by  a  detail  from  the  psychological  staff  on  both  qualification  card  and  service  record. 

It  was  ordered  here  that  all  officers  should  take  psychological  examination  on  arrival  at 
camp.  Men  in  the  development  battalion  were  classified  on  the  basis  of  intelligence  ratings. 
Psychological  scores  were  used  in  routine  fashion  as  a  basis  for  classification  of  negroes  into 
those  suited  for  regular  duty  overseas  and  those  suited  for  labor  battalions  overseas.  It  was 
the  policy  of  the  neuro-psychiatric  board  in  this  camp  to  assign  to  regular  military  training 
all  except  very  low  grade  cases. 

Number  enlisted  men  examined,   32,299;  officers,  689.      Total  individual  examinations, 

2,301. 

RELATIONS  OF  PSYCHOLOGICAL  TO  PSYCHIATRIC  SERVICE. 

From  the  first  the  chief  of  the  division  of  neuro-psychiatry  encouraged  the  development 
of  psychological  service  and  in  every  feasible  way  facilitated  the  work  of  the  staff  of  the  section  of 
psychology.  It  was  understood  that  during  the  period  of  official  trial  of  methods  of  psy- 
chological examining  in  army  cantonments,  psychological  and  psychiatric  officers  would  cooperate 
as  opportunity  offered,  but  no  definite  instructions  were  given  to  the  latter  by  the  Medical 
Department.  Psychologists,  on  the  other  hand,  were  urged  to  assist  medical  officers  so  far  as 
possible  without  sacrificing  the  immediate  demand  for  thorough  trial  of  the  value  of  psycholog- 
ical methods.  It  was  provided  that  psychologists  should  report  low  grade  and  ' '  irregular ' ' 
cases  to  psychiatric  officers  and  examine  for  the  latter  all  cases  which  were  referred  for  mental 
age  or  other  type  of  descriptive  report. 

Following  the  official  inspection  of  psychological  examining  and  the  decision  of  the  War 
Department  to  extend  this  work  to  the  entire  Army,  the  chief  of  the  division  of  neuro-psychiatry 
requested  that  definite  instructions  concerning  the  relations  of  these  two  kinds  of  work  be  for- 
mulated and  issued  to  all  officers  concerned.  The  result  of  this  request  and  of  conferences 
between  Maj.  Bailey  and  Maj.  Yerkes  was  the  formulation,  under  date  of  February  2,  1918, 
of  the  following  instructions  "to  promote  cooperation  and  increase  the  efficiency  of  the  psycho- 
logical and  neuro-psychiatric  services." 

PROVISION    FOK  COORDINATION    OP    PSYCHIATRIC   AND   PSYCHOLOGICAL   EXAMINATIONS   IN   DIVISIONAL  TRAINING   CAMPS. 

It  is  agreed  between  the  Division  of  Psychology  and  the  Division  of  Neuro-psychiatry — 

(1)  That  psychiatric  survey  of  organizations  shall  be  made  in  conjunction  with  psychological  survey. 

(2)  That  for  this  purpose  psychiatric  examiners  shall  be  present  at  group  psychological  examinations,  to  observe 
the  behavior  and  appearance  of  soldiers.  It  is  further  provided  that  the  work  of  the  psychiatrist  shall  not  interfere  with 
the  proper  conduct  of  psychological  examination. 


88  MEMOIRS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES.  [vol.  xv, 

(3)  That  rooms  numbered  5  and  6  in  building  for  psychology  shall  be  designated  for  psychiatric  examining. 

(4)  That  the  name,  rank,  and  organization  of  individuals  receiving  the  grade  E  in  group  psychological  examination 
shall  be  reported  promptly  to  the  division  psychiatrist  through  the  division  surgeon. 

(5)  That  report  of  individual  psychological  examination  shall  be  accepted  by  psychiatrist  as  part  of  the  medical 
examination  and  shall  be  included  in  the  case  record  if  subject  be  recommended  for  discharge  or  for  special  assignment. 

Pearce  Bailey, 
Major,  M.  R.  C,  Chief  of  Division  of  Neuro-psychiatry . 
Robert  M.  Yerkes, 
Major,  S.  C,  N.  A.,  Chief  of  Division  of  Psychology . 

The  failure  of  the  War  Department  to  provide  a  special  building  for  psychological  examin- 
ing rendered  it  impossible  for  officers  to  carry  out  these  instructions  to  the  letter,  but  they 
were  nevertheless  carried  out  in  spirit  in  several  important  camps. 

Although  all  degrees,  as  well  as  varieties,  of  cooperation  between  these  groups  of  officers 
appeared  in  the  different  camps,  the  relations  were  on  the  whole  surprisingly  satisfactory  and 
profitable.  In  at  least  half  of  the  camps  the  reference  of  cases  by  psychologists  to  psychiatrists 
and  the  reverse  were  frequent  and  obviously  in  the  interests  of  military  efficiency.  There  were 
only  a  few  stations  in  which  advantage  of  the  presence  of  psychological  examiners  was  not 
taken  by  neuro-psychiatrists  and  in  these  instances  inconvenient  relation  of  the  examining 
buildings  was  quite  as  often  responsible  for  the  failure  to  cooperate  as  were  unsatisfactory 
personnel  relations  or  lack  of  appreciation  of  methods  or  of  the  values  of  results. 

Despite  all  of  the  precautions  taken  by  the  divisions  of  psychology  and  of  neuro-psychiatry 
to  avoid  it,  psychological  and  psychiatric  examinations  were  frequently  confused  and  serious 
mistakes  were  made  in  connection  with  official  action.  These  mistakes  can  not  fairly  be  regarded 
as  attempts  to  injure  the  one  service  or  the  other.  Instead,  they  are  the  natural  result  of 
similarity  of  terminology  and  of  the  assumption  that  psychological  work,  because  conducted 
in  connection  with  the  medical  department,  is  a  species  of  medical  service. 

One  of  the  most  interesting  and  important  instances  of  misconception  is  that  which  appears 

in  the  following  official  letters: 

August  16,  1918. 

From:  The  Surgeon  General  U.  S.  Army. 
To:  The  Adjutant  General  of  the  Army. 
Subject:  Elimination  of  mentally  defective. 

1.  Attention  is  invited  to  paragraph  1,  letter  A.  G.  O.,  August  8,  1918,  which  appears  to  indicate  an  effort  to  place 
restrictions  on  the  rejection  of  men  for  psychiatric  conditions.  It  would  also  appear  from  the  classification  heading 
("psychologicaP')  and  from  the  wording  of  paragraph  1  ("psychiatric"),  that  there  was  perhaps  a  confusion  between 
the  neuro-psychiatric  and  the  psychological  examinations.  These  two  examinations  are  in  reality  widely  divergent, 
the  psychiatric  examiners  aiming  to  detect  actual  cases  of  nervous  and  mental  diseases,  or  tendency  thereto,  while  the 
psychological  examination  is  for  the  purpose  of  grading  intelligence.  The  psychiatric  examination  is  a  part  of  the 
examination  for  acceptance  or  rejection  of  registrants,  and  psychiatric  examiners  are  members  of  the  examining  board. 
Psychological  examiners  are  not  members  of  this  board,  and  their  examinations  are  not  considered  in  deciding  on  the 
acceptance  or  rejection  of  a  registrant. 

2.  Attention  is  also  invited  to  attached  extract  of  cablegram  no.  1464,  dated  July  15,  1918,  from  Gen.  Pershing, 
which  calls  attention  to  the  necessity  for  special  efforts  to  eliminate  the  mentally  unfit  prior  to  departure  from  the 
United  States. 

3.  Attention  is  further  invited  to  the  attached  memorandum  from  Maj.  Frankwood  E.  Williams,  M.  R.  C,  which 
indicates  that  in  34  divisions  there  were  3,035  men  who  were  recommended  for  discharge  by  the  psychiatric  examiners, 
but  who  were  not  discharged.     They  presumably  accompanied  their  divisions  overseas. 

4.  It  is  recommended  that  this  matter  be  brought  to  the  attention  of  the  department  commanders  and  commanding 
officers  of  camps,  cantonments,  divisions,  special  camps,  and  recruit  depots;  and  that  instructions  be  issued  directing 
special  care  to  insure  the  rejection  of  the  mentally  unfit  at  time  of  the  examination  of  registrants.  Any  such  cases 
which  are  subsequently  detected  should  be  eliminated  from  organizations  as  promptly  as  possible  and  in  any  event 
before  the  organization  leaves  for  a  port  of  embarkation. 

For  the  Surgeon  General: 

D.  C.  Howard, 
Colonel,  Medical  Corps. 


No.i.]  PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  ARMY.  89 

In  response  to  the  request  by  Col.  Howard  that  special  instructions  be  issued  to  department 
commanders  and  commanding  officers  of  camps,  etc.,  the  Adjutant  General  issued;  on  Sep- 
tember 17,  the  following  letter: 

September  17,  1918. 
From:  The  Adjutant  General  of  the  Army. 

To:  Department  and  camp  commanders,  recruit  depot,  recruit  depot  posts,  and  bureau  chiefs. 
Subject:  Elimination  of  mentally  defective. 

1.  Attention  i3  directed  to  the  importance  of  eliminating  the  mentally  unfit.  This  elimination  should  be  made  at 
the  time  that  the  registrants  are  given  neuro-psychiatric  examinations,  but  any  cases  which  are  subsequently  detected 
must  be  eliminated  from  organizations  promptly.  Careful  discrimination  between  psychiatric  and  psychological  exami- 
nations must  be  made;  the  latter  are  not  considered  in  deciding  on  the  acceptance  or  rejection  of  a  registrant  or  in  the 
discharge  of  a  soldier.  Special  Regulations  No.  65  and  Army  Regulations,  paragraph  159,  govern,  and  the  provisions 
of  the  latter  are  extended  to  include  commanding  officers  of  replacement  camp3  and  other  camps  under  the  command 
of  general  officers. 

2.  Reports  from  France  indicate  that  a  large  number  of  men  suffering  from  mental  disorders  have  been  allowed 
to  go  with  replacements.     The  necessary  corrective  measures  must  be  applied  in  the  camps  of  this  country. 

3.  You  will  notify  all  concerned  under  your  control. 
By  order  of  the  Secretary  of  War: 

Paul  Giddings, 
Adjutant  General. 

Inasmuch  as  these  instructions  specifically  state  that  psychological  examinations  are  not 
to  be  considered  in  deciding  on  the  acceptance  or  rejection  of  a  registrant  or  the  discharge  of  a 
soldier,  it  was  necessary  for  the  Division  of  Psychology  to  request  immediately  that  the  mis- 
understanding of  the  significance  and  uses  of  intelligence  ratings  be  corrected.  To  this  end  the 
following  letter  was  prepared  for  the  signature  of  the  Surgeon  General,  but  Acting  Surgeon 
General  Richard,  instead  of  forwarding  this  communication  to  The  Adjutant  General  of  the 
Army,  referred  it  to  the  Chief  of  the  Division  of  Neuro-psychiatry,  who  in  turn  held  it  for 
decision  concerning  the  administrative  relations  of  the  Divisions  of  Psychology  and  of  Neuro- 
psychiatry. 

The  letter  is  reproduced  in  substance  because  it  supplies  interesting  information  con- 
cerning the  relations  of  psychological  service  to  army  costs. 

Subject:  Elimination  of  the  Mentally  Unfit. 

1.  Attention  is  respectfully  invited  to  the  accompanying  letter  of  The  Adjutant  General  of  the  Army  concerning 
the  elimination  of  the  mentally  defective  and  its  probable  relations  to  military  efficiency  and  costs. 

2.  In  accordance  with  present  War  Department  orders,  mental  rating  is  provided  by  the  Division  of  Psychology, 
Medical  Department,  for  every  enlisted  man  as  soon  as  he  arrives  in  camp.  This  general  survey  of  drafted  men  makes 
possible  the  prompt  selection  for  careful  psychological  examination  of  all  individuals  who  are  seemingly  unfit  by 
reason  of  mental  deficiency  for  any  type  of  military  service.  If  the  instructions  of  above  letter  are  complied  with  in 
all  army  training  camps  literally  and  conscientiously  the  cost  to  the  Government,  because  of  failure  to  reject  unsuitable 
men  and  delay  in  discharge,  or  in  the  proper  placement  of  men  of  low  grade  intelligence,  will  undoubtedly  amount 
to  at  least  $100,000  per  month,  at  the  present  rate  of  army  growth.  This  is  much  more  than  the  total  present  cost  of 
the  entire  psychological  service. 

3.  As  pertinent  evidence  indicative  of  the  urgent  need  for  serious  consideration  by  the  general  staff  of  the  impor- 
tance of  making  use  of  mental  ratings  provided  by  the  Division  of  Psychology,  the  following  data  are  presented: 

4.  Recently  in  Camp  Zachary  Taylor  the  psychological  staff  examined  221  men  referred  by  the  commanding 
officer  of  the  814th  Pioneer  Infantry,  a  negro  organization  at  the  time  preparing  for  immediate  overseas  duty.  These 
men  had  been  transferred  to  Camp  Taylor  from  Camps  Beauregard  and  Shelby,  in  which  as  it  happens  psychological 
examinations  have  not  been  made  because  of  the  failure  of  the  War  Department  to  authorize  adequate  personnel  for 
the  Division  of  Psychology. 

Of  the  221  men  referred  from  the  regiment,  109  were  found  to  be  unfit,  by  reason  of  inferior  intelligence,  for  regular 
military  service. 

5.  These  109  negro  soldiers  at  the  time  of  psychological  examination  had  been  in  the  army  from  two  to  three  months, 
costing  the  Government  in  all  probability  at  least  $6  a  day,  and  nearly  all  were  insured  for  $10,000.  The  majority  of  them, 
according  to  indications  of  mental  rating,  are  of  no  value  to  the  Army;  a  few  can  be  used  in  labor  organizations.  It 
is  fair  to  assume  that  the  waste  resulting  from  failure  to  reject  these  men  when  they  originally  arrived  in  camp  will 
ultimately  amount  to  at  least  $100,000,  and  in  all  probability  very  much  more  than  that. 

6.  A  situation  similar  to  that  in  Camp  Taylor  developed  at  Camp  Sevier  before  the  entraining  of  the  Eighty-first 
Division  for  overseas .  Three  hundred  and  fifty -nine  men  were  referred  to  the  psychologists  with  the  urgent  request  that 
they  select  from  the  number  those  whose  inferior  intelligence  made  them  unfit  for  regular  service.  The  division 
authorities  felt  that  the  selection  as  made  by  the  different  companies  represented  widely  varying  standards,  and  that 
in  many  cases  mere  newness  to  the  military  situation  had  been  mistaken  by  company  officers  for  stupidity.  The 
difficulty  of  the  situation  was  greatly  increased  by  the  fact  that  more  than  two-thirds  of  the  strength  of  the  division 
had  been  assigned  thereto  for  less  than  a  month.  As  one  summary  court  officer  expressed  it  to  the  Chief  Psychological 
Examiner,  ' '  We  know  nothing  of  these  men  and  are  anxious  to  have  your  professional  judgment  on  their  mental  fitness 
before  taking  them  with  us."     On  the  basis  of  the  psychological  examination,  162  men  were  designated  as  cases  whose 

121435°— 21 7 


90  MEMOIRS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES.  [vol.xv. 

inferior  intelligence  made  it  undesirable  that  they  accompany  the  division  overseas.  As  a  result  of  this  situation, 
which  necessitated  the  special  calling  in  of  the  psychologists,  a  ruling  was  made  in  this  camp  to  the  effect  that  no  man 
can  be  transferred  to  the  Development  Battalion  on  the  ground  of  mental  deficiency,  or  inaptitude,  without  the  recom- 
mendation of  the  psychological  examiners. 

7.  It  is  suggested  that  this  whole  subject  is  worthy  of  the  most  careful  consideration  by  the  War  Department,  in 
order  that  instructions  concerning  the  elimination  of  the  mentally  unfit  may  be  modified  as  seems  desirable,  and  the 
administration  of  mental  tests  so  organized  and  supervised  by  the  War  Department  as  to  insure  maximal  value  to 
the  service. 

RELATIONS   OF  PSYCHOLOGICAL  TO  PERSONNEL   WORK. 

Inasmuch  as  the  intelligence  rating  is  an  important  item  of  personnel  information,  it  was 
inevitable  that  cooperative  relations  between  personnel  adjutants  and  examiners  ultimately 
should  be  established.  The  first  step  in  this  direction  was  the  provision  on  the  personnel  quali- 
fication card  of  space  for  the  entry  of  intelligence  ratings.  For  many  months  this  entry  was 
seldom  made  because  it  had  not  been  definitely  ordered  and  still  more  because  personnel  adju- 
tants had  not  been  instructed  by  The  Adjutant  General  of  the  Army  to  use  intelligence  ratings 
in  connection  with  selection  and  assignment. 

As  the  values  of  the  results  of  psychological  examining  were  demonstrated,  the  interest 
of  personnel  adjutants  and  also  of  the  Committee  on  Classification  of  Personnel  in  the  Army  in 
the  intelligence  rating  rapidly  increased.  In  certain  camps  which  happened  to  have  excep- 
tionally able,  progressive,  and  cooperative  personnel  and  psychological  officers,  arrangements 
were  perfected  whereby  results  of  psychological  examinations  were  promptly  and  regularly 
made  available  for  use  in  the  personnel  office. 

During  the  fall  of  1918  the  Committee  on  Classification  of  Personnel,  in  conference  with 
the  Division  of  Psychology,  agreed  to  instruct  personnel  adjutants  to  have  intelligence  ratings 
entered  on  qualification  cards  within  a  few  hours  after  psychological  examination  had  been 
made,  and  further  to  direct  the  use  of  this  information  in  specific  ways.  As  a  result  of  this 
action,  relations  of  psychological  to  other  forms  of  personnel  work  in  army  camps  rapidly 
became  more  satisfactory  and  the  practical  uses  of  intelligence  ratings  increased  both  in  variety 
and  amount. 

The  following  letter  indicates  the  effective  working  relation  established  between  the  Classi- 
fication Division  of  the  General  Staff  and  the  Section  of  Psychology  of  the  Surgeon  General's 

Office. 

April  8,  1919. 
From:  The  Adjutant  General  of  the  Army. 
To:  The  commanding  general,  Camp  Meade,  Md. 
Subject:  Classification  of  men  received  at  "The  oversea  replacement  depot." 

1.  Enlisted  men  received  at  "The  oversea  replacement  depot"  at  your  camp  for  transfer  to  the  American  Expedi- 
tionary Forces  will  be  given  the  intelligence  test  and  occupational  classification.  The  occupational  classification  will 
include,  whenever  desirable,  a  limited  trade  test.  A  soldiers'  qualification  card  (Form  CCP-1)  will  be  completed  for 
each  soldier  and  accompany  his  records  when  sent  overseas. 

(a)  As  the  medical  examination  of  recruits  sent  to  the  depot  will  have  been  completed  and  initial  records  prepared 
at  the  places  where  recruits  have  been  enlisted,  the  personnel  work  in  connection  with  the  depot  will  be  limited  almost 
entirely  to  classification.  It  is  contemplated  that  only  a  small  personnel  force  will  be  required,  which  will  be  fur- 
nished by  this  office. 

By  order  of  the  Secretary  of  War: 

Adjutant  General. 

In  compliance  with  this  order,  Maj.  Clarence  S.  Yoakum  reported  on  April  16  at  Camp 
Meade  to  organize  psychological  examining  and  to  train  a  competent  officer  to  take  charge  of 
this  work  under  the  direction  of  the  chief  personnel  officer. 

On  the  whole,  the  most  satisfactory  administrative  relations  of  psychological  examining 
proved  to  be  those  which  were  originally  recommended  by  the  Surgeon  General  of  the  Army 
for  consideration  of  the  Committee  on  Classification  of  Personnel.  These  involved  (1)  the 
appointment  of  psychological  examiners  to  serve  in  connection  with  other  personnel  officers 
as  members  of  the  personnel  staff  of  each  camp  or  division;  (2)  the  appointment  of  certain 
other  psychological  examiners  to  serve  under  the  direction  of  medical  officers.  The  duties  of 
the  first  group  of  psychologists  may  be  described  as  strictly  those  of  the  personnel  service. 
Those  of  the  second  group  may  fairly  be  described  as  medical  in  character. 


Memoirs  National  Academy  of  Sciences  XV. 


Part  I,  PI.  5. 


GROUP   EXAMINATION   a    IN   A    HOSPITAL   WARD,  CAMP    LEE,  OCTOBER,  1917. 


SCORING   GROUP   EXAMINATION  a,  CAMP   LEE,  OCTOBER,  1917. 
The  transparent  celluloid  stencils  used  in  scoring  are  shown  at  the  near  end  of  the  table. 


Memoirs  National  Academy  of  Sciences  XV. 


Part  I,  PI.  6. 


ii 


I 


NEGRO   RECRUITS   IN    LINE   BEFORE  BARRACKS   BUILDING,   WAITING    FOR  ALPHA  AND    BETA 

GROUP   EXAMINATIONS. 


GROUP   EXAMINATION    ALPHA,    BEING   TAKEN    BY   NEGRO    RECRUITS. 


Memoirs  National  Academy  of  Sciences  XV. 


Part  I,  PI.  7. 


GROUP   EXAMINATION    BETA,  WITH    NEGRO    RECRUITS. 

Examiner  is  at  the  left,  demonstrator  at  the  light,  of  the  beta  blackboard.     The  white  geometrical  chart  at  the  right  of  the 
blackboard  was  used  with  test  7  for  a  time  and  then  abandoned. 


SCORING   EXAMINATION   PAPERS.      THE  SCORERS  ARE  WORKING  AT   MESS  TABLES  ON    EXAMINATION   ALPHA. 


Memoirs  National  Academy  of  Sciences  XV. 


Part  I,  PI.  9. 


INDIVIDUAL   EXAMINATION    OF   ENLISTED    MEN    WITH    STAN  FORD-BIN  ET   SCALE. 


Memoirs  National  Academy  of  Sciences  XV. 


Part  I,  PI.  10. 


INDIVIDUAL    EXAMINATION    OF    RECRUIT    IN    TEST   1    OF  THE    PERFORMANCE   SCALE,  THE   SHIP  TEST. 


INDIVIDUAL    EXAMINATION    OF    RECRUIT    IN    TEST  2   OF   THE    PERFORMANCE   SCALE,  THE    MANIKIN    TEST. 


Memoirs  National  Academy  of  Sciences  XV. 


Part  I.  PI.  11. 


INDIVIDUAL     EXAMINATION     OF     RECRUIT     IN     TEST    4     OF    THE     PERFORMANCE     SCALE,     THE     CUBE 

CONSTRUCTION     TEST. 


INDIVIDUAL    EXAMINATION     OF    RECRUIT     IN    TEST    10    OF    THE     PERFORMANCE    SCALE.    THE     PICTURE 

COMPLETION     TEST. 


Memoirs  National  Academy  of  Sciences  XV. 


Part  I,  PI.  12 


THE   STENQUIST   SKILL  TEST. 


ENLISTED    MEN    BEING    GIVEN    THE   STENQUIST   SKILL   TEST. 


CHAPTER  4. 

GENERAL  SUMMARY. 


The  preceding  historical  account  of  psychological  examining  is  outlined  by  the  following 
chronology,  which,  in  addition  to  dates,  presents  the  chiefly  significant  events  in  the  service. 

Section  1. — Chronology. 

PRE-OFFICIAL   ACTION. 

1917. 

April  6. — Meeting  at  Harvard  University  for  discussion  of  relations  of  psychology  to  the  war. 

April  10  to  14- — Observation  of  conditions  in  Canada  by  president  of  the  American  Psycho- 
logical Association,  with  special  reference  to  psychological  problems  of  the  war  and  possibilities 
of  service. 

April  14- — President  of  American  Psychological  Association  confers  with  president  of 
National  Research  Council  in  Philadelphia  concerning  plans  for  psychological  service. 

April  19. — Presentation  of  plans  concerning  psychological  service  to  National  Research 
Council  by  president  of  American  Psjrchological  Association  at  meeting  in  Washington. 

April  21  and  22. — Special  meeting  of  Council  of  American  Psychological  Association  in 
Philadelphia  for  consideration  of  service  in  the  war  and  appropriate  action. 

May  1. — Tentative  plan  for  psychological  examining  of  recruits  submitted  to  the  Surgeon 
General  of  the  Army. 

May  28  to  June  9. — Special  committee  on  methods  for  examining  recruits  organized  and  in 
session  in  Vineland,  N.  J. 

June  10  to  23. — Trial  in  various  institutions  of  methods  prepared  for  military  use  by  com- 
mittee. 

June  25  to  July  7. — Continuation  of  sessions  of  committee  on  methods  at  Vineland,  N.  J. 

July  15  to  August  15. — Unofficial  trial  of  methods  of  psychological  examining  made  in  Army 
and  Navy  stations. 

July  20. — Substitute  plan  for  psychological  examination  of  recruits  submitted  to  the 
Surgeon  General  of  the  Army  through  the  National  Research  Council. 

August  1 . — Informal  report  made  to  the  Surgeon  General  of  the  Army,  through  the  National 
Research  Council,  concerning  results  of  trial  of  methods  of  examining,  together  with  recommenda- 
tion of  methods  for  use  in  the  Army. 

August  9. — Robert  M.  Yerkes,  president  of  the  American  Psychological  Association  and 
chairman  of  the  committee  on  methods,  recommended  for  appointment  as  major  in  the  Sanitary 
Corps,  to  organize  and  direct  psychological  examining  for  the  Medical  Department  of  the  Army. 

August  17. — Appointment  accepted  by  Robert  M.  Yerkes  and  work  officially  begun. 

OFFICIAL   ACTION. 

August  21. — Plan  for  psychological  examining  in  four  National  Army  cantonments  sub- 
mitted to  the  Secretary  of  War  in  connection  with  request  for  authorization  of  civil  appointments 
for  this  work. 

August  23. — Authority  granted  for  appointment  of  civilian  psychological  examiners. 

September  1. — Instructions  concerning  psychological  examining  prepared  for  issuance  to 
cantonment  commanders  by  request  of  The  Adjutant  General. 

91 


92  MEMOIRS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES.  [vol.  xv, 

September  6. — The  Surgeon  General  notified  by  The  Adjutant  General  of  issuance  of  instruc- 
tions. 

August  17  to  September  17. — Preparation  of  methods,  materials,  and  personnel  for  official 
trial  of  methods  in  the  Army. 

September  17  to  December  1. — Period  of  official  trial  in  four  cantonments. 

October  1. — Psychological  examining  in  progress  in  Camps  Devens,  Dix,  Lee,  and  Taylor. 

October  20. — Preliminary  reports  of  results  from  camps  indicate  (1)  surprisingly  high 
frequency  of  illiteracy;  (2)  extreme  differences  in  frequency  of  illiteracy  and  in  distribution  of 
intelligence  for  companies  of  a  given  regiment;  (3)  urgent  need  of  a  good  group  method  of 
examining  foreign  and  illiterate  subjects. 

November  5. — Request  by  the  Surgeon  General  of  the  Army  that  the  Committee  on  Classi- 
fication of  Personnel  in  the  Army  provide  in  its  organization  for  the  psychological  examination 
of  recruits. 

November  16. — Report  on  official  inspection  of  psychological  examining  in  Camp  Lee,  Va., 
submitted  to  the  Surgeon  General  by  Col.  Hemy  A.  Shaw,  M.  C. 

December  5. — Chief  of  the  Section  of  Psychology  requests  decision  of  the  Surgeon  General 
concerning  the  future  policy  of  the  War  Department  with  regard  to  the  psychological  examina- 
tion of  recruits. 

December  7. — The  Surgeon  General  recommends  to  The  Adjutant  General  the  continuation 
of  psychological  examining  and  its  extension  to  the  entire  Army. 

December  S. — Request  of  the  Surgeon  General  that  psychological  examining  be  provided 
for  by  the  Committee  on  Classification  of  Personnel  disapproved  by  that  committee  for  The 
Adjutant  General  of  the  Army. 

December  8  to  20. — Transmittal  to  the  General  Staff  of  data  concerning  psychological  exam- 
ining in  Army  camps,  memoranda  on  plans  of  future  organization,  and  the  opinions  of  regimental 
and  company  commanders  concerning  the  values  of  intelligence  ratings. 

December  24- — Approval  by  the  War  Department  of  the  recommendation  of  the  Surgeon 
General  that  psychological  examining  be  extended  to  the  entire  Army,  with  request  for  plan  of 
organization. 

1918. 

January  3. — Plan  for  the  extension  of  psychological  examining  submitted  by  the  Surgeon 
General  to  The  Adjutant  General.  It  was  subsequently  referred  to  the  training  committee  of 
the  War  College  Division  of  the  General  Staff. 

January  19. — Plan  for  extension  approved.  Organization  of  Division  of  Psychology  in  the 
office  of  the  Surgeon  General  authorized  for  the  purpose  of  making  psychological  examination 
of  all  company  officers,  all  candidate  officers  in  officers'  training  camps,  and  also  of  all  the  newly 
drafted  and  enlisted  men.  The  approval  explicitly  included  the  provision  of  the  necessary 
commissioned  and  enlisted  personnel,  the  establishment  of  a  school  of  military  psychology,  and 
the  construction  of  a  special  building  in  each  camp  or  cantonment. 

January  20. — School  of  Military  Psychology  at  Fort  Oglethorpe,  Ga.,  authorized  for  the 
Surgeon  General  by  the  chief  of  the  training  division  of  his  office. 

January  28. — Plans  for  special  building  completed  and  submitted  to  the  construction 
department. 

February  4- — School  of  Military  Psychology  organized  at  Fort  Oglethorpe,  Ga. 

February  5. — Acting  Quartermaster  General  indorses  plans  and  estimates  for  special  building 
to  the  Chief  of  Staff  and  requests  authority  to  proceed  with  construction  in  accordance  with 
previous  instructions  from  the  Secretary  of  War. 

February  11. — On  recommendation  of  equipment  committee  of  the  General  Staff,  the 
Assistant  Secretary  of  War  disapproves  construction  of  special  buildings  "until  such  time  as 
necessary  funds  ($384,000)  are  made  available  by  Congress." 

February  14- — The  Surgeon  General  of  the  Army  requests  reconsideration  of  Acting  Quarter- 
master General's  recommendation  concerning  buildings  for  psychological  examining. 

February  19.—  Request  of  the  Surgeon  General  is  disapproved. 


no.i.]  PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  ARMY.  93 

February  23. — The  Surgeon  General  presents  to  the  Secretary  of  War  the  necessity  for 
immediate  provision  of  space  in  camps  for  conduct  of  psychological  examinations.  The  Secre- 
tary of  War  expresses  opinion  that  suitable  buildings  are  probably  avadable  in  most  of  the 
training  camps  and  agrees  to  address  a  letter  to  each  commanding  general  suggesting  that  a 
suitable  building  be  assigned  for  this  purpose. 

March  5. — Letter  relative  to  building  dispatched  to  commanding  generals  by  direction  of 
the  Secretary  of  War. 

March  28. — Deficiency  appropriation  bill,  which  originally  carried  item  of  $384,000  for 
psychological  buildings,  passed  by  Congress. 

March  SO. — The  Surgeon  General,  for  the  Division  of  Psychology,  reports  to  The  Adjutant 
General  concerning  replies  to  letter  concerning  availability  of  buildings  and  recommends  defi- 
nite request  that  suitable  buildings  be  assigned  wherever  available  and  that  special  building 
be  constructed  immediately  at  School  for  Military  Psychology,  Fort  Oglethorpe. 

April  2. — Recommendation  by  Division  of  Psychology  for  the  promotion  of  25  officers 
of  the  Sanitary  Corps,  psychological  service,  approved  by  the  Surgeon  General  of  the  Army. 
Chief  of  the  Division  of  Psychology  so  notified. 

April  9. — Request  of  Surgeon  General  that  buildings  be  assigned,  approved  by  the  War 
Department,  and  appropriate  telegram  dispatched  to  commanding  officers  of  camps. 

April  10. — Recommendations  for  promotions  disapproved  by  the  Surgeon  General  without 
notification  of  Division  of  Psychology. 

April  15. — Division  of  Psychology  informed  by  personnel  officer  of  the  Sanitary  Corps 
that  no  additional  recommendations  for  appointments  or  promotions  in  the  psychological 
service  may  be  made  until  further  notice.  At  the  same  time  it  was  stated  that  ranks  were  not 
available  for  psychological  appointments  because  they  were  being  reserved  for  the  gas  service. 
This  action  was  taken  in  spite  of  the  fact  that  the  War  Department  had  unconditionally 
approved  the  appointment  of  more  than  twice  the  number  of  officers  of  the  Sanitary  Corps  at 
the  time  on  duty  as  psychological  examiners. 

April  IS. — Request  prepared  by  the  Chief  of  the  Division  of  Psychology  and  forwarded 
to  The  Adjutant  General  by  the  personnel  officer  of  the  Sanitary  Corps  that  the  General  Staff 
permit  the  Division  of  Psychology  to  proceed  immediately  with  appointments  and  promotions 
in  accordance  with  original  authorization  of  January  19,  1918. 

April  19-May  3. — The  Surgeon  General  recommends  to  The  Adjutant  General,  on  the 
basis  of  congressional  action  noted  above,  construction  of  special  buildings  in  camps  not  other- 
wise provided  for. 

May  6. — Chief  of  the  Division  of  Psychology  informed  by  Chief  of  the  Division  of  Operations 
of  the  General  Staff  that  funds  were  not  appropriated  by  Congress  for  construction  of  special 
buildings. 

May  7. — Above  information  confirmed  by  officer  of  the  construction  department  of  the 
office  of  the  Quartermaster  General,  with  the  additional  statement  that  item  of  $384,000  for 
special  buildings  was  stricken  from  the  bill  by  direction  of  a  committee  of  the  General  Staff. 

As  a  result  of  this  information  the  office  of  the  Surgeon  General  proceeded  to  make  the 
best  possible  arrangements  for  examining  space  through  assignment  of  available  buildings. 

May  10. — Investigation  of  psychological  examining  instituted  by  the  First  Assistant 
Secretary  of  War,  who  subsequently  assigned  Mr.  G.  H.  Dorr  to  the  task  of  conducting  inves- 
tigation. 

May  15. — Investigation  of  Psychological  examining  instituted  by  the  General  Staff. 
Col.  R.  J.  Burt  ordered  to  conduct  inquiry. 

May  16. — Division  of  Psychology  notified  that  no  additional  appointments  or  promotions 
should  be  made  in  the  psychological  service  pending  inquiry  by  the  General  Staff  concerning 
its  values.  It  was  subsequently  learned  that  this  inquiry  consisted  of  a  request  that  com- 
manding officers  of  stations  report  on  the  value  of  psychological  examining,  the  desirability 
of  its  continuance,  and  the  possibility  of  having  medical  officers  do  the  work. 


94  MEMOIRS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES.  [vol.  xv, 

May-July  . — Reports  concerning  psychological  service  received  by  the  Office  of  The 
Adjutant  General  from  commanding  officers  of  approximately  100  cantonments,  camps,  posts, 
and  other  stations. 

The  majority  of  these  reports  were  seriously  misleading  and  wholly  unfair  to  the  psycho- 
logical service.  They  gradually  transformed  the  favorable  attitude  toward  psychological 
examining  in  the  Offices  of  The  Adjutant  General  and  the  General  Staff  into  one  of  scepticism, 
disapproval,  and  in  certain  instances,  hostility.  During  this  time  the  Office  of  the  Surgeon 
General  was  ignorant  of  the  content  of  the  reports  and  therefore  unable  to  correct  the  misin- 
formation. 

June  10. — Report  of  Mr.  Dorr  on  psychological  service  in  relation  to  neuro-psychiatric 
service  submitted  to  the  First  Assistant  Secretary  of  War. 

June  18. — Report  of  Col.  Burt  concerning  psychological  examining  submitted  to  the 
General  Staiff. 

June  25. — Chief  of  the  Division  of  Psychology  confers  with  officers  of  the  organization 
committee  of  the  General  Staff  concerning  additional  psychological  personnel  and  the  relation 
of  reports  of  commanding  officers  concerning  psychological  examining  to  continuation  and 
extension  of  psychological  service.  At  this  time  the  Chief  of  the  Division  of  Psychology  dis- 
covered the  grossly  misleading  character  of  the  majority  of  the  reports  and  induced  repre- 
sentatives of  the  organization  committee  to  make  direct  inquiries  concerning  psychological 
examining  in  order  that  they  might  correct  the  misinformation  and  confusion  resulting  from 
failure  of  commanding  officers  to  distinguish  between  psychological  and  psychiatric  work. 

July  — . — Maj.  L.  P.  Horsfall  and  Col.  J.  W.  Craig  visit  Camp  Meade  to  observe  psycho- 
logical examining  and  inquire  concerning  its  values  and  needs. 

July  8. — Deficiency  appropriation  bill  passed  by  Congress  and  sum  of  8384,000  thus  made 
available  for  use  of  Medical  Department  of  the  Army  for  construction  of  buildings  for  psycho- 
logical  service. 

July  — ■. — General  orders  concerning  psychological  examining  and  its  conduct  prepared  by 
Col.  Burt  and  submitted  for  approval  of  the  Chief  of  Staff.  Before  issuance  the  content  was 
so  changed  that  it  rendered  the  psychological  examining  of  recruits  optional  with  commanding 
officers.  Thus,  by  the  change  in  a  single  sentence,  a  division  of  the  General  Staff  completely 
altered  the  instructions  originally  issued  concerning  psychological  examining  and  rendered  the 
service  of  doubtful  value. 

July  10. — The  Surgeon  General,  for  the  Division  of  Psychology,  requests  authority  to 
proceed  with  appointments  and  promotions  in  the  psychological  service. 

July  25. — The  coordination  branch  of  the  General  Staff  reports  to  the  Chief  of  the  Division 
of  Psychology  that  the  sum  of  $384,000  was  carried  by  the  deficiency  expenditure  bill  and  that 
such  amount  was  therefore  made  available  for  construction  of  special  buildings  for  psychological 
examining.  This  information  was  later  verified  by  the  construction  department  of  the  office 
of  the  Quartermaster  General. 

August  1. — Facts  concerning  appropriation  of  funds  for  special  construction  brought  to 
the  attention  of  the  Chief  of  the  Division  of  Operations  of  the  General  Staff.  Thereupon  the 
Chief  of  the  Division  of  Psychology  was  advised  to  request  special  buildings  wherever  needed. 
This  was  immediately  done,  but  no  buildings  had  been  constructed  prior  to  the  signing  of  the 
armistice. 

August  IS. — Request  of  the  Surgeon  General  for  approval  of  additional  psychological 
personnel  disapproved  by  the  War  Department.  It  was  subsequently  learned  by  the  Division 
of  Psychology  that  this  was  based  upon  confusion  of  psychological  with  psychiatric  work. 

August  18. — Letter  issued  by  The  Adjutant  General  to  commanding  officers  stating  that 
no  additional  psychological  personnel  would  be  appointed  and  strongly  suggesting  the  desire 
of  the  War  Department  to  restrict  the  service. 

August  14. — General  Orders,  No.  74,  establishing  psychological  service,  issued  by  the  War 
Department. 


no.  i.]  PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  ARMY.  95 

August  31. — Authorization  for  appointments  and  promotions  in  the  psychological  service 
again  requested  by  the  Surgeon  General  on  the  ground  of  previous  misunderstanding  of  the 
purposes  and  values  of  psychological  examining  and  the  demands  created  by  General  Orders, 
No.  74. 

October  1. — Request  for  psychological  personnel  approved  by  War  Department. 

October  1  to  November  11. — Recommendations  for  new  appointments  and  promotions  in  the 
Sanitary  Corps,  Division  of  Psychology,  transmitted  by  the  Division  of  Psychology. 

November. — Arrangements  made  with  Surgeon  General  Ireland  for  the  completion  of 
psychological  examining  and  the  transfer  of  officers  of  this  service  to  general  hospitals  for  assist- 
ance with  the  work  of  physical  and  mental  reconstruction. 

December,   1918,  to   January,  1919. — Plans   perfected   by    the    Division   of    Psychology 

and  approved  by  the  Surgeon  General  for  the  analysis  of  results  of  psychological  examination 

of  one  and  three-quarter  million  soldiers  and  for  the  preparation  of  complete  official  report 

concerning  this  service. 

1919. 

January  23. — Psychological  service  as  organized  during  the  operation  of  the  draft 
discontinued  and  the  appointment  of  two  civilian  psychologists  to  prepare  methods  and 
keep  them  up  to  date  ordered  by  the  Adjutant  General  of  the  Army. 

April  1. — Official  report  on  the  history  and  organization  of  psychological  examining  in  the 
United  States  Army  completed  for  publication. 

April  8. — Psychological  examination  of  enlisted  men  received  at  overseas  replacement 
depot,  Camp  Meade,  ordered,  and  Surgeon  General  directed  to  supply  necessary  personnel. 

April  19. — Section  of  Psychology  ordered  by  the  War  Department  to  prepare  suitable 
method  of  psychological  examination  for  illiterates  and  non-English-speaking  citizens  and 
aliens. 

April  25. — Official  report  on  methods  of  psychological  examining  used  in  the  United  States 
Army  completed  for  publication. 

May  19. — Action  of  January  23  rescinded.  The  Surgeon  General,  directed  by  The  Adjutant 
General,  to  retain  in  active  service  during  the  emergency  two  psychologists  on  military  status. 

July  1. — Official  report  on  statistical  results  of  psychological  examining  in  the  United 
States  Army  completed  for  publication. 

July  18. — Recruit  psychological  examination  submitted  to  the  War  Department  for  use 
in  examining  illiterates  and  non-English-speaking  applicants  for  enlistment. 

Section  2. — Favorable  and  unfavorable  influences. 

The  achievements  and  failures  in  the  service  of  examining  can  not  be  thoroughly  understood 
or  appreciated  without  knowledge  of  the  favorable  and  unfavorable  circumstances  or  condi- 
tions of  work.  The  listing  of  these  circumstances  is  also  in  the  nature  of  a  summary  of  this 
historical  record. 

Distinctly  in  favor  of  the  work  of  mental  testing  are: 

(a)  The  intelligent  and  active  interest  of  various  individuals  and  committees  of  the 
National  Research  Council. 

(b)  The  sympathetic  interest  of  Surgeon  General  William  C.  Gorgas  and  of  many  mem- 
bers of  his  staff. 

(c)  The  interest  also  and  the  progressively  favorable  attitude  of  the  Secretary  of  War  and 
his  assistants. 

(d)  The  unexpectedly  favorable  results  of  the  initial  trial  of  methods  in  the  Army  and  the 
Navy,  leading  as  a  matter  of  course  to  the  recommendation  of  methods  for  official  trial. 

(e)  Similarly  favorable  result  of  official  trial  in  four  cantonments. 

(/)  The  strongly  favorable  report  of  official  inspection  of  the  initial  work.  Col.  Henry  A. 
Shaw,  the  inspector  for  the  medical  department,  developed  a  keen  personal  interest  in  the 


96  MEMOIRS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES.  [vol.xv, 

work,  and  in  addition  to  reporting  his  observations  made  numerous  and  valuable  constructive 
suggestions  for  the  improvement  of  the  service. 

(g)  The  fact  that  approximately  75  per  cent  of  the  officers  who  became  familiar  with 
intelligence  ratings  through  the  official  trial  of  methods  favored  the  continuation,  extension, 
and  improvement  of  the  service  within  the  Army. 

(h)  The  fact  also  that  as  a  result  of  the  first  year  of  this  new  service  the  majority  of 
commanding  officers  of  posts,  camps,  divisions,  or  other  important  organizations  who  had 
reasonable  familiarity  with  intelligence  ratings  more  or  less  definitely  and  strongly  favored 
their  use.  Indicative  of  the  nature  of  this  service  and  its  values  is  the  fact  that  with  few 
exceptions  individuals  who  at  first  objected  to  psychological  examining  as  a  wasteful  and 
impractical  novelty,  on  gaining  acquaintance  with  the  work  as  actually  conducted  in  camps 
and  observing  the  uses  of  intelligence  ratings,  became  favorable  to  the  service.  This  happened 
frequently  and  most  strikingly  in  the  General  Staff  of  the  War  Department  and  in  other  Wash- 
ington staffs. 

(i)  Chief  among  the  assets  of  the  service  was  the  constant  demonstration  of  practical  value 
and  the  recognition  of  this  value  by  intelligent,  open-minded,  and  progressive  officers.  In 
several  instances  new  and  important  uses  of  psychological  ratings  were  suggested  to  psychological 
staffs  by  officers  of  the  line. 

(j)  Absolutely  essential  even  for  the  continuance  of  the  psychological  service  and  still 
more  so  for  its  development  were  the  favorable  reports  of  official  investigations.  These  number 
three:  First,  investigation  by  the  War  College  Division  of  the  General  Staff,  through  request 
for  reports  of  commanding  officers.  Despite  the  fact  that  these  reports  were  seemingly  unfavor- 
able, the  investigation  itself  residted  in  unqualified  indorsement  of  psychological  work.  The 
second  report,  based  upon  investigation  initiated  by  the  Chief  of  Staff,  had  the  important  result 
of  leading  directly  to  the  preparation  of  general  orders ;  and  the  third  report,  initiated  in  the 
Office  of  the  Secretary  of  War,  wholly  justified  the  service  on  the  basis  of  feasibility,  economy, 
and  practicabfiity,  and  pointed  out  that  psychological  ratings  would  be  of  extreme  significance 
for  military  efficiency  if  the  Army  could  be  speedily  educated  to  their  proper  use. 

(k)  The  exceptional  personal,  intellectual,  educational,  and  professional  qualifications  of 
psychological  officers  did  much  to  carry  this  new  work  to  success. 

(Z)  The  establishment  of  a  special  school  for  military  psychology  and  the  training  of  officers 
of  this  service  in  the  fundamentals  of  military  behavior,  as  well  as  in  psychological  examining 
for  the  Army,  at  once  greatly  increased  the  efficiency  of  the  psychological  personnel  and  im- 
pressed experienced  Army  officers  with  the  wisdom  and  thoroughness  of  the  organization  of 
the  service. 

(m)  The  provision  of  carefully  prepared  and  thoroughly  tested  methods  and  equipment, 
and  the  attempt  to  provide  also  adequate  examining  space,  favorably  influenced  such  officers 
or  other  observers  as  came  into  intimate  contact  with  the  work. 

(71)  The  general  observation  that  commanding  officers  and  others  in  responsible  positions 
usually  received  the  highest  of  ratings  and  the  fact  that  the  intelligence  ratings  of  arms  of  the 
service  in  general  agreed  with  the  consensus  of  Army  opinion  were  favorable  circumstances. 
Officers  of  the  Engineer  Corps  ranked  very  high.  This  created  a  favorable  impression  and 
unusual  interest  in  psychological  examining  within  that  corps  and  led  to  numerous  special 
requests  for  psychological  service.  It  furthermore  promoted  the  service  both  early  and  late 
because  the  Army  recognized  the  superiority  of  the  engineers. 

(o)  Aiding  indirectly  but  also  substantially  were  the  popular  recognition  of  the  importance 
of  classifying  soldiers  mentally  and  attempting  to  use  intelligence  economically  and  effectively, 
and  the  steady  stream  of  requests  from  commercial  concerns,  educational  institutions,  and 
individuals  for  the  use  of  army  methods  of  psychological  examining  or  for  the  adaptation  of 
such  methods  to  special  needs. 

These  are  only  a  few  of  the  assets  or  favorable  circumstances,  but  among  them  appear  those 
which  played  the  most  important  role  in  initiating,  preserving,  and  developing  the  service  of 
psychological  examining. 


No.i.j  PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  ARMY.  97 

Contrasted  with  this  list  of  favorable  circumstances  is  an  equally  formidable  list  of  disad- 
vantages or  handicaps.  Again  it  is  impossible  to  achieve  completeness;  only  those  circumstances 
or  events  which  figure  conspicuously  can  be  mentioned: 

(a)  Misunderstanding  of  psychology  and  prejudices  against  anything  done  in  its  name. 
It  is  said  by  certain  army  officers  who  have  good  reason  to  know  that  the  name  "psychological 
examining"  did  more  to  retard  the  development  of  this  work  and  to  render  it  unreasonably 
difficult  than  anything  else.  It  was  later  suggested  by  one  of  the  inspectors  that  the  examina- 
tion be  called  a  test  of  alertness. 

(b)  Officers  who  claimed  that  mental  classification  was  unnecessary  because  armies  had 
always  got  along  without  it  previously  were  not  lacking.  Some  of  these  individuals  objected  to 
the  novelty  of  the  new  service,  others  to  its  scientific  aspect  or  seeming  impracticability,  and 
yet  others  to  the  risk  of  interference  with  military  training. 

(c)  In  the  medical  department,  aside  from  the  support  of  a  few  officers  who  were  intimately 
acquainted  with  the  methods,  there  was  fairly  general  and  natural  opposition  or  skepticism 
because  it  seemed  as  though  psychologists  were  attempting  to  do  what  should  be  done  by  medical 
specialists.  This  was  especially  true,  with  notable  exceptions,  of  the  neuro-psychiatrists,  and 
the  situation  was  made  considerably  worse  by  the  early  demonstration  that  medical  officers  as  a 
group,  as  well  as  the  officers  in  the  Dental  and  Veterinary  Corps,  ranked  relatively  low  in  intelli- 
gence. This  revelation,  quite  aside  from  the  fact,  tended  to  prejudice  officers  of  the  Medical 
Department  against  the  psychological  service.  It  made  little  difference  that  this  fact  was  first 
brought  to  light  by  a  medical  inspector  and  by  him  made  the  basis  for  important  special  recom- 
mendations to  the  Surgeon  General  concerning  the  elimination,  careful  selection  and  placement  of 
medical  officers. 

(<Z)  Opposition  appeared  also  in  other  quarters,  for  the  officers  of  the  line  very  naturally  felt 
that  the  War  Department,  especially  through  the  Medical  Department,  was  attempting  to  impose 
many  novelties  upon  the  service.  These  officers  seriously  objected  to  the  interference  with 
military  training  and  they  were  frankly  and  reasonably  skeptical  of  the  importance  for  military 
efficiency  of  the  many  new  types  of  examination,  classifications,  suggestions  and  recommenda- 
tions which  were  offered  them. 

(e)  The  early  exammation  of  officers  and  the  assignment  of  intelligence  ratings  aroused  the 
suspicion  that  appointments  and  promotions  might  be  determined  in  part  by  the  results  of  psy- 
chological examination.  This  seemed  to  many  officers  unfair  and  it  undoubtedly  led  to  much 
adverse  criticism  on  the  part  of  individuals  who  had  no  direct  knowledge  of  the  work  itself  and 
no  reasonable  basis  for  opinion  concerning  its  value  to  the  Army. 

(/)  Officers  of  the  General  Staff  who  were  responsible  for  major  decisions  concerning  the  psy- 
chological service  were  at  the  extreme  disadvantage  of  having  to  judge  from  written  evidence  or 
the  arguments  of  advocates  instead  of  from  intimate  first-hand  acquaintance  with  the  work  of 
examining  as  conducted  in  camps  and  the  practical  applications  of  the  information  supplied. 
It  is  surprising  indeed  that  these  officers  should  have  been  willing  at  any  time  to  take  the  risk  of 
introducing  a  service  at  once  so  novel  and  so  certain  to  arouse  opposition.  It  is  easier  to  under- 
stand why  many  staff  officers  conscientiously  and  persistently  opposed  the  work  and  after  its 
introduction  opposed  also  expenditures  to  facilitate  it  and  all  attempts  to  extend  it. 

(g)  This  opposition  in  Washington  proved  most  serious  to  the  new  service  when  it  prevented 
the  construction  of  special  buildings  for  psychological  examining.  Had  the  buildings  been  pro- 
vided as  originally  requested,  planned  and  authorized,  it  is  reasonable  to  estimate  that  the  value 
of  psychological  examining  for  increased  military  efficiency  during  the  last  six  months  of  hostili- 
ties would  have  been  doubled.  The  misapprehension  of  the  opposition  is  also  indicated  by  the 
fact  that  the  conduct  of  psychological  examining  in  barracks  and  other  buildings  assigned  for 
the  purpose  actually  cost  the  Army  considerably  more  than  the  construction  of  special  buildings 
would  have  cost. 

(h)  The  failure  of  the  War  Department  to  issue  special  orders  and  instructions  concerning 
psychological  examining  for  the  guidance  of  commanding  officers  most  seriously  affected  the 


98  MEMOIRS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES.  [Vol.  xv, 

service.  Section  VTI,  General  Orders,  No.  74,  August,  1918,  would  have  facilitated  and  fur- 
thered the  service  most  importantly  had  it  been  issued  six  months  earlier. 

(i)  The  low  rank  of  the  officers  who  were  charged  with  the  introduction,  organization,  and 
direction  of  this  new  service  made  the  work  needlessly  difficult  and  relatively  very  much  more  so 
than  other  new  kinds  of  service.  Whereas  the  chief  psychological  examiner  was  invariably  a 
first  lieutenant  during  the  first  several  months  of  the  psychological  service,  medical  officers 
engaged  in  tasks  of  similar  responsibility  and  difficultness  usually  had  the  rank  of  captain,  major, 
or  lieutenant  colonel.  Naturally  enough,  the  rank  of  the  officer  in  charge  markedly  influenced 
the  judgment  of  line  officers  concerning  the  importance  and  value  of  psychological  examining. 
Indeed,  the  low  rank  assigned  to  competent,  experienced  and  adequately  trained  psychologists 
in  the  Sanitary  Corps  is  one  of  the  most  serious  injustices  to  this  new  service,  as  well  as  to  the 
individuals  concerned  with  it.  The  disapproval,  when  psychological  examining  had  demon- 
strated its  practical  value  and  the  extension  of  the  work  to  the  entire  Army  had  been  authorized, 
of  the  promotion  of  psychologists  to  the  grades  of  captain  and  major  and  the  resulting  necessity 
for  the  organization  of  work  in  new  stations  by  first  lieutenants  was  another  serious  blow  and 
handicap  to  the  Division  of  Psychology. 

(j)  Following  this  disapproval  of  promotions,  came  disapproval  of  additional  appointments 
for  psychological  examining,  in  spite  of  the  fact  that  the  War  Department  had  previously 
authorized  a  reasonably  adequate  number  of  appointments.  As  a  result  of  disapproval  of  pro- 
motions and  appointments,  psychological  examining  was  conducted  for  months  by  men  whose 
rank  was  one  or  two  grades  lower  than  it  should  have  been  for  the  good  of  the  service  and  in 
justice  to  the  individuals,  and  the  work  was  carried  forward  as  best  it  could  be  by  staffs  which 
usually  were  not  more  than  half  the  size  which  the  work  demanded.  It  was  the  rule  during  this 
period,  not  the  exception,  that  one,  two,  or  three  psychological  officers  of  the  Sanitary  Corps 
did  the  work  which  had  been  planned  for  a  staff  of  four  officers.  These  men  labored  continuously, 
devotedly,  and  usually  without  complaint,  under  conditions  which  could  scarcely  have  been 
more  unfavorable,  and  often  with  nothing  but  adverse  criticisms  and  grumbling  by  way  of 
encour  agemen  t. 

(k)  Another  disadvantage  which  must  not  be  overlooked  is  the  fact  that  psychological 
appointments  were  made  in  the  Sanitary  Corps,  and  as  a  result  the  psychologist  was  regarded  by 
medical  officers  and  also  by  officers  of  the  line  as  professionally  inferior  to  officers  of  the  Medical 
Corps,  if  not  to  those  of  all  corps.  This  placed  the  individual  psychologist  upon  his  merits.  If 
he  succeeded  in  commanding  the  respect,  confidence,  and  admiration  of  the  officers  with  whom 
he  was  associated  and  for  whom  his  work  was  being  done,  it  was  by  reason  of  his  own  qualities, 
his  professional  proficiency,  his  tact  and  insight,  and  not  because  of  the  prestige  given  him  by 
his  corps  or  his  military  rank.  Psychologists,  as  well  as  the  service  of  psychological  examining, 
won  on  merit  and  on  that  alone. 

(I)  It  has  already  been  stated  that  general  orders  for  the  use  of  intelligence  ratings  were 
lacking  until  near  the  end  of  the  war.  This  served  still  further  to  increase  the  responsibility 
and  the  difficulties  of  the  chief  psychological  examiner,  for  in  every  station  commanding  officers 
had  to  be  convinced  by  demonstration  of  the  various  values  of  the  ratings  and  persuaded  to  issue 
on  their  own  responsibility  instructions  for  the  use  of  these  ratings.  It  thus  came  about  that 
instead  of  general  instructions  for  the  entire  Army  issued  from  the  War  Department,  there 
existed  in  innumerable  stations  camp  or  divisional  instructions  concerning  psychological  exam- 
ining and  the  use  of  intelligence  ratings.  In  the  end  this  gave  the  psychological  service  a  very 
great  advantage  in  certain  camps  because  commanding  officers  appreciated  the  difficult  circum- 
stances, but  its  conspicuous  local  victories  were  purchased  at  a  great  price. 

(m)  It  has  been  pointed  out  that  the  use  of  the  word  "psychology"  very  nearly  prevented 
the  development  of  this  service.  Added  to  this  unfavorable  circumstance  was  the  con- 
fusion of  psychological  with  neuro-psychiatric  work.  This  resulted  naturally  and  inevitably 
because  of  the  similarity  and  unfamiliarity  of  the  terms  psychologist  and  psychiatrist,  psychology 
and  psychiatry,  and  also  because  of  the  fact  that  psychologists  were  supposed  to  be  working 


No.i.]  PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  ARMY.  99 

under  the  direction  of,  or  in  cooperation  with,  neuro-psychiatrists.  In  many  quarters  it  was 
thought  that  the  psychologist  was  a  medical  specialist  who  was  responsible  for  work  that  neuro- 
psychiatrists  should  do.  This  serious  misconception  led  to  complications  which  lessened  the 
value  of  psychological  examining  and  constituted  the  chief  basis  for  some  of  the  disapprovals 
which  most  nearly  wrecked  the  Division  of  Psychology.  Had  psychologists  been  called  personnel 
officers  and  had  their  work  been  designated  as  testing  mental  alertness,  this  unfortunate  confu- 
sion would  have  been  avoided  and  along  with  it  many  misconceptions  which  still  persist  in  the 
Army. 

(n)  Popular  misunderstanding  concerning  materials  and  methods  worked  to  the  dis- 
advantage of  the  service  through  political  and  other  channels.  To  the  person  unfamiliar  with 
such  matters,  the  tests  appeared  trivial,  absurd  or  unfair.  Many  people  considered  it  a  bad  joke 
to  have  psychologists  conducting  examinations  by  such  means  in  the  Army.  Some  even 
suspected  that  the  work  was  being  done  for  scientific  purposes  merely  and  against,  rather  than 
for,  military  efficiency.  Often  the  work  was  wrongly  described  as  investigation  or  research, 
instead  of  as  service.  These  misunderstandings  and  misinterpretations  of  method  reached  even 
the  offices  of  the  Secretary  of  War  and  of  the  General  Staff.  Some  of  them  undoubtedly  had 
to  do  with  the  initiation  of  special  investigations  into  the  conduct  and  value  of  the  service. 

(o)  Following  upon  such  misunderstandings  and  misconceptions  as  have  been  mentioned, 
the  official  investigations  created  reasonable  doubt  concerning  the  permanency  of  psychological 
examining.  This  doubt  extended  even  to  the  camps  and  there  served  to  increase  the  difficulties 
and  discomforts  of  psychological  staffs.  It  was  reported  in  certain  quarters  that  psychological 
examining  had  been  discredited  by  reports  of  official  investigation,  that  the  work  lacked  the  sup- 
port of  the  General  Staff  and  would  shortly  be  abandoned.  It  is  not  difficult  to  imagine  how 
such  rumors  interfered  with  the  progress  of  the  service  and  tended  to  reduce  its  practical  value. 

Although  this  is  only  a  partial  list  of  disadvantages,  it  would  appear  like  overhigh  praise  of 
the  success  of  psychological  examining  to  extend  it  or  to  attempt  to  emphasize  more  strongly 
adverse  as  contrasted  with  favorable  conditions  of  work.  As  a  matter  of  fact,  the  conditions 
which  have  been  listed  as  unfavorable  may  have  done  much  to  stimulate  the  psychological 
personnel  and  to  develop  a  fighting  spirit  which  refused  to  admit  even  the  possibility  of  failure. 

Section  3. — Summary  of  examining. 

The  achievements  of  the  psychological  service  between  September,  1917,  and  January, 
1919,  may  at  this  point  be  summarized  very  briefly,  since  this  memoir  presents  a  detailed 
account  of  the  work  with  reference  especially  to  organization,  methods  and  practical  results. 

After  preliminary  trial  in  four  cantonments  psychological  examining  was  extended  by  the 
War  Department  to  the  entire  Army,  excepting  only  field  and  general  officers.  To  supply  the 
requisite  personnel,  a  school  for  training  in  military  psychology  was  established  in  the  Medical 
Officers'  Training  Camp,  Fort  Oglethorpe,  Ga.  Approximately  100  officers  and  more  than 
300  enlisted  men  received  training  at  this  school. 

The  work  of  mental  examining  was  organized  finally  in  35  army  training  camps.  A  grand 
total  of  1,726,966  men  had  been  given  psychological  examination  prior  to  January  31,  1919. 
Of  this  number  about  42,000  were  commissioned  officers.  More  than  83,500  of  the  enlisted 
men  included  in  the  total  had  been  given  individual  examination  in  addition  to  the  group 
examination  for  literates,  for  illiterates,  or  both. 

Between  April  28, 1918,  and  January  31,  1919,  7,800  men  (0.5  per  cent)  were  reported  with 
recommendations  for  discharge  by  psychological  examiners  because  of  mental  inferiority.  The 
recommendations  for  assignment  to  labor  battalions  because  of  low  grade  intelligence  number 
10,014  (0.6+  per  cent).  For  assignment  to  development  battalions,  in  order  that  they  might 
be  more  carefully  observed  and  given  preliminary  training  to  discover,  if  possible,  ways  of  using 
them  in  the  Army,  9,487  men  (0.6+  per  cent)  were  recommended. 

During  this  same  interval  there  were  reported  4,780  men  with  mental  age  below  7  years; 
7,875,  between  7  and  8  years;  14,814,  between  S  and  9  years;  18,878,  between  9  and  10  years. 


100 


MEMOIRS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES. 


[Vol.  XV, 


This  gives  a  total  of  46,347  men  under  10  years'  mental  age.  It  is  extremely  improbable  that 
many  of  these  individuals  were  worth  what  it  cost  the  Government  to  maintain,  equip,  and 
train  them  for  military  service. 

A  more  detailed  statistical  summary  is  supplied  by  the  following  tables,  which  are  relevant 
alike  to  the  present  discussion  and  to  later  discussion  of  results  of  examining. 

Previous  to  April  28,  1918. — Until  April  28  itemized  weekly  reports  of  the  psychological 
examinations  made  at  each  station  were  not  required  by  the  Surgeon  General.  The  data  for 
this  period  are  therefore  not  as  complete  as  for  the  period  from  April  28,  1918,  to  the  end 
of  the  work.     However,  table  3  gives  the  approximate  number  of  examinations  for  the  early 

period. 

Table  3. — Approximate  number  of  examinations  previous  to  April  28,  1918. 


Month. 

Total. 

Camp 
Devens. 

Camp 
Dix. 

Camp 
Lee. 

Camp 
Taylor. 

Camp 
Meade. 

Camp 
Meigs. 

Camp 
Gordon 

Officers' 
Training 
Camps. 

Quarter- 
master 
Corps. 

Base 
hos- 
pital 
No.  22. 

Con- 
scien- 
tious 
objec- 
tors. 

Station 
26. 

39 
24,2S3 
36,123 
25,501 
11,443 
14, 812 
15,539 
12, 103 

39 
14,456 
17,403 
3,000 
3,000 
2,500 
3,940 

8,311 

10,945 

726 

799 

55 

531 

30 

316 

1,200 

7,775 

7,775 

487 

14,000 

1,074 

656 

4,878 

102 

6,083 
6,083 

1,409 

791 

i,359 

1,959 

6,000 

190 

April  (through  27th) 

100 

796 

11,075 

Total ...     . 

139, 843 

21,397 

21,026 

44,338 

23,237 

1,409 

891 

1,359 

12, 166 

1,939 

190 

796 

11,075 

April  28,  1918,  to  January  SI,  1919.— From  April  28,  1918,  to  January  31,  1919,  1,556,011 
men  and  32,893  officers  were  examined  by  the  Division  of  Psychology.  Of  these,  79,908  were 
given  individual  examination  (Table  4). 

Table  4. — Summary  of  psychological  examining  by  months — May,  191S,  to  January,  1919. 


Month. 


May 

June 

July 

August 

September. 
October... 
Novemoer. 
December. 
January . . . 

Total 


Number 
examined. 


221, 
216 
294: 
327, 
294, 
105, 
86, 
42, 


1,588,904 


Individually 
examined. 


Number. 

2,740 

8,763 

12,628 

21,376 

18,394 

10,174 

4,790 

1,032 

11 


79,908 


Percent 
1.24 
4.05 
4.28 
6.53 
6.25 
9.62 
5.54 
2.42 
8.94 


5.03 


Total 
alpha. 


179,551 

168,276 

203,806 

218, 523 

212, 670 

69,  404 

65,043 

32, 207 

114 


1,149,596 


Beta 
only. 


Both 

alpha  and 

beta. 


27,885 
36,913 
84,386 
105,  669 
80, 232 
30,619 
18,719 
8,981 


393, 404 


13,710 
19, 632 
19,724 
16,590 
7,919 
2,537 
6,986 
2,961 


90,065 


Total 
beta. 


41,595 
58,545 
104,110 
122,259 
88,151 
33,156 
25, 705 
11,942 


483, 469 


Point 
Scale. 


739 

993 

2,145 

5,823 

5,562 

2,417 

916 

137 


18,732 


Stanford- 
Binet 


1,457 
5,243 
5,658 
9,485 
9,078 
4,712 
2,138 
713 
5 


38, 489 


Perform- 
ance 
Scale. 


093 
2,738 
5,102 
6,089 
3,657 
2,947 
1,793 
99 
1 


23,119 


Of  the  entire  number,  221,550  men  and  199  officers  (14.2  per  cent)  were  negroes  (Table  5). 

Of  the  1,566,011  men,  25.3  per  cent  were  unable  to  "read  and  understand  newspapers  and 
write  letters  home,"  and  were  given  the  beta  examination  for  illiterates.  An  additional  5.7  per 
per  cent,  after  failing  the  alpha  examination  for  literates,  also  were  given  the  beta  examination 
(Table  5).     It  is  estimated  that  more  than  half  of  this  31  per  cent  were  native-born  Americans. 

Of  the  individual  examinations,  23.3  per  cent  were  made  by  means  of  the  Point  Scale,  47.9 
by  the  Stanford-Binet,  and  28.8  per  cent  by  the  Performance  Scale  (Table  5). 

The  per  cent  of  D—  grades  on  examination  alpha  decreased,  with  fluctuations,  from  May 
to  December,  largely  due  to  the  change  of  grading  basis  in  June,  and  again  in  August.  The 
per  cent  of  D  —  grades  on  beta  depended  largely  on  the  proportion  of  negroes  coming  into  camp, 
being  highest  for  August  when  the  proportion  was  greatest.  The  per  cent  of  D  —  and  E  grades 
on  individual  examinations  was  irregularly  affected,  during  the  latter  part  of  the  examining,  by 
the  fact  that  some  of  these  cases  were  men  referred  by  their  commanding  officers  for  ex- 
amination (Table  5). 


no.  i.]  PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  ARMY. 

Table  5. — Summary  of  psychological  examining  by  months — May,  1918,  to  January,  1919. 


101 


Per  cent  of  men , 
excluded. 

>fficers 

Per  cent  D-  or  E  grades. 

Month. 

Negro. 

Beta 
only. 

Beta 
total. 

Alpha. 

Beta. 

Beta 
after 
alpha. 

Point 
Scale. 

Stanford- 
Binet. 

Perform- 
ance 
Scale. 

Total  in- 
dividual 
examina- 
tions. 

May  .                     

6.4 
11.2 
12.8 
24.1 
13.4 
18.6 

7.6 
10.6 

13.1 
17.2 
28.9 
32.6 
27.5 
30.4 
23.5 
22.1 

19.6 
26.4 
35.7 
37.7 
30.2 
32.9 
32.3 
29.4 
4.9 

10.3 

11.7 
10.6 
8.5 
6.2 
5.6 
3.0 
8.0 

22.0 
22.2 
25.2 
27.2 
24.5 
24.2 
16.5 
13.3 

5.0 
4.9 
10.6 
10.9 
7.2 
6.6 
3.4 
5.1 

32.6 
28.8 
26.6 
25.1 
18.2 
31.9 
26.2 
10.9 

36.4 
U5.4 

40.8 
29.9 
26.1 
30.9 
28.7 
28.8 

30.7 
31.7 

40.6 
38.6 
27.6 
25.8 
38.9 
18.2 

35.9 

22.4 

July. . .                     

39.0 

30.5 

23.7 

30.6 

34.7 

22.9 

14.2 

25.3 

31.0 

8.7 

24.3 

7.4 

24.6 

28.9 

34.5 

29.7 

1  Stanford-Binet  was  given  in  June  to  unselected  experimental  groups  totaling  over  1 ,000  men ;  hence  the  marked  reduction  in  per  cent  of  E  grades. 

The  number  of  low  mental  ages  reported  was  low  in  May  and  June,  while  the  individual 
examining  was  not  thoroughly  under  way;  it  was  extremely  high  hi  October  in  relation  to  total 
because  the  influenza  epidemic  prevented  group  examinations;  and  high  in  August  on  account 
of  the  large  negro  draft  (Table  G). 

Table  6. — -Mental  ages  and  recommendations. 
[Per  cent  of  men,  officers  excluded.] 


Month. 


Mental  age. 


Below  7. 


Below  8. 


Below  9. 


Below  10. 


Recommendation. 


Discharge. 


Service 
organiza- 


Develop- 

ment 
battalions. 


May 

June 

July 

August 

September. 

October 

November. 
December. . 
January 

Total 


0.10 

0.25 

.18 

.48 

.29 

.80 

.42 

1.07 

.38 

.99 

.61 

1.62 

.30 

.78 

.09 

.37 

.81 

.81 

0.51 

.96 

1.79 

2.44 

2.06 

3.34 

1.77 

.98 

.81 


0.73 
1.42 
2.70 
4.19 
3.64 
6.14 
3.53 
1.71 
1.63 


0.25 
.42 
.41 
.60 
.49 

1.21 
.69 
.13 


0.52 
1.00 
.77 
.36 
.55 
.94 
.75 
.35 


0.83 

1.09 

.67 

1.00 

.73 

.14 


2.98 


.50 


Recommendations  for  discharge  were  made  in  less  than  one-half  of  one  per  cent  of  all 
men  examined.  Recommendations  for  service  organizations  and  development  battalions  in- 
clude another  1.  25  per  cent.  In  all,  1.75  per.  cent  were  considered  unfit  for  regular  military 
service. 

Table  8  summarizes  the  details  of  individual  examining  and  recommendations,  and  shows 
considerable  variations  from  camp  to  camp.  These  are  explainable  by  referring  (1)  to  the 
nature  of  the  draft  received  (number  of  illiterates,  foreigners,  and  negroes,  mental  level  of  the 
district  represented  and  the  standards  of  the  local  draft  boards)  and  to  the  fact  that  ehmination 
by  other  camp  examining  boards  was  made  at  some  stations  before,  and  at  others  after,  the 
psychological  examination  took  place;  (2)  to  differences  in  interpretation  and  application  of 
standards  by  different  staffs  and  individual  examiners;  (3)  to  differences  in  attitude  of  the  med- 
ical boards  at  different  stations,  toward  recommendations  of  the  psychological  staff;  (4)  to 
differences  in  number  and  kind  of  cases  referred  by  commanders  for  mental  examinations 
(Table  8). 


102 


MEMOIKS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES. 


[Vol.  XV, 


Table  7. — Summary  of  psychological  examining  by  camps  from  May,  1918,  to  January,  1919. 


Camp. 


Jackson 

Lee 

Grant 

Travis 

Funston... 

Pike 

Lewis 

Dodge 

Dix 

Wadsworth 

Meade 

Sherman... 
Gordon.... 

Upton 

Custer 

Sheridan. . . 

Taylor 

Greenleaf . . 
Devens 


Number 

of  men 

examined. 


Number 
of officers 
examined. 


95, 594 
82,071 
81,341 
76,530 
75,677 
74,041 
73,636 
68,019 
67, 766 
65,  490 
64,045 

c.2,'.>i;k 
62,859 
61,008 
54,284 
53,818 
53,262 
50,011 
48, 978 


Number 
of  men 
examined 
individ- 
ually. 


3,402 

370 

1,888 

1,025 

1 

1,901 

1,883 

1,908 

2 

2,214 

1,655 

1,440 

789 

551 

70 

1,347 

74 

6,086 

1,053 


6,257 
3,008 
3,496 
7,449 
2,497 
5,720 
2,679 
4,632 
3,024 
4,557 
4,013 
2,762 
2,951 
3,707 
2,004 
2,117 
2,319 
2,187 
2,886 


Per  cent 
of  men 
examined 
individ- 
ually. 


6.55 
3.66 
4.30 
9.72 
3.30 
7.72 
3.64 
6.81 
4.46 
6.96 
6.27 
4.39 
4.70 
6.08 
3.69 
3.93 
4.35 
4.37 
5.89 


Camp. 


Hancock 

Cody 

Wheeler 

Bowie 

Greene 

Sevier 

Logan 

Kearny 

McArthur 

Humphreys 

McClellan 

Shelby 

Fremont 

Beauregard 

Stuart 

Special  examinations. 


Number 

of  men 

examined. 


Number 
ofofficers 
examined. 


44,052 

42,533 

32, 299 

27,339 

27,  331 

24, 130 

19,310 

18,510 

17,010 

13,192 

6,566 

6,080 

3,165 

2,375 

118 

603 


1,556,011 


Number 
of  men 
examined 
individ- 
ually. 


381 
949 
689 
125 
476 
9 
674 
411 

60 
789 

21 


320 

12 

207 

111 


32, 893 


. — Analysis  of  individual  examining  May,  1918,  to  January,  1919. 
[  Figures  are  per  cents  of  number  of  men  examined ,  excluding  officers.] 


Per  cent 
of  men 
examined 
individ- 
ually. 


2,210 

517 

2,301 

1,220 

914 

2,344 

319 

436 

4 

436 

45 

64 

758 

25 

50 


79,908 


5.02 
1.22 
7.13 
4.46 
3.34 
9.71 
1.65 
2.36 
.02 
3.31 
.69 
1.05 

23.95 
1.05 

42.37 


Table  8 


Camp. 

Number 

of  men 

examined. 

Negro. 

Beta 
(total). 

Per  cent 
individu- 
ally ex- 
amined. 

Below 
7  years. 

Below 
8  years. 

Below 
9  years. 

Recom- 
mended 

for 
discharge. 

Unfit  for 
regular 

military 
service. 

Per  cent 
individu- 
ally exam- 
ined rec- 
ommended 

for 
dischargo. 

Fer  cent 
individu- 
ally exam- 
i  n'ed  unfit 
for  regular 
military 
service. 

2,375 
27,339 
42,533 
54, 284 
48, 97S 
67, 766 
68,019 

3,165 
75, 677 
62,  859 
81,341 
27,331 
50,011 
44,052 
13,192 
95, 594 
18,510 
82,071 
73, 636 
19,310 
17,010 

6,566 
64, 045 
74,041 
24,130 

6,080 
53,818 
62, 968 
118 
53,262 
76,530 
61,008 
65, 490 
32, 299 
603 

0.1 
10.8 

60.5 
32.9 
17.5 
36.3 
30.8 
35.7 
35.7 

1.1 
4.5 
1.2 
3.7 
5.9 
4.5 
6.8 

24.0 
3.3 
4.7 
4.3 
3.3 
4.4 
5.0 
3.3 
6.6 
2.4 
3.7 
3.6 
1.7 
.02 
.7 
6.3 
7.7 
9.7 
1.1 
3.9 
4.4 

42.4 
4.4 
9.7 
6.1 
7.0 
7.1 

0.04 
.82 
.32 
.37 
.39 
.48 
.50 

3.03 

1.47 
.96 

1.24 
.40 
.68 
.98 
.75 
.72 
.24 
.93 
.68 
.27 
.01 
.20 

1.30 
.62 

2.01 
.10 

1.01 
.99 
.85 

1.77 
.49 
.80 
.73 
.42 

0.17 

1.78 

.60 

.76 

1.15 

1.74 

1.43 

7.77 

2.52 

1.75 

2.16 

1.38 

1.42 

1.97 

1.60 

1.87 

.63 

1.77 

1.31 

.54 

.01 

.32 

2.47 

1.84 

4.42 

.21 

1.77 

1.89 

1.69 

2.35 

2.33 

1.99 

1.82 

1.15 

0.29 
.80 
.14 
.21 
.64 
.16 
.27 

1.33 
.60 
.92 
.95 
.11 
.87 
.77 
.06 
.16 
.22 

1.08 
.42 
.09 

0.3 
2.2 

.5 

.9 
1.5 

.7 
1.3 
16.5 
2.6 
2.1 
2.4 

.3 
1.9 
2.2 
1.1 
2.8 
1.4 
1.4 
1.6 

.5 

28.0 

17.9 

11.2 

5.8 

10.9 

3.5 

4.0 

5.5 

18.2 

19.7 

?2. 1 

3.4 

20.0 

15.4 

1.8 

2.5 

9.2 

29.6 

11.6 

5.3 

.25 
.07 
.17 
.09 
.16 
.15 
.63 
.65 
.43 
.58 
.08 
.27 
.30 
.18 
.19 
.03 
.36 
.28 
.06 
.01 
.06 
.58 
.16 
.74 
.07 
.42 
.46 
.85 
.78 
.11 
.27 
.24 
.19 

Cody 

9.9 

1.7 

19.8 

26.1 

24.5 

Dix 

25.5 
10.9 
19.3 
39.3 
.9 
5.2 

32.2 
31.1 
32.  S 
45.3 
23.8 
32.0 
28.6 
22.6 
19.3 
30.8 
27.0 
22.7 
31.4 
23.7 
41.6 
35.9 
34.8 
16.8 
26.0 
44.1 

44  1 

32  1 

18.1 

.01 

8.9 

2.2 

.3 

6.7 

.5 

21.3 

16.5 

18.7 

42,1 

44  9 

McClellan 

.49 
.09 
.96 
.63 
.26 
.50 
.73 
12.71 
.36 
.18 
.68 
.23 
.37 

.6 

.9 
2.3 
4.3 

.5 

1.3 

1.3 

22.0 

.6 
2.9 
2.1 
1.3 
3.1 

71.1 

1.5 

12.4 

6.5 

25.0 

12.6 

16.6 

30.0 

8.2 

1.8 

11.2 

3.3 

5.3 

80  0 

14.0 

Pike 

29.9 

44.1 

Shelby 

43.8 

10.3 
31.1 
.9 
16.9 
22.3 
15.6 
6.3 
11.1 

33.9 

30.2 

52.0 

23.2 
35.3 
27.8 
24.0 
35.9 
5.1 

14.2 

30.2 

34.6 

18.7 

43.9 

Special  examinations 

Total     

1,556,011 

14.3 

31.1 

5.1 

.31 

.81 

1.77 

.50 

1.8 

9.8 

34.2 

Summary  of  examining,  April  28,  1918,  to  January  31,  1919. 

1.  Number  of  stations  in  which  psychological  examinations  were  made,  34. 

2.  Number  of  men  examined: 


White. 

Colored. 

Total. 

Total  to  date.1 

1,328,305 

221.550 

1,556,011 
32, 893 

1,684,723 
42,238 

Officers 

32,694                  199 

1,588,904 

1,726,966 

'  From  beginning  of  examining,  September,  1917. 


No.i.]  PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  ARMY.  103 

3.  Number  of  men  given  individual  examination,  79,908;  total  to  date,  '  83,543. 

4.  Number  of  examinations:  alpha  only,   1,059,531;  beta  only,   393,404;  both  alpha  and   beta,   90,065;  Point 
Scale,  18,732;  Stanford-Binet,  38.4S9;  Performance  Scale,  23,119. 

5.  Number  of  grades  below  D:  in  alpha,  97,572;  in  beta,  95,715;  in  beta,  following  alpha,  6,682;  individual — 
Performance  Scale,  4,600;  Stanford-Binet,  11,129;  Performance  Scale,  7,984;  total,  23,770. 

6.  Mental  ages:  below  7  years,  4,780;  7  to  8,  7,875;  8  to  9,  14,814;  9  to  10,  18,878;  10  to  11,  12,631;  11  to  12,  6,480; 
12  or  above,  7,507. 

7.  Number  of  cases  reported  for:  discharge,  7,800;  service  organizations,  10,014;  development  battalions,  9,487. 

While  the  regular  service  of  psychological  examining  was  being  organized,  directed,  and 
in  every  feasible  way  furthered  by  the  Division  of  Psychology  in  the  office  of  the  Surgeon 
General,  and  while  this  work  was  being  prosecuted  in  the  greater  part  of  the  army  framing 
camps  in  the  United  States,  every  effort  was  made  to  meet  demands  for  other  kinds  of  psycho- 
logical assistance,  for  it  was  the  purpose  of  the  psychological  personnel  to  render  maximal  service 
to  the  military  organization.  The  varieties  of  service  requested  by  the  army  itself  or  by  civilian 
agencies  related  to  the  army  are  extremely  interesting  and  significant  as  indicating  the  trend 
of  popular  and  military  interest  in  psychological  service  and  the  initiative  of  examining  staffs. 
Such  miscellaneous  service  is  described  in  section  5  of  this  chapter. 

The  practical  uses  of  intelligence  ratings  are  indicated  or  suggested  at  various  points  in 
this  memoir.     They  may  be  enumerated  here  in  contrast  with  the  values  originally  predicted. 

As  originally  conceived,  psychological  service  within  the  medical  department  was  to  assist 
medical  officers,  and  especially  neuro-psychiatric  officers,  in  discovering  and  eliminating  men 
who  were  mentally  unfit  for  military  duty.  It  appeared,  prior  to  actual  trial,  that  reasonably 
well-planned  methods  of  mental  measurement  should  enable  psychological  examiners  to  dis- 
cover mentally  inferior  recruits  as  soon  as  they  arrived  in  camp  and  to  make  suitable  recom- 
mendation concerning  them  to  the  medical  officer.  It  was  also  believed  that  psychologists 
could  assist  neuro-psychiatrists  in  the  examination  of  psychotic  individuals.  The  proposed 
role  of  the  psychologist  then  was  that  of  assistant  to  the  army  surgeon;  the  actual  role,  as  a 
result  of  demonstration  of  values,  was  that  of  expert  in  scientific  personnel  work. 

In  interesting  contrast  with  the  original  purpose  of  mental  examining,  as  stated  above, 
stands  the  following  account  of  the  purposes  actually  achieved  by  this  service:  (1)  The  assign- 
ment of  an  intelligence  rating  to  every  soldier  on  the  basis  of  systematic  examination;  (2)  the 
designation  and  selection  of  men  whose  superior  intelligence  indicates  the  desirability  of  ad- 
vancement or  special  assignment;  (3)  the  prompt  selection  and  recommendation  for  develop- 
ment battalions  of  men  who  are  so  inferior  mentally  as  to  be  unsuitable  for  regular  military 
training;  (4)  the  provision  of  measurements  of  mental  ability  which  shall  enable  assigning 
officers  to  build  organizations  of  uniform  mental  strength  or  in  accordance  with  definite  speci- 
fications concerning  intelligence  requirements;  (5)  the  selection  of  men  for  various  types  of 
military  duty  or  for  special  assignments,  as,  for  example,  to  military  training  schools,  colleges 
or  technical  schools;  (6)  the  provision  of  data  for  the  formation  of  special  training  groups 
within  the  regiment  or  battery  in  order  that  each  man  may  receive  instruction  suited  to  his 
ability  to  learn;  (7)  the  early  discovery  and  recommendation  for  elimination  of  men  whose 
intelligence  is  so  inferior  that  they  can  not  be  used  to  advantage  in  any  line  of  military  service. 

Although  it  originally  seemed  that  psychological  examining  naturally  belonged  to  the 
Medical  Department  of  the  Army,  and  would  there  prove  most  useful,  it  subsequently  became 
evident  that  this  is  not  true,  because  the  service  rendered  by  psychological  examiners  is  only 
in  part  medical  in  its  relations  and  values.  In  the  main  its  significance  relates  to  placement, 
and  its  natural  affiliation  is  with  military  personnel.  For  practical  as  well  as  logical  reasons  it 
would  doubtless  have  been  wiser  had  the  service  of  the  Division  of  Psychology  been  associated 
from  the  first  with  that  of  the  Committee  on  Classification  of  Personnel  in  the  Army,  so  that 
the  psychological  as  well  as  occupational,  educational  and  other  important  data  might  have  been 
assembled  by  a  single  military  agency  and  promptly  rendered  available  for  use  in  connection  with 
the  assignment  of  recruits.  Thus  also  the  organization  of  a  special  branch  of  the  General  Staff  or 
of  a  personnel  section  of  the  Adjutant  General's  Office  to  deal  with  varied  problems  of  military 
personnel  might  have  been  hastened  and  otherwise  facilitated  and  the  utilization  of  brain 


104  MEMOIKS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES.  [Vol.xv. 

power  as  contrasted  with  man  power  in  the  ordinary  sense  rendered  more  satisfactory  early  in 
the  emergency. 

When  the  armistice  was  signed  and  the  examining  of  drafted  men  for  the  sake  of  mental 
classification  ceased,  the  results  of  psychological  examination  were  being  used  to  excellent  effect 
in  the  majority  of  camps,  and  there  was  every  reason  to  predict  rapid  increase  in  the  extent 
and  effectiveness  of  practical  psychological  service  during  the  remainder  of  the  war.  A  general 
order,  such  as  that  presented  on  pages  56  and  57,  carrying  brief,  comprehensive  instruc- 
tions concerning  the  profitable  use  of  these  ratings,  would  undoubtedly  have  placed  the  work 
upon  a  wholly  satisfactory  basis  and  would  have  assured  very  great  increase  of  military  efficiency 
through  the  proper  placement  and  effective  use,  from  the  standpoint  of  brain  power,  of  every 
soldier. 

Because  the  psychologist  is  necessarily  biased  in  favor  of  his  own  work  it  is  essential  that 
other  evidences  of  military  value  than  the  assertions  of  those  immediately  responsible  for  this 
service  be  presented.  Among  the  most  significant  of  these  evidences  are  the  opinions  of  com- 
manding officers.  These  were  secured  from  the  majority  of  stations  in  which  psychological 
service  existed  after  the  work  had  been  thoroughly  organized  and  the  officers  had  been  given 
opportunity  to  acquaint  themselves  with  its  organization,  relations  to  the  military  situation, 
and  its  practical  usefulness.  Whereas  the  reports  from  commanding  officers  received  by  the 
War  Department  in  connection  with  the  investigation  of  psychological  service  were  predomi- 
nantly unfavorable,  those  subsequently  secured,  in  many  instances  from  the  same  officers,  by 
special  request  of  the  Surgeon  General,  were  almost  invariably  favorable  and  contained  con- 
structive suggestions.  The  reason  for  this  radical  difference  in  the  nature  of  the  opinions  is 
the  prematureness  of  the  original  request  for  report.  The  psychological  service  had  not  been 
organized  at  the  time,  and  where  it  did  not  exist,  it  was  naturally  enough  assumed  by  respon- 
sible officers  that  report  on  psychiatric  work  was  desired. 

Since  it  is  impossible  adequately  to  summarize  the  opinions  of  commanding  officers,  section 
4  of  this  chapter  is  devoted  to  them,  and  they  are  quoted  at  sufficient  length  to  assure  both 
fairness  and  adequacy  of  presentation. 

Section  4. — Official  opinions  concerning  the  military  value  of  examining. 

In  the  preceding  chapters  considerable  material  bearing  upon  the  topic  of  this  section  has 
been  presented.1  Letters  and  reports,  already  referred  to,  give  evidence  of  the  good  general 
impression  created  by  the  initial  and  intermediate  stages  of  psychological  examining.  Fortu- 
nately there  are  available  also  expressions  of  opinion  of  commanding  generals  and  others  at  a 
much  later  date,  when  longer  experience  under  much  more  varied  conditions  had  furnished  a 
thoroughly  sound  basis  for  judgment  as  to  the  net  value  of  the  work.  The  further  fact  that  these 
later  opinions  are  greater  in  number  and  that  they  form  a  complete  and  entirely  unselected 
series,  makes  certain  that  the  following  account  is  quite  unprejudiced. 

In  September  and  November,  1918,  a  letter  substantially  as  follows  was  sent  by  the  Adju- 
tant General  of  the  Army  to  the  commanding  generals  of  camps  in  which  psychological  exam- 
ining had  been  in  progress  for  a  considerable  time: 

The  Division  of  Psychology,  Office  of  the  Surgeon  General,  especially  desires  your  opinion  on  the  value  of  psycho- 
logical examining  in  your  camp,  and  suggestions  concerning  ways  of  increasing  the  value  of  this  service. 

Eleven  letters  and  12  indorsements  were  received  in  reply  to  this  request.  In  so  far  as  is 
practicable  these  replies  are  reproduced  exactly.  In  several  cases  where  inclosures  of  con- 
siderable length  accompany  the  replies  and  especially  when  they  recite  facts  already  embodied 
in  this  report  instead  of  opinions,  the  inclosures  have  either  been  omitted  or  summarized. 

Seven  letters  had  been  received  from  commanding  officers  of  camps  or  divisions  prior  to  the 
issuance  of  the  special  request  mentioned  above.  These  added  to  the  11  letters  and  12  indorse- 
ments give  a  total  of  30  responses  from  commanding  officers.     Of  these  replies  27  (approximately 

1  See  reports  of  Col.  Shaw,  pp.  19ft\;  summary  of  company  commanders'  reports,  p.  25;  report  of  the  training  committee,  pp.  25f;  quotations 
from  Mr.  Dorr's  report,  p.  45;  and  quotations  from  Col.  Burt's  report,  pp.  46f. 


No.i.]  PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  ARMY.  105 

90  per  cent)  are  favorable.  Of  the  23  letters  and  indorsements  quoted  below,  12  are  definitely 
favorable,  one  is  definitely  unfavorable,  and  one  is  favorable  on  condition  that  the  work  be  done 
in  a  more  advantageous  maimer. 

Whereas  in  the  first  instance,  as  mentioned  on  page  25,  company  commanders  in  National 
Army  cantonments  were  favorable  to  psychological  examining  in  75  per  cent  of  the  cases,  com- 
manding generals,  on  the  whole  more  familiar  with  the  psychological  service  and  in  possession 
of  the  critical  judgments  of  numerous  subordinates,  reacted  favorably  in  more  than  90  per  cent 
of  the  cases  on  record. 

REPLY   (LETTER)   FROM    COMMANDING   OFFICER    OF   CAMP   GREENLEAF. 

The  work  of  the  Division  of  Psychology  has  been  very  carefully  studied  by  the  undersigned,  and  the  following 
conclusions  have  been  arrived  at. 

The  system  used,  which  is  practically  a  mathematical  determination  of  the  intelligence  of  the  soldier,  is  very 
satisfactory,  and  the  results  are,  as  far  as  can  be  determined  by  such  means,  fairly  accurate. 

The  following  criticisms  should  be  made  of  this  work.  In  the  first  place,  the  psychological  department  works  con- 
siderably under  the  impression  that  their  determinations  should  be  used  as  the  controlling  factor  in  the  assignment 
of  officers  and  the  appointment  of  noncommissioned  officers  in  the  Army.  This  can  not  be,  for  the  simple  reason  that 
a  man's  character  or  initiative  can  not  be  determined  by  any  such  test;  and  frequently  a  man  of  high  intelligence  has 
not  the  other  attributes  necessary  to  make  him  a  really  efficient  officer.  Furthermore,  this  work  is  now  being  done 
by  quite  a  number  of  men  whose  entire  time  is  supposed  to  be  taken  up  by  these  tests,  making  an  expense  to  the 
Government  which  is  not  justified  by  the  results  obtained.  Also,  this  department  should  be  criticized  on  the  ground 
that  higher  psychology,  which  is  the  study  of  the  men  more  in  detail  and  at  length,  is  not  attempted  by  this  depart- 
ment, and  therefore  a  great  deal  of  the  real  value  of  psychological  study  is  lost. 

It  should  not  bo  understood  that  this  criticism  is  destructive,  but  it  is  considered  that  the  work,  as  conducted  byt 
the  Psychological  Division  as  at  present  ordered,  is  too  narrow  to  give  real  value  to  the  Government,  and  if  it  should 
be  continued  a  wider  application  of  such  psychological  work  should  be  attempted  and  a  departure  made  from  the 
solely  mathematical  determination  of  intelligence. 

REPLY   (LETTER)    FROM    COMMANDING   OFFICER    OF   CAMP  HANCOCK. 

Reference  letter  from  A.  G.  0.  dated  November  22,  1918.  In  order  to  make  the  desired  report  of  more  value  I 
have  called  on  the  various  officers  here  most  concerned  in  the  training,  instruction  and  handling  of  troops  for  an  ex- 
pression of  their  opinion  of  the  value  of  psychological  examinations,  together  with  any  suggestions  that  these  officers 
might  have  as  to  ways  of  improving  and  increasing  the  usefulness  of  this  work.  I  enclose  herewith  separate  reports 
from  14  different  officers,  which  I  think  will  be  found  of  interest  and  value.  It  will  be  noted  that  of  the  14  reports  only 
one  is  unfavorable  to  a  continuance  of  this  work. 

In  my  opinion  the  work  has  a  distinct  value  in  connection  with  the  training  of  recruits,  and  especially  in  the  case 
where  large  numbers  of  untrained  officers  and  men  must  be  organized  and  trained  with  a  minimum  of  delay.  In  this 
camp  psychological  examinations  have  been  found  of  considerable  value  in  connection  with  the  selection  of  noncom- 
missioned officer  material,  and  also  in  the  selection  oi  men  for  attendance  at  various  schools.  These  examinations  are 
found  of  value  in  sorting  and  classifying  the  men  in  the  various  companies  to  which  they  may  be  assigned,  in  that 
it  permits  of  the  immediate  separation  of  the  mass  of  recruits  of  which  the  company  is  composed  into  different  groups 
of  varying  degrees  of  intelligence  so  that  each  group  can  receive  special  treatment  according  to  its  peculiar  needs. 
In  this  way  the  progress  of  training  is  facilitated.    *    *    * 

In  conclusion  I  deem  that  the  psychological  examination  of  officers  and  enlisted  men,  especially  where  these 
examinations  can  be  held  as  promptly  as  possible  after  induction  into  service,  has  a  distinct  and  practical  value  in  the 
training  of  troops  especially  where  time  is  a  factor  and  it  is  necessary  to  utilize  the  services  of  inexperienced  officers 
in  the  organization  and  training  of  large  bodies  of  men. 

The  following  are  the  14  reports  referred  to  in  paragraph  1  of  the  preceding  reply: 

(l)  FROM   THE    CAMP   SURGEON. 

(a)  It  is  believed  that  the  psychological  examinations  have  a  definite  and  considerable  value  in  the  rapid  deter- 
mination of  the  mental  acuity  of  enlisted  men  and  officers  entering  the  service.  It  is  believed  that  iu  the  absence  of 
personal  contact  and  experience  with  an  officer  or  enlisted  man,  the  psychological  rating  offers  the  best  method  of 
judging  at  once  the  possibilities  of  that  officer  or  enlisted  man. 

(b)  In  purely  medical  work  the  psychological  examination  of  every  officer  and  enlisted  man  has  a  definite  value 
in  that  cases  of  subnormal  mentality  and  many  cases  of  mental  disease  are  detected  thereby,  and  as  a  result  are  referred 
for  more  definite  examination  to  the  neuro- psychiatric  examiner. 

(2)  FROM   THE   CAMP   PERSONNEL  ADJUTANT. 

At  the  present  time  psychological  ratings  are  being  used  in  this  office  principally  that  we  may  have  another  line 
on  a  man  in  selecting  him  in  filling  requisitions  for  specially  qualified  men. 

I  believe,  however,  that  psychological  ratings  could  be  made  of  very  great  use,  and,  as  I  see  it,  there  are  two  main 
ways  in  which  these  ratings  could  be  used  to  advance  the  efficiency  and  usefulness  of  the  machine  gun  training  center. 

121435°— 21 S 


106  MEMOIRS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES.  [Vol.  sv. 

(a)  Ratings  can  be  made  of  very  great  value  to  the  personnel  office, and  I  presume  also  to  the  operations  section 
in  the  original  assigning  and  placing  of  men.  This  applies  not  only  to  specialists,  but  also  to  men  undergoing  machine- 
gun  training. 

(b.)  Ratings  can  be  used  by  company  commanders  and  other  unit  officers  who  are  directly  in  oontact  with  the 
men.  It  is  very  frequently  necessary  for  such  officers  to  use  what  might  be  called  "snap  judgment"  in  placing  a  man, 
and  the  psychological  rating  which  gives  a  line  on  the  enlisted  man's  mentality  would  be  useful  for  this  purpose.  It 
has  been  demonstrated  that  in  a  large  percentage  of  cases  a  practical  try-out  of  a  man  substantiates  the  value  placed 
on  him  by  his  psychological  rating. 

I  believe  psychological  ratings  should  be  given  consideration  in  the  formation  of  new  machine  gun  classes.  One  of 
the  difficulties  is  that  some  enlisted  men  take  up  this  training  and  learn  it  much  more  rapidly  than  others.  This  is 
chiefly  due  to  a  difference  in  mentality.  In  order,  therefore,  that  apt  men  may  not  be  delayed  in  their  training  and 
held  back  by  those  men  who  learn  less  readily,  I  suggest  that  in  the  formation  of  training  units,  men  of  higher  mentality 
be  grouped  together  in  one  class;  those  of  slightly  lesser  mentality  in  another;  and  so  on  down  the  line.  In  this  way, 
I  believe  the  training  of  the  men  could  be  speeded  up  to  quite  a  marked  extent,  and  all  recruits  would  be  trained 
as  rapidly  as  their  individual  ability  permitted.  Information  reaching  this  office  from  Washington  states  that  eight 
commanding  officers  have  already  directed  that  this  procedure  be  used  in  forming  organizations  within  their  command. 

In  the  formation  of  the  permanent  personnel  and  the  reorganization  which  is  at  present  going  on,  the  psychological 
ratings  could  be  used  to  equalize  the  mentality  of  the  various  organizations. 

I  suggest  that  the  camp  psychologist  be  authorized  and  directed  to  immediately  examine  all  men  for  whom  there 
is  no  rating  on  record.  The  ratings  of  the  men  examined  shall  be  reported  to  the  camp  personnel  adjutant  for  use  at 
headquarters,  and  an  extra  copy  shall  be  furnished  to  the  company  commander  for  his  information. 

(3)  FROM   COMMANDING    OFFICER,  MAIN   TRAINING    DEPOT. 

In  my  opinion  these  examinations  should  be  made  as  soon  as  recruits  join  and  their  ratings  put  on  service  records. 
This  will  be  of  great  value  in  the  selection  of  noncommissioned  officers  in  new  organizations  and  in  old  organizations. 
It  is  my  opinion  that  noncommissioned  officers  should  never  be  made  without  reference  to  psychological  ratings.  All 
things  being  equal  the  high  rating  should  govern. 

(4)  FROM    COMMANDING    OFFICER,  GROUP   NO.  1. 

In  my  experience  with  men  -examined  by  the  psychological  expert,  I  have  found  the  results  very  helpful  in 
electing  men. 

In  no  case  have  I  found  their  classification  in  error. 

Men  who  were  rated  high  turned  out  to  be  of  superior  intellect,  and  those  in  the  D  class  were  slow  to  learn  and 
fit  only  for  labor. 

(5)  FROM   COMMANDING    OFFICER,  GROUP   NO.  2. 

The  psychological  examination  of  enlisted  personnel  of  this  command  has  been  of  the  greatest  assistance  to  com- 
pany commanders  in  making  their  selection  of  noncommissioned  officers. 

(6)  FROM   COMMANDING    OFFICER,  GROUP   NO.  3. 

I  have  had  numerous  chances  to  test  the  value  of  psychological  examinations,  and  found,  with  but  one  exception, 
that  it  was  an  easy  and  quick  way  to  place  the  proper  man  in  the  proper  place,  not  knowing  the  man  at  all. 

The  instance  I  cite,  I  had  occasion  to  pick  out  from  a  new  draft  120  men  as  prospective  machine-gun  instructors 
and  material  for  noncommissioned  officers.  This  I  derived  entirely  from  psychological  report.  One  man  failed  to 
qualify  as  machine-gun  instructor. 

Suggest  that  each  recruit  as  he  enters  the  service  be  given  this  examination  and  a  card  properly  filled  out  be 
forwarded  with  his  papers,  which  would  allow  his  company  commander  to  place  him  where  he  belongs  and  not  retard 
the  progress  of  other  men  in  his  organization. 

(7)  FROM   COMMANDING    OFFICER,  GROUP   NO.  4. 

The  results  of  the  psychological  examinations  have  not  been  an  infallible  guide  in  the  appointing  of  noncom- 
missioned officers,  but  have  always  received  consideration  and  have  been  of  great  assistance  in  picking  fit  men  for 
noncommissioned  officers. 

(S)  FROM   COMMANDING    OFFICER,  GROUP.  NO.  5. 

In  the  first  place,  from  my  own  observation,  the  ratings  given  by  the  psychological  board  are  very  inaccurate 
For  instance,  a  man  in  this  group  who  holds  certificate  as  air  pilot  and  observer  was  examined  by  the  board  and  given 
a  rating,  which,  if  I  remember  correctly,  was  C  minus  73.  This  man  was  reexamined  later  and  given  another  rating, 
which,  I  believe,  was  C  plus  250.  It  seems  very  improbable  that  a  man  qualified  to  fill  the  positions  of  air  pilot  and 
observer  should  not  have  a  higher  rating  than  C  minus  73. 

Part  of  this  inaccuracy  I  believe  to  be  due  to  the  fact  that  the  room  in  which  the  examination  is  held  is  filled 
too  full  of  men.  As  a  result,  the  men  who  are  sitting  in  the  rear  of  the  room  are  unable  to  hear  clearly  and  thoroughly 
enough  to  understand  the  instructions. 


no.i.]  PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  ARMY.  107 

From  my  own  personal  observation  and  experience  I  have  found  that  it  is  practically  impossible  to  rely  on  the 
ratings  given  by  the  psychological  board.  Men  who  are  below  the  average,  when  it  comes  to  the  question  of  service, 
are  given  higher  ratings  by  the  board,  and  vice  versa.  The  records  are  of  no  use  when  it  comes  to  picking  men  for 
certain  positions. 

Another  thing  which  I  believe  enters  into  the  examination,  in  a  great  measure,  is  the  element  of  chance.  It  may 
be  that  a  man  is  examined  on  a  day  when  he  happens  to  feel  at  his  best,  and  everything  may  work  smoothly.  Should 
he  be  examined  again  the  next  day  his  faculties  might  not  at  that  time  be  as  keen,  and  his  rating  would  not  be  as  high. 

Recommend  that  when  these  examinations  are  given  there  be  not  more  than  15  men  in  each  class. 

(9)  PKOM    COMMANDING   OFFICER,  GROUP  NO.  6. 

The  psychological  examination  record  is  of  great  value  when  properly  used  and  eliminates  chances  of  error  in 
selecting  men  for  specialized  work.  An  officer  not  acquainted  with  the  enlisted  men  in  his  command,  or  one  called 
on  to  select  noncommissioned  officers  on  short  notice,  should  make  his  selection  from  those  men  with  A  or  B  grades 
who  most  strongly  impress  him  on  being  interviewed. 

Men  having  grades  of  D  or  E  seldom  have  the  potential  qualities  for  making  noncommissioned  officers.  However, 
men  with  grades  of  C  who  give  a  favorable  impression  on  being  interviewed,  sometimes  make  good  noncommissioned 
officers.  The  assumption  is  that  men  in  the  latter  class  were  under  a  strain  when  they  took  the  examination.  It  is 
suggested  that  a  second  test  be  given  these  men  on  recommendation  of  company  commanders. 

Again,  it  is  to  be  observed  that  men  who  have  been  out  of  school  for  several  years  do  not  make  so  high  a  grade 
in  these  examinations  as  do  younger  men  recently  out  of  school,  even  though  they  display  more  intelligence.  It  is 
questioned  whether  the  examinations  do  not  deal  too  much  with  the  scholastic  and  not  enough  with  the  practical 
to  be  a  fair  unit  of  measure  for  all  soldiers. 

It  is  suggested  that  company  commanders  be  urged  to  consult  the  psychological  records  more  frequently  than 
they  do  in  making  appointments  and  assignments  to  special  duty. 

Selection  of  men  for  practical  work,  trades,  etc.,  should  not  be  limited  to  selection  from  psychological  grade. 

(10)    FROM   COMMANDING   OFFICER,    GROUP   NO.    7. 

Psychological  ratings  of  about  the  first  thousand  men  received  in  this  group  were  very  satisfactory,  and  were  of 
considerable  assistance  in  determining  the  assignment  of  acting  noncommissioned  officers  in  this  group. 

The  psychological  examinations  of  the  last  500  men  received  in  this  group  were  very  unsatisfactory,  owing  to  the 
fact  that  a  great  number  of  these  men  were  illiterates  and  the  examinations  conducted  were  not  a  fair  test  of  the  intelli- 
gence of  the  men  for  that  reason.  Would  suggest  that  different  methods  might  be  used  in  examining  men  who  can  not 
read  and  write,  so  that  commanding  officers  might  get  a  better  idea  of  their  intelligence  other  than  from  a  standpoint 
of  literacy. 

The  result  of  the  examination  of  the  last  500  men  received  in  this  group  showed  nearly  all  of  them  to  be  in  class  E, 
and  actual  experience  has  demonstrated  that  a  number  of  these  men  were  far  more  intelligent  than  their  classification 
would  seem  to  indicate. 

(ll)    FROM   COMMANDANT,    TRAINING   CENTER   SCHOOL. 

It  is  my  opinion  that  these  examinations  have  a  distinct  value  as  indicated  in  a  memorandum  from  psychological 
examining  board  on  the  subject  of  proof  as  to  the  validity  of  psychological  grades. 

It  is  my  opinion  that  all  men  as  soon  as  they  shall  have  reported  at  this  camp  should  be  given  this  examination 
and  the  reports  immediately  placed  in  the  hands  of  their  company  commanders.  This  gives  the  company  commander 
at  the  outset  a  true  index  of  the  personnel  of  his  company  that  could  be  used  with  slight  fear  of  error  in  making  his 
first  selections  of  noncommissioned  officers.  The  next  important  application  of  the  results  of  these  tests  lies  in  the 
selection  of  men  to  attend  the  machine-gun  school  or  for  admission  to  training  schools  for  officers.  It  is  my  opinion, 
based  upon  tests  and  experience  at  the  machine-gun  school,  that  no  man  should  be  selected  for  admission  to  the  machine- 
gun  school  for  training  as  a  noncommissioned  officer  in  machine-gun  work  whose  grade  in  his  psychological  test  is  that 
of  C—  or  lower.  It  is  also  my  opinion  that  no  man  who  fails  to  procure  a  grading  in  the  psychological  test  below  that 
of  grade  C-f-  should  be  selected  for  designation  to  attend  a  training  school  for  officers  or  to  attend  the  machine-gun 
school. 

Had  this  principle  been  applied  at  the  machine-gun  school  much  valuable  time  would  have  been  saved,  and  the 
limited  number  of  instructors  available  would  have  been  liberated  for  other  classes. 

(12)    FROM   COMMANDING   OFFICER,    CENTRAL   OFFICERS'   TRAINING    SCHOOL. 

The  results  of  psychological  examinations  have  proven  of  much  value  to  this  school  in  determining  the  qualifications 
and  fitness  of  certain  doubtful  men  for  commissions.  In  the  large  percentage  of  instances  the  result  of  the  psychological 
examination  has  coincided  with  the  result  of  the  candidate's  written  examination  mark.  Would  suggest  one  way  of 
increasing  the  immediate  usefulness  of  this  work  would  be  to  require  every  soldier  to  take  this  examination  and  to 
impress  upon  officers  the  value  of  this  means  of  discovering  men. 

(13)    PROM   COMMANDING   OFFICER,    DEVELOPMENT  BATTALION. 

The  chief  value  of  the  psychological  examinations  is  that  they  afford  company  commanders  a  quick  and  relatively 
accurate  method  for  determining  the  intelligence  of  the  enlisted  men.  This  makes  it  possible  for  the  company  com- 
mander to  utilize  his  most  intelligent  men  for  important  work  at  once,  without  resorting  to  the  "try-out"  method. 
Mistakes  in  the  choice  of  men  are  not  entirely  eliminated  but  they  are  reduced. 


108  MEMOIRS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES.  [vol.xv, 

In  the  disciplining  of  offenders  the  psychological  rating  of  the  soldier  is  considered. 

I  would  suggest  that  the  psychological  examination  be  very  closely  supervised  by  commissioned  officers,  and  that 
the  ratings  be  supplemented  with  remarks  pointing  out  any  matters  of  special  importance  observed  in  the  soldier. 

I  do  not  believe  that  the  results  of  the  psychological  examinations,  as  I  have  observed  them,  justify  the  expenditure 
of  the  time  and  money  used  for  that  purpose. 

(14)    FROM   COMMANDING    OFFICER,    BASE   HOSPITAL. 

The  writer  has  had  no  practical  and  personal  experience  with  psychological  examinations  as  applied  to  the  Army. 
There  is  no  doubt,  however,  as  to  the  value  of  psychological  examinations  if  thoroughly  done  by  an  expert.  A  thorough 
psychometric  test,  however,  requires  not  less  than  one  hour's  time  to  each  person  examined,  making  it  almost  an 
impracticable  procedure  for  application  to  a  large  number  of  soldiers,  except  in  selected  cases. 

To  rate  a  man's  mental  capacity  upon  the  basis  of  the  usual  army  psychological  examinations  alone  is  hardly  fair. 
Many  neurotic  individuals,  distinctly  unfit  for  service,  obtain  high  ratings  in  these  psychometric  tests.  The  tests,  as 
given,  measure  mental  alertness  rather  than  mental  capacity  and  general  fitness,  and  unless  these  examinations  are 
properly  weighed  in  the  light  of  the  soldier's  general  ability,  they  are  in  a  great  many  cases  likely  to  injure  rather  than 
to  improve  the  service. 

The  writer  feels  that  with  his  limited  practical  experience  in  the  application  of  the  psychological  examinations 
to  the  Army  he  can  not  justly  make  any  suggestions  for  improving  and  increasing  the  immediate  usefulness  of  this  work. 

REPLY   (LETTER)    FROM   COMMANDING    OFFICER   OF   CAMP   LEWIS. 

It  is  considered  that  the  psychological  examinations  are  of  great  value  as  an  aid  in  determining  the  proper  placing 
of  the  personnel  of  the  command.  They  should  be  used  as  a  guide,  however,  in  conjunction  with  other  means  of  infor- 
mation, and  not  as  an  infallible  rule.     Examinations  have  proven  of  great  value  as  follows: 

(a)  As  a  basis  for  classification  of  men  by  company  commanders  for  special  duty,  special  training,  tentative  selection 
of  noncoms,  officers,  etc.  While  intelligence  is  not  the  sole  criterion  of  a  recruit's  usefulness  in  the  future, 
and  while  an  officer  can  undoubtedly  classify  his  men  after  some  acquaintance,  the  rating  considerably  expedites  the 
process  of  organization  and  classification. 

(6)  Use  of  intelligence  ratings  by  personnel  officers  as  an  aid  in  classifying  men  as  experts,  journeymen,  or  appren- 
tices (a  man  of  high  intelligence  needs  less  time  to  learn  a  given  trade) ;  and  in  assigning  men  to  permanent  organizations 
in  order  to  maintain  evenly  balanced  groups. 

(c)  Determination  of  mental  age  in  cases  of  low  or  defective  intelligence,  thus  giving  a  basis  for  recommendation 
for  rejection  or  for  acceptance  for  full  or  limited  service. 

(d)  One  of  the  most  important  services  has  been  to  assist  in  selecting  candidates  for  officers'  training  schools.  It 
was  demonstrated  that  a  certain  minimum  of  intelligence  was  essential  to  success  in  the  training  school,  and  that 
candidates  failing  to  reach  a  given  psychological  rating  failed  to  receive  commissions.  Approximately  17  per  cent  of 
the  candidates  of  the  fourth  officers'  training  school  were  thus  eliminated  by  purely  objective  standards  with  consider- 
able saving  to  the  Army. 

(e)  Examination  of  men  who  are  inapt  or  troublesome  to  organization  commanders,  thus  giving  a  basis  of  recom- 
mendation for  discharge  (on  account  of  mental  deficiency)  or  for  transfer  to  the  development  battalion. 

(/)  Assistance  to  the  morale  officer  in  the  stimulation  of  morale. 

Suggestions  for  improvement  are  offered  as  follows: 

(a)  The  intelligence  rating  now  conducted  by  the  psychological  board  should  be  taken  over  by  the  Committee  on 
Classification  of  Personnel  or  whoever  succeeds  this  committee.  The  classification  of  personnel  according  to  intelligence 
is  more  closely  related  to  the  personnel  officer's  work  than  to  the  medical  service. 

(6)  When  voluntary  enlistments  for  the  Army  are  resumed,  an  officer  trained  in  clinical  psychology  to  be  assigned 
to  each  recruit  depot. 

(c)  It  would  seem  that  the  psychological  rating  should  be  coordinated  with  the  rating  scale  for  officers, 
in.  so  far  as  the  intelligence  rating  is  concerned.  Experience  demonstrates  that  where  the  intelligence  rating  is 
done  in  accordance  with  instructions,  it  corresponds  very  closely  with  the  alpha  examination  rating.  If  several  officers 
rate  a  group  of  officers  it  is  found  that  the  examination  is  the  nearest  single  measure  for  the  combined  result.  At  best, 
therefore,  it  is  as  good  as  the  subjective  judgment  of  superior  officers  and  it  has  several  advantages.  It  is  objective  and 
impartial,  and  it  is  uniform. 

REPLY   (LETTER)    FROM    COMMANDING    OFFICER   OF   CAMP   LOGAN. 

I  have  no  recommendations  to  make  as  to  ways  of  improving  or  increasing  the  immediate  usefulness  of  this  kind 
of  personnel  work;  this  provided  the  present  regulations  on  the  subject  are  carried  out.  The  difficulty  which  I  have 
found  is  that  many  soldiers  and  officers  arrive  at  this  camp  without  any  indication  of  psychological  examination.  I 
believe  the  examinations  are  valuable  in  organizing  new  units,  and  that  the  method  of  assigning  men  to  these  units 
by  occupation  and  psychological  rating  is  far  better  than  the  old  method  of  assigning  men  in  bulk. 

A  previous  camp  commander  had  already  written: 

The  psychological  work  done  and  being  done  by  Captain in  this  camp  has  been  consistently  gcod  and  has 

proven  of  much  practical  value. 


no.  i.]  PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  ARMY.  109 

At  first,  due  to  the  innate  conservatism  of  line  and  even  medical  officers,  his  task  was  a  rather  uphill  one;  but  now, 
largely  due  to  his  own  energy  and  tact,  and  to  the  thoroughness  and  honesty  of  his  work,  practically  all  officers  here 
have  been  convinced  of  its  practical  value  and  unique  assistance  in  rating,  sorting,  and  disposing  of  the  divers  kinds 
of  men  as  well  as  officers  who  pass  through  such  a  camp. 

In  addition  to  his  ordinary  duties  of  testing  and  rating  the  personnel  of  organizations,  he  has  been  employed  in 
making  numerous  special  examinations,  where  the  handling  and  disposition  of  men  whose  cases  involved  obscurities 
of  mental  and  physical  peculiarity  or  weakness  were  in  question.  The  lucid  solving  of  such  human  problems  by  the 
methods  of  his  peculiar  art  and  his  personal  acuteness  and  persistence  have  often  relieved  such  perplexities. 

I  consider  such  an  expert  and  his  specialty  among  the  most  useful  aids  lately  given  the  Army  toward  the  scientific 
and  nonwasteful  utilization  of  man  power. 

REPLY   (LETTER)    FROM   COMMANDING   OFFICER   OF   CAMP   SHERIDAN. 

It  is  believed  that  the  psychological  test,  when  properly  applied,  is  of  great  value.  It  is  being  used  to  some  extent 
in  regiments  as  an  aid  in  the  selection  of  noncommissioned  officers.  In  my  opinion  this  should  prove  of  great  practical 
benefit  when  more  thoroughly  understood  and  more  generally  applied. 

It  is  recommended  that  the  division  of  psychology  prepare  and  distribute  to  all  officers  of  the  Army,  or  to  all 
organizations,  a  brief  list  of  the  practical  rules  followed  in  these  examinations  with  an  explanation  of  the  purpose  of 
these  several  tests. 

In  normal  times  it  is  believed  that  recruits  received  at  depots  should  there  receive  this  test  given  by  experts  and 
the  ratings  shown  on  their  descriptive  cards.  Such  recruits  as  may  be  received  in  companies,  and  who  have  not  pre- 
viously been  tested,  should  be  tested  without  delay  in  order  that  the  records  may  be  complete  and  the  proper  benefits 
derived  from  this  rating. 

Candidates  for  commission  should  be  required  to  take  the  test  and  should  not  be  accepted  if  rated  lower  than  B, 
except  in  special  cases  where  fitness  for  special  work  is  well  demonstrated. 

Among  the  benefits  to  be  derived  from  complete  rating  of  a  command  is  the  possibility  of  averaging  the  intelligence 
in  the  several  units.  It  also  enables  selection  to  be  made  so  as  to  provide  proper  intelligence  for  the  various  technical 
services.    There  are  many  other  advantages  which  are  so  obvious  that  it  is  unnecessary  to  state  them  here. 

REPLY   (LETTER)    FROM   COMMANDING    OFFICER   OF  CAMP   ZACHARY  TAYLOR. 

First.  There  seems  to  be  a  general  impression  among  both  line  and  medical  officers  to  the  effect  that  the  psycho- 
logical rating  of  officers  and  enlisted  men  is  a  good  thing  and  that  it  gives  a  more  or  less  accurate  indication  of  a  man's 
mental  capacity. 

Second.  The  officers  interviewed  do  not  seem  to  have  a  very  complete  idea  of  the  extent  to  which  this  service  may 
be  used  or  to  appreciate  what  its  possibilities  are,  the  general  impression  being  that  it  is  probably  a  good  thing,  but  that 
it  has  not  been  put  to  any  great  practical  use,  and  that  it  has  not  been  long  enough  in  use  for  anyone  to  form  a  definite 
opinion. 

I  would  suggest  that  if  it  is  intended  for  those  who  are  directly  in  command  of  troops  to  actually  use  the  findings 
of  the  psychological  board  in  assisting  them  to  place  men  under  their  command  in  the  places  for  which  they  are  men- 
tally capacitated,  that  some  method  should  be  devised  whereby  they  could  receive  better  instruction  in  the  use  of  the 
gradings  and  that  the  information  secured  by  the  psychological  examiners  be  brought  directly  to  their  attention, 
together  with  the  conclusions  which  the  examiner  may  reach  in  each  case.  In  most  instances  the  mere  grading  of  a 
man  with  a  numerical  rating  does  not  indicate  any  particular  thing  to  the  officer  who  is  in  direct  control  of  the  man, 
his  assignment,  and  his  work. 

It  has  come  to  my  attention  that  the  psychological  gradings  are  entered  only  on  a  man's  qualification  record  card, 
which  remains  either  at  camp  headquarters  or  at  his  regimental  headquarters,  and  are  therefore  not  in  the  hands  of  the 
officer  who  has  immediate  control  over  the  details  and  assignments  which  are  given  to  the  individual  soldier.  If  it  is 
required  that  the  company  commander  in  every  instance  must  go  to  regimental  or  higher  unit  headquarters  to  deter- 
mine the  psychological  rating  of  the  man  under  his  command  he  is  more  than  liable  to  permit  this  difficulty  to  cause  a 
neglect  of  the  use  of  the  psychological  ratings,  whereas  if  the  ratings  were  directly  in  the  hands  of  the  company  com- 
mander at  all  times  the  use  would  undoubtedly  be  more  nearly  universal.  I  would  suggest  that  some  means  be  pro- 
vided whereby  results  of  the  psychological  test  may  be  communicated  directly  to  the  organization  commander  who  has 
immediate  control  of  the  soldier  and  his  assignments  and  that  some  means  be  provided  whereby  this  rating  can  accom- 
pany the  soldier  as  a  part  of  his  permanent  company  or  detachment  record  separate  and  aside  from  the  entry  made  on 
the  qualification  record  card. 

REPLY   (LETTER)   FROM   COMMANDING   OFFICER   OF   CAMP  TRAVIS. 

The  camp  personnel  adjutant  and  his  assistants  have  found  the  psychological  ratings  of  great  value  in  selecting 
men  for  duty  at  the  personnel  office  and  in  choosing  noncommissioned  officer  material. 

In  the  filling  of  requisitions  from  the  War  Department,  which  require  consideration  of  the  general  intelligence  of 
individuals  or  groups  of  men,  the  psychological  ratings  have  been  found  to  be  of  very  great  value.  For  instance,  in 
filling  requisition  11,019,  dated  August  1,  191S,  requiring  the  transfer  of  1,700  colored  troops  to  the  24th  Infantry 
for  combat  purposes,  these  1,700  men  were  selected  solely  on  their  psychological  grades.  Company  commanders 
of  this  camp  report  that  colored  troops  selected  for  combat  service  on  a  psychological  basis  of  grades  higher  than 


110  MEMOIRS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES.  ivol.xv, 

grade  E,  after  drilling  such  troops,  that  they  believe  the  men  were  carefully  chosen,  and  many  such  company  com- 
manders desired  to  know  on  what  basis  these  men  were  chosen. 

The  332d  Labor  Battalion  was  rilled  by  the  selection  of  the  men  on  their  psychological  grades,  and  a  number  of  non- 
commissioned officers  for  permanent  personnel  in  the  depot  brigade  were  chosen  on  this  basis,  and  it  appeared  that 
the  results  were  satisfactory. 

It  is  believed  that  the  psychological  ratings  were  extremely  valuable. 

It  is  suggested  that  if  particular  psychological  tests  were  worked  out  for  testing  men  for  use  in  specific  military 
duty,  and  in  determining  the  psychological  requirements  of  specific  military  duties,  extremely  valuable  results  would 
be  obtained. 

Under  the  present  plan  of  determining  the  intelligence  of  officers  and  enlisted  men  only  their  general  intelligence 
is  attempted  to  be  rated.  If  intelligence  tests  for  specific  jobs  could  be  worked  out,  and  no  doubt  they  can  be,  an 
important  advantage  would  be  gained,  and  much  loss  of  time  and  energy  in  training  men  for  specific  duties  would  be 
avoided. 

REPLY   (LETTER)   TBOH    COMMANDING   OFFICER   OF   CAMP   UPTON. 

The  psychological  examination  held  at  this  camp  has  proved  a  value  to  the  various  departments  which  had  to  do 
with  the  assigning  of  enlisted  men  to  various  kinds  of  work.  It  afforded  quick  classification  of  men  to  the  particular 
kind  of  work  for  which  they  were  adapted.  A  careful  individual  examination  has  been  given  every  case  in  the  psycho- 
pathic wards  at  the  base  hospital.  This  examination,  reported  in  the  form  of  exact  mental  age  of  the  subject,  has  been 
used  by  the  neuro-psychiatric  board  in  their  recommendations  for  discharge  upon  the  basis  of  mental  deficiency.  An 
individual  examination  has  been  given  to  all  prison  cases,  reports  being  placed  in  the  hands  of  commanding  officers', 
showing  mental  ages  of  the  soldiers  who  have  broken  rules.  Examination  of  all  members  of  development  battalions 
has  resulted  in  the  classification  of  illiterate  groups,  aiding  the  work  of  education.  Candidates  for  officers'  training 
schools  have  been  examined  and  the  results  of  their  examination  have  been  used  as  a  basis  in  the  selection  for  intensive 
training.  Results  of  psychological  examinations  have  been  placed  in  the  hands  of  company  commanders  and  have 
enabled  them  to  select  provisional  noncommissioned  officers  from  material  which  was  shown  to  be  intellectually 
superior.  It  is  true  that  general  value  to  the  sen-ice  usually  goes  hand  in  hand  with  intellectual  development  and 
usually  the  most  intelligent  man  the  man  with  the  highest  mental  rating,  is  of  the  greatest  sendee.  Of  course,  there 
are  exceptions  to  this  rule. 

The  usefulness  of  psychological  service  can  be  improved  in  the  matter  of  closer  cooperation  between  the  psycho- 
logical rjoard  and  the  personnel  adjutants.  It  is  essential  for  the  best  interests  of  the  psychological  sendee  that  the 
intelligence  ratings  be  placed  on  the  qualification  cards  of  each  and  every  man  examined.  Unless  this  policy  is  adhered 
to  the  entire  purpose  of  psychological  examining  is  defeated. 

Psychological  service  was  instituted  with  a  view  of  aiding  the  rapid  development  of  soldiers  by  eliminating  the 
unfit,  and  placing  in  the  hands  of  personnel  officers  information  which  will  enable  them  to  distribute  men  efficiently. 
The  value  of  continuing  the  work  becomes  doubtful  when  the  influx  of  recruits  is  stopped. 

REPLY   (LETTER)   FROM   COMMANDING    OFFICER    OF   CAMP   WADSWORTH. 

I  have  been  very  favorably  impressed  by  the  work  of  the  examiners,  am  convinced  of  its  usefulness  to  the  service, 
and  desire  to  make  but  one  suggestion  for  its  improvement,  namely,  that  it  be  transferred  to  the  personnel  branch  of 
The  Adjutant  General's  Office,  where  it  obviously  belongs. 

It  is  likely  that  we  have  had  better  opportunities  for  testing  the  value  of  psychological  examinations  at  this  camp 
than  at  other  places,  and  that,  therefore,  the  examiners  and  other  officers  have  been  more  interested  in  the  subject, 
have  accumulated  more  data,  and  have  devoted  more  time  and  labor  to  the  investigation  of  results  obtained. 

From  January  until  May  of  this  year  we  had  approximately  a  full  complement  of  officers  for  about  16  regiments  of 
pioneer  infantry,  but  very  few  men.  That  period  was  therefore  devoted  to  the  instruction  of  all  officers  in  various 
subjects,  such  as  guard  duty,  administration,  military  law,  field  service  regulations,  drill  regulations,  field  engineering, 
etc.  Using  the  general  standing  of  officers  in  this  school  work  in  comparison  with  their  psychological  rating  some  very 
interesting  and  instructive  comparative  tables  were  compiled  by  the  examiners.  These  tables  have  been  forwarded 
to  the  Division  of  Psychology,  and  it  is  thought  that  they  should  convince  any  doubter  of  the  very  great  value  of  psycho- 
logical examinations  in  determining  valuable  officer  material. 

The  noncommissioned  officers  were,  of  course,  subjected  to  the  same  psychological  tests,  and  the  results  were 
equally  convincing.  The  regiments  mentioned  were  fragments  of  New  England  and  New  York  National  Guard  Regi- 
ments, which  had  been  depleted  to  fill  to  war  strength  the  New  England  and  the  New  York  divisions.  As  the  division 
commanders  were  not  authorized  to  take  noncommissioned  officers,  some  of  the  commanders  of  the  depleted  regiments 
made  noncommissioned  officers  of  very  inferior  material  in  order  to  protect  from  selection  certain  privates  whom  they 
especially  desired  to  keep.  These  men  were  invariably  shown  up  by  the  psychological  ratings;  indeed,  it  was  their 
low  rating  which  caused  me  to  make  inquiry  about  these  men  and  to  learn  of  the  above  facts. 

When  the  drafted  men  came  in  their  psychological  ratings  were  utilized  by  all  company  commanders  to  determine 
the  likely  material  from  which  to  expect  noncommissioned  officers,  and  I  was  informed  that  it  proved  to  be  a  very 
valuable  guide. 

From  the  experience  above  briefly  narrated  I  have  learned,  after  some  scepticism  at  first,  to  have  a  very  whole- 
some respect  for  the  work  of  the  psychological  examiners,  and  can  not  too  highly  commend  it.     In  this  connection, 


No.i.]  PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  ARMY.  Ill 

however,  it  should  in  all  fairness  be  stated  that  the  examiners  at  this  camp  have  devoted  themselves  with  the  utmost 
diligence  and  enthusiasm  to  their  work,  and  have  thus  attained  results  which  very  likely  would  not  have  been  dis- 
covered by  less  able  and  zealous  men. 

REPLY   (LETTER)    FROM   COMMANDING    OFFICER   OF   CAMP   DEVENS. 

The  reports  of  psychological  examinations  have  been  of  value  and  assistance  in  this  camp,  in  connection  with  other 
data  relative  to  the  efficiency  and  qualifications  of  officers  and  enlisted  men,  specifically  as  follows: 

In  equalizing  the  average  intelligence  of  companies  and  entire  units  at  the  time  of  original  assignment  and  to 
some  extent  subsequently. 

In  the  selection  of  men  for  certain  technical  units  in  which  men  of  low  grade  intelligence  have  been  reduced  to  a 
minimum  and  an  increased  proportion  of  men  of  superior  intelligence  has  been  provided.  This  was  done  specifically 
in  machine-gun  battalion  and  the  machine-gun  companies  of  infantry  regiments. 

In  calling  attention  to  certain  officers  and  enlisted  men  of  high  or  low  grade  intelligence  who  had  not  been  pre- 
viously noted. 

In  assisting  the  psychiatric  examiners  in  finding  men  of  deficient  mentality  upon  coming  into  the  service. 

In  enabling  organization  commanders  to  obtain  an  early  estimate  of  the  capacity  of  their  men  which  otherwise 
would  have  required  a  period  of  observation. 

It  has  been  found,  however,  that  the  psychological  rating  should  be  used  as  one  of  several  indications  of  the  mili- 
tary usefulness  of  an  individual,  but  not  as  a  final  criterion,  as  a  number  of  individuals  have  been  found  with  high 
ratings  who  are  of  but  little  military  value  and  a  number  of  the  most  efficient  officers  and  enlisted  men  have  had  com- 
paratively low  ratings.     The  average  man  in  grade  B  has  been  found  as  valuable  to  the  sendee  as  one  in  grade  A. 

It  is  believed  that  the  present  test  lays  too  much  stress  on  quickness  of  thought  and  not  enough  on  judgment, 
leadership,  courage,  and  dependability.  The  tendency  of  the  test  is  to  under-emphasize  these  latter  qualities  and 
results  in  misunderstanding  on  the  part  of  those  who  attempt  to  interpret  the  ratings. 

REPLY   (LETTER)   FROM   COMMANDING   OFFICER   OF  CAMP  CUSTER. 

The  value  of  these  examinations  is  almost  always  overrated  or  underrated.  Generally  speaking,  the  officer  of  long 
Regular  Army  experience  rejects  them  as  being  valueless  and  his  opinion  is  very  apt  to  be  at  once  adopted  by  any 
young  officer  who  learns  it.  The  new  officer,  if  left  to  himself,  accepts  the  results  of  this  examination  as  final  and 
conclusive  and  gives  to  the  matter  an  unjustified  value  that  often  leads  to  his  disappointment;  and  the  net  result  in 
either  case  is  a  feeling  of  prejudice  against  psychological  examinations,  and  this,  I  believe,  is  the  general  attitude  of 
the  service  with  reference  to  the  matter. 

If  an  authoritative  statement  as  to  the  purpose  of  these  examinations,  the  value  to  be  placed  upon  the  results 
thereof,  and  how  this  is  to  be  used  in  the  service,  has  been  ever  issued  by  the  War  Department,  it  has  failed  to  come  to 
my  notice  or  to  the  notice  of  anyone  with  whom  I  have  talked  on  the  subject.  In  most  camps  the  psychological  exam- 
iners issue  literature  on  the  subject,  and  it  is  my  opinion  that  rather  more  is  claimed  by  them  than  the  case  justifies, 
and  it  is  a  well-known  fact  that  many  surgeons  of  the  Army,  and  particularly  the  members  of  the  psychiatric  boards, 
are  not  in  accord  with  the  claims  of  the  psychological  examiners,  and  the  expression  of  their  opinions  weakens  the 
value  of  these  examinations  with  the  service. 

I  would  suggest  that  the  War  Department  issue  a  memorandum  explaining  briefly  the  purposes  of  psychological 
examinations  and  what  the  results  of  such  examinations  indicate,  and  that  some  definite  system  be  adopted  as  to  the 
ratings  given  those  examined,  and  that  this  be  published.  There  seem  to  be  both  alphabetical  and  numerical  ratings 
at  the  present  time,  for  one  sees  a  rating  of  A,«B,  C,  on  an  enlisted  man's  card,  and,  for  example,  a  192  on  an  officer's 
card,  and  most  officers  do  not  know  what  one  or  the  other  may  mean. 

I  believe  the  service  should  be  informed  very  definitely  that  the  psychological  test  is  the  measure  of  a  man's  intel- 
lectual level  at  the  time  of  examination,  and  that  if  a  man  be  in  a  different  physical  or  mental  condition,  the  results 
might  differ  and  that  these  examinations  deal  with  one  quality  only,  that  is  mentality,  and  do  not  show  that  a  man 
has  the  essential  attributes  of  character,  leadership,  etc.,  that  are  requisites  in  a  good  noncommissioned  officer. 

In  connection  with  these  examinations  I  might  mention  that  I  once  heard  a  very  able  psychiatrist,  now  in  the 
service,  say  that  certain  psychological  examinations  that  he  had  seen  conducted  were  not  of  value  because  the  psy- 
chological examiners  left  this  work  to  enlisted  men,  who  were  not  capable  of  observing  those  being  examined,  and  what 
was  put  down  on  paper  was  all  that  was  considered.  This  gentleman  stated  to  me  that  for  the  past  six  years 
in  his  private  practice  he  had  used  the  psychological  test  in  making  a  diagnosis,  and  that  the  subject's  behavior  and 
actions  during  the  test  were  quite  as  indicative  of  his  intelligence  as  was  what  was  placed  on  his  paper,  and  that 
in  the  psychological  test  held  in  the  Army  this  factor  is  greatly  neglected. 

I  have  been  convinced  for  a  long  time  that  with  our  large  number  of  new  officers  these  tests  have  a  considerable 
value,  or  rather  would  have  if  the  tests  were  properly  conducted,  and  if  their  exact  meaning  were  made  known.  As 
the  matter  now  stands,  it  is  unsatisfactory,  for  it  neither  deserves  the  contempt  with  which  it  is  treated  on  the  part 
of  some,  or  the  belief  in  its  infallibility  which  is  held  by  others. 

The  ignorance  of  the  subject  on  the  part  of  the  average  officer  is  equaled  only  by  his  indifference  to  it. 

REPLY   (INDORSEMENT)   FROM   COMMANDING   OFFICER   OF   CAMP   BOWIE. 

(This  indorsement  returns  a  report  of  the  chief  psychological  examiner  with  approval.  The  report  is,  of  course, 
favorable,  and  recites  the  practical  uses  being  made  of  intelligence  ratings  in  that  camp.) 


112  MEMOIRS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES.  [Vol.xv, 

REPLY  (INDORSEMENT)    FROM   COMMANDING   OFFICER   OF   CAMP   DIX. 

The  continuance  of  these  psychological  examinations  by  psychological  officers  is  not  recommended.  They  are 
expensive  and  consume  considerable  time.  Few  cases  are  discovered  by  the  psychological  officers  which  would  not 
be  found  by  the  neuro-psychiatric  board,  regimental  medical  officers,  or  company  officers. 

Because  of  the  purely  mechanical  nature  of  these  examinations  and  the  lack  of  personal  contact  they  are  of  little 
value  in  determining  whether  or  not  a  recruit  is  of  the  proper  material  to  be  transferred  into  an  efficient  soldier. 

It  is  thought  these  examinations  can  be  made  by  the  regular  medical  personnel. 

REPLY    (INDORSEMENT)    FROM    COMMANDING    OFFICER    OF   CAMP   DODGE. 

(Indorsement  forwards  a  report  of  the  chief  psychological  examiner,  giving  information  concerning  psychological 
service  in  the  camp.) 

REPLY'   (INDORSEMENT)    FROM   COMMANDING    OFFICER   OF  CAMP   GRANT. 

I  have  been  in  contact  with  this  work  too  short  a  time  to  give  a  valuable  opinion  on  the  value  of  the  psychological 
examination.  I  can  see,  however,  a  great  value  in  it,  and  concur  in  the  recommendations  of  the  camp  surgeon.  I 
especially  agree  with  him  in  that  the  enlisted  personnel  working  under  the  psychologists  be  neither  transferred  nor 
frequently  shifted,  as  it  disrupts  the  efficient  working  of  the  office. 

The  recommendations  of  the  camp  surgeon  referred  to  are  as  follows: 

Psychological  examinations  as  conducted  at  this  camp  have  been  of  the  greatest  value  to  the  service.  By  their 
group  examinations  they  locate  the  mental  defectives  and  materially  assist  the  neuro-psychiatrists  in  arriving  at 
diagnoses  of  certain  doubtful  cases.  The  special  work  they  are  doing  weeds  out  at  the  physical  examination  many 
of  the  men  who  would  later  have  to  be  discharged  on  surgeon's  certificate  of  disability. 

The  work  of  the  psychologists  is  of  very  great  value  to  the  personnel  division,  as  it  assists  them  in  determining 
whether  or  not  men  have  sufficient  mental  ability  for  positions  to  be  filled. 

It  is  suggested  that  the  psychologist  be  given  time  to  examine  the  new  draft  increment  before  they  come  to  the 
medical  boards.  This  is  now  being  done  here,  as  this  will  enable  the  neuro-psychiatrists  to  eliminate  many  low- 
grade  men;  also  that  the  enlisted  personnel  working  under  the  psychologist  be  not  transferred  nor  frequently  shifted, 
as  it  takes  weeks  of  training  to  accustom  a  man  to  do  this  work  satisfactorily. 

REPLY    (INDORSEMENT)    FROM   COMMANDING    OFFICER   OF   CAMP  HUMPHREYS. 

In  the  opinion  of  the  undersigned,  the  work  of  the  Division  of  Psychology  in  this  camp  has  been  very  satisfactory 
and  the  results  such  as  to  fully  justify  the  time  and  energy  required  to  make  the  examinations.  It  is  believed  that 
the  greatest  value  of  these  examinations  will  be  in  connection  with  the  bringing  of  large  groups  of  men  into  the  service 
for  periods  of  intensive  training,  as  the  psychology  test  affords,  in  the  shortest  possible  time,  a  means  of  grouping  the 
new  men  into  classes  based  upon  their  intelligence.  The  undersigned  has  no  suggestions  to  offer  at  this  time  looking 
to  the  improvement  or  the  increased  usefulness  of  this  work. 

REPLY    (INDORSEMENT)    FROM   COMMANDING    OFFICER   OF   CAMP   KEARNY. 

My  own  opinion,  based  upon  observation  at  three  camps,  is  that  organisation  commanders  believe  the  system  is 
all  right  when  they  secure  good  men,  and  all  wrong  when  they  receive  poor  men. 

I  believe  the  system  is  advantageous  on  the  whole  in  assigning  men,  in  the  first  instance,  and  picking  out  desirable 
men;  but  when  it  comes  to  the  less  desirable  and  less  educated  men  a»great  deal  of  dissatisfaction  results. 

Moreover,  some  men  who  pass  a  very  poor  examination  are  often  good  men  and  prove  valuable  in  practical  work; 
others  who  pass  fairly  good  tests  prove  of  little  value. 

I  am  of  the  opinion  where  haste  is  necessary  in  picking  out  and  assigning  men  the  psychological  examination  is 
of  much  assistance,  but  am  of  the  opinion  also  that  the  final  test  by  the  man's  actual  work  in  the  organization  is  the 
valuable  one. 

REPLY    (INDORSEMENT)    FROM   COMMANDING   OFFICER   OF   CAMP  LEE. 

My  opinion  as  to  the  value  of  psychological  examinations  at  this  camp  is  expressed  in  the  inclosed  memorandum 
prepared  at  my  request  by  the  camp  personnel  adjutant,  and  forwarded  by  me  to  the  chief  psychological  examiner 
under  date  of  September  5.  191S,  as  indicated. 

The  usefulness  of  the  work  of  the  psychological  examiner  would  probably  be  increased  if  all  cases  of  possible 
feeble-mindedness  among  enlisted  men  were  regularly  referred  to  him  for  diagnosis.  Such  cases  are  found  among 
prisoners  of  limited  intelligence,  men  recommended  for  assignment  to  development  battalions  whose  deficiency  may 
be  due  either  to  permanent  mental  incapacity  or  to  temporary  retardation,  men  recommended  for  rejection  or  dis- 
charge from  the  service  by  reason  of  feeble-mindedness. 

The  psychological  examiner  is  now  working  along  these  lines,  as  well  as  in  the  assigning  of  mental  ratings  to 
enlisted  men  in  general,  but  instructions  should  probably  be  issued  establishing  such  work  as  a  part  of  the  regular 
routine. 

The  memorandum  referred  to  follows : 

The  functions  of  the  psychological  examination  now  in  use  are  threefold: 
1.  To  aid  in  eliminating  the  mentally  unfit. 


No.i.]  PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  ARMY.  113 

2.  To  assist  the  personnel  adjutant  in  re-interviewing  and  selecting  men  of  special  qualifications  required  by  War 
Department  requisitions. 

3.  To  assist  the  organization  commanders  in  selecting  men  for  responsible  positions. 

In  a  replacement  camp  the  first  two  are  naturally  the  more  important  *  *  *.  As  high  as  3,000  men  may  be 
handled  in  one  day    *    *    *. 

The  newly  drafted  man  is  usually  examined  on  the  day  following  his  arrival.  Report  of  the  results  of  the  exami- 
nation is  promptly  made  to  the  personnel  adjutant  and  the  chief  medical  examiner  in  the  mustering  office.  Those  men 
whose  ratings  indicate  that  their  intelligence  is  so  low  as  to  render  them  unfit  for  military  service  are  given  a  special 
examination  by  the  examining  board  and  where  the  medical  examination  confirms  the  finding  of  the  psychological 
examiner,  the  drafted  man  is  discharged  from  draft  as  unfit.  In  this  way  the  psychological  examination  materially 
assists  the  medical  board  by  weeding  out  those  mentally  incompetent. 

Upon  receipt  of  the  reports  from  the  chief  psychological  examiner  the  personnel  adjutant  causes  the  grade  to  be 
entered  on  the  qualification  card.  In  selecting  men  for  the  various  requisitions  the  intelligence  rating  is  always  con- 
sidered and  greatly  assists  the  personnel  officer  in  making  his  selections.  On  the  re-interview  by  the  personnel  officer, 
as  in  case  of  the  physical  examination,  the  psychological  rating  is  never  taken  as  final  It  serves  as  a  guide  rather  than 
the  determining  factor  as  men  are  often  found  to  be  skilled  in  a  particular  line  and  qualified  to  fill  certain  requisitions 
in  spite  of  a  low  psychological  grade.    *    *    * 

The  officer  candidates  in  the  central  officers'  training  school  are  all  given  the  psychological  examination,  and  the 
grade  is  used  both  in  their  training  and  in  the  final  selection  of  those  qualified  for  commissions. 

The  psychological  examinations  of  recruits,  officer  candidates,  and  in  certain  instances  of  officers  have  been 
efficiently  handled  by  the  chief  psychological  examiner,  and  his  assistants.  It  is  believed  the  advantages  outlined 
render  the  examination  extremely  worth  while. 

REPLY  (INDORSEMENT)  FROM    COMMANDING    OFFICER   OF   CAMP   MEADE. 

I  am  of  the  opinion  that  the  psychological  service  is  an  excellent  thing. 

During  the  present  war  officers  are  thrown  in  contact  with  large  numbers  of  other  officers  and  enlisted  men,  to  whom 
they  are  complete  strangers.  It  is  impossible  to  quickly  form  a  knowledge  of  anyone's  ability.  Time,  personal  asso- 
ciation or  accident  may  show  that  a  certain  officer  or  enlisted  man  is  worthy  of  advancement.  We  are  constantly 
looking  for  intelligent  men.  The  psychological  test  gives  us  something  to  start  on,  and  I  have  used  these  psychological 
ratings  on  many  occasions  in  the  absence  of  a  knowledge  of  the  individual  concerned.  While  I  am  firmly  of  the  opinion 
that  the  psychological  rating  is  excellent  among  new  men.  it  does  not  take  the  place  of  the  final  judgment  formed  of 
an  individual  by  personal  contact  and  observation  under  difficult  conditions.  I  would,  therefore,  consider  it  of  the 
greatest  importance  for  a  just  test  of  new  men  to  subject  them  first  to  the  psychological  test.  The  final  decision  with 
reference  to  men  who  have  passed  such  test  will  depend  upon  the  result  of  the  judgment  formed  of  the  individual  after 
sufficient  time  had  elapsed  during  which  they  were  under  observation.  From  my  experience  in  different  camps,  I 
am  of  the  opinion  that  enlisted  men  who  rate  below  A  and  B  class  should  not  be  considered  as  candidates  for  the 
officers'  training  schools. 

REPLY  (INDORSEMENT)  FROM  COMMANDING  OFFICER  OF  CAMP  PIKE. 

I  regard  the  work  done  by  the  Psychological  Board  as  being  very  valuable.  I,  myself,  have  taken  this  examination 
to  satisfy  myself  of  its  efficacy. 

It  affords  a  quick  and  accurate  method  of  selecting  men  for  officers'  and  noncommissioned  officers'  training  schools, 
training  cadets  and  otherwise,  when  a  high  grade  of  intelligence  is  desired,  and  of  sorting  out  the  mentally  defective 
and  those  who  are  fitted  only  for  limited  service,  or  are  worthless  to  the  service. 

This  service  can  be  improved  by  bringing  it  into  close  cooperation  with  the  personnel  work  on  classification  and 
using  these  ratings  in  connection  with  skill  tests  and  occupational  ratings. 

REPLY  (INDORSEMENT)  FROM  COMMANDING  OFFICER  OF  CAMP  SEVIER. 

The  values  of  psychological  examining  in  this  camp  are : 

(a)  In  the  prompt  discovery  of  men  whose  superior  ability  recommends  their  advancement. 
(6)  In  the  prompt  segregation  in  Development  Battalions  of  intellectually  inferior  men  whose  inaptitude  would 
retard  the  training  of  the  unit. 

(c)  In  furnishing  measurements  of  mental  ability  which  may  be  used  to  equalize  the  mental  strength  of  the  various 
companies  and  regiments  within  a  given  arm  of  the  service. 

(d)  In  selecting  suitable  men  for  various  army  occupations  or  for  special  training  in  technical  schools. 

(e)  In  eliminating  the  feeble-minded. 

(f)  In  giving  a  prompt  reliable  index  of  a  man's  ability  to  learn,  to  think  quickly  and  accurately,  to  analyze 
situations,  to  maintain  a  state  of  mental  alertness,  and  to  comprehend  instructions. 

The  ways  of  improving  and  increasing  the  immediate  usefulness  of  this  new  kind  of  personnel  are: 

(a)  To  continue  the  work  along  established  lines,  so  that  our  new  Peace  Army  may  be  adequately  equalized  with 
regards  to  mental  strength  within  the  various  companies  and  regiments  within  a  given  arm  of  the  se-vice. 

(b)  To  combine  the  psychological  service,  as  now  conducted,  with  the  division  of  personnel  so  that  future  assign- 
ments, occupational  or  otherwise,  may  be  made  with  due  knowledge  of  the  mental  ability  of  the  individual  so  assigned. 


114  MEMOIRS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES.  [Vol.xv, 

(c)  To  provide  for  grade3  for  all  psychologists,  commissioned  and  enlisted,  commensurate  with  their  ability  and 
training,  compared  to  grades  given  in  other  branches  of  the  service. 

(d)  To  conduct  schools  of  instruction  for  all  officers  so  that  they  may  be  able  fully  to  understand  the  value  of 
mental  tests,  and  how  they  may  make  use  of  all  psychological  ratings  given. 

(e)  To  provide  more  adequate  quarters  for  psychological  service. 

REPLY  (INDORSEMENT)  PROM  COMMANDING  OFFICER  OP  CAMP  SHERMAN. 

[This  reply  invites  attention  to  a  report  from  the  Camp  Surgeon,  which  deals  fully  with  the  psychological  activities 
at  this  camp.     The  report  is  too  long  for  reproduction  here,  but  the  principal  points  may  be  given. 

The  report  submits  that  "the  variety  of  psychological  service  is  an  unqualified  indorsement  of  its  great  value." 
Psychological  ratings  are  effectively  used  (1)  by  the  examining  board  for  candidates  for  officers'  training  schools  who 
use  the  ratings  as  "the  most  reliable  index"  of  a  candidate;  (2)  in  officers'  training  schools  for  the  elimination  of  men 
of  average  intelligence;  (3)  in  the  usual  manner  for  draftees;  (4)  in  the  camp  of  conscientious  objectors,  where  the  rating 
indicates  the  manner  of  treatment  required  for  the  man, whether,  as  intelligent,  he  can  be  reasoned  with,  or,  as  less 
intelligent,  he  must  be  dealt  with  more  autocratically;  (5)  in  the  development  battalion  schools  in  connection  with 
organization,  the  selection  of  teachers,  and  the  classification  of  students;  (6)  at  the  base  hospital  for  both  officers  and 
enlisted  men;  (7)  among  the  medical  personnel  of  the  camp,  both  officers  and  enlisted  men;  (S)  in  the  Army  Nurse 
Corps  and  (9)  in  the  Student  Army  Nurse  Corps  for  the  selection  of  nurses;  (10)  with  questionable  women  engaged  in 
commercialized  vice,  whose  responsibility  and  disposition  require  determination;  (11)  in  the  advance  examination  of 
prospective  Y.  M.  C.  A.  workers;  (12)  in  the  examination  of  prisoners  and  drug  addicts;  (13)  in  constant  cooperation 
with  the  psychiatrists  in  the  determination  of  defectives  and  psychotic  cases;  and  (14)  in  the  examination  of  men  in 
the  Student  Army  Training  Corps  in  institutions  adjacent  to  camp.  "  There  is  no  line  of  activity  of  major  importance 
that  has  not  called  upon  the  psychological  service  for  assistance.  This  assistance  has  been  of  such  direct  help  and  of 
such  tried  value,  that  the  psychological  service  will  be  demanded  with  ever  increasing  insistence." 

The  report  makes  some  further  suggestion  in  line  with  increasing  the  scope  of  psychological  work  and  incloses  a 
detailed  report  upon  the  manner  in  which  the  treatment  of  conscientious  objectors  is  based  upon  the  intelligence  of 
the  men  as  determined  by  the  psychological  examination.] 

REPLY  (INDORSEMENT)  FROM  COMMANDING  OFFICER  OP  CAMP  WHEELER. 

Psychological  examinations  have  proven  very  useful  in  this  camp.  The  results  of  these  examinations  have  been 
used  in  numerous  ways,  and  have  separated,  for  instance,  the  combatant  from  the  noncombatant  colored  troops  by 
means  of  this  test,  using  as  a  standard  the  mentality  of  a  10-year-old  white  child  as  a  mimimum  of  intelligence  necessary 
for  fighting  troops.  In  the  general  assignment  of  17,000  men  received  in  this  camp  during  May  and  June,  after  first 
assigning  the  specialists,  we  used  the  psychological  test  as  a  basis  for  an  even  distribution  of  the  men  according  to 
intelligence,  so  that  no  unit  should  receive  an  undue  proportion  of  men  of  low  mentality. 

Section  5. — Varieties  of  j)sycliological  service. 

The  services  which  are  listed  and  briefly  described  below  were  rendered  by  psychologists 
under  the  direction  of  the  Division  of  Psychology  of  the  Surgeon  General's  Office.  The  problem 
of  the  division,  as  originally  conceived,  was  to  provide  for  the  examination  of  recruits  at  the 
larger  camps  in  this  country  and  to  report  the  results  of  examination  to  organization 
commanders,  medical  officers,  and  personnel  adjutants  for  their  use  and  information.  Soon, 
however,  other  originally  incidental  services  were  introduced.  The  preceding  sections  have  out- 
lined the  principal  service  and  touched  upon  some  auxilliary  services.  (See  especially  Chap- 
ter 3,  section  6,  and  section  4  of  this  chapter.)  It  is  now  the  intention  more  systematically  to 
outline  the  auxilliary  services  which  ultimately  came  to  be  rendered  to  a  variety  of  authorities 
and  for  a  variety  of  purposes. 

SERVICES  TO    ORGANIZATION   COMMANDERS. 

After  psychological  examination  an  alphabetical  list  of  the  men  of  an  organization  with 
their  corresponding  grades  was  made  on  special  report  blanks  (see  Report  of  Psychological 
Examination,  p.  290).  When  possible,  in  divisional  training  camps,  this  report  was  delivered 
in  person  and  discussed  with  the  company  commander  by  psychological  officers.  In  some 
camps  arrangements  were  made  at  an  early  date  whereby  psychological  grades  thus  reported 
should  be  entered  upon  service  records  under  "Remarks."  At  other  camps  this  practice  was 
forbidden  until  a  final  ruling  from  The  Adjutant  General  of  the  Army  was  obtained  which  defi- 
nitely permitted  such  entry.  A  mimeographed  explanation  of  grades  and  scores  (see  p.  424) 
was  attached  to  all  reports.  When  the  reports  were  not  delivered  personally  conferences  of 
ah  officers  of  the  regiment  were  sometimes  held.  Explanatory  talks  were  usually  made  when 
officers  or  officers'  training  camp  students  were  themselves  being  examined. 


no.i.]  PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  ARMY.  115 

Commanding  officers  in  divisional  and  replacement  units  found  the  ratings  of  considerable 
service  in  making  transfers  and  assignments  of  men  within  their  units.  Questionnaires  and 
other  means  of  securing  information  showed  that  the  following  were  the  chief  uses  made  of  the 
ratings  by  company  commanders : 

(a)  Assistance  in  the  organization  of  the  company  in  cases  where  many  new  recruits 
arrived  at  one  time. 

(b)  Assistance  in  the  selection  within  the  company  of  men  for  special  duties;  for  example, 
company  clerk,  orderly,  post  exchange  detail,  etc. 

(c)  As  a  check  upon  the  officers'  personal  estimate  of  men  and  to  direct  particular  attention 
to  men  whose  ability  had  previously  been  either  overlooked  or  overestimated,  Such  system- 
atic use  of  the  ratings  as  the  calling  in  of  all  A  and  B  men  for  personal  interview  by  the  cap- 
tain or  the  inspection  of  men  grouped  by  platoons  of  A,  B,  C,  D,  and  E  ratings  are  sometimes 
reported. 

(d)  Assistance  in  the  selection  of  noncommissioned  officers,  acting  noncommissioned  offi- 
cers, and  candidates  for  noncommissioned  officers'  schools.  In  many  camps,  this  use  either 
as  a  sole  or  partial  basis  for  such  selection,  was  made  obligatory  by  camp  order;  in  others,  such 
an  order  was  not  found  necessary;  but  in  no  camp,  so  far  as  is  known,  were  psychological  grades 
entirely  disregarded  in  making  such  selection. 

(c)  Assistance  in  the  selection  of  men  for  officers'  training  school.  Until  forbidden  to  do 
so  by  General  Orders,  No.  74,  the  commanding  officers  in  certain  camps  issued  orders  that  such 
candidates  must  have  A  or  B  or,  in  some  cases,  C  +  rating.  In  general,  however,  the  psycho- 
logical grade  was  considered  simply  as  one  of  the  chief  factors  to  be  taken  into  consideration. 
The  assistance  given  by  psychologists  to  officers' training  camp  officers  is  described  elsewhere 
(seep.  118). 

(/)  In  several  camps  special  training  groups,  based  upon  psychological  ratings,  were  formed; 
the  group  with  the  higher  rating  was  given  more  intensive  and  rapid  special  training.  A  major, 
who  assigned  new  recruits  in  his  battalion  into  four  groups,  the  A's,  the  B's,  the  C's,  and 
the  D's,  thus  describes  the  result  of  his  experiment: 

I  went  out  to  watch  the  platoons  that  were  classified  on  the  basis  of  your  intelligence  ratings.  I  was  interested  in 
seeing  whether  I  could  pick  out  the  different  platoons  and  classify  them  as  to  rank  on  the  basis  of  their  showing  on  the 
drill  field.  I  had  no  difficulty  in  picking  out  the  best,  the  medium  and  the  lowest  platoons.  However,  I  could  not 
distinguish  between  the  A  and  B  group;  both  of  them  seeming  to  execute  the  drill  equally  well.  This  may  have  been 
due  to  the  fact  that  the  B  group  was  small  in  comparison  to  the  other  three,  and  consequently,  had  received  more  in- 
dividual and  therefore,  better  training.  It  was  very  evident  that  there  was  an  apparent  difference  between  the  other 
three  groups.  If  I  should  have  graded  them,  I  would  have  given  the  D  and  D  —  group  50  per  cent;  the  C  + 
C  and  C—  group,  75  per  cent,  and  the  A  and  B  group  100  per  cent.  The  A  and  B  group  would  easily  learn  in  one 
week  what  it  would  take  the  D  and  D—  group  two  weeks  to  learn  with  the  same  amount  of  drilling  each  day.  My 
plan  was  to  rearrange  the  groups  at  the  end  of  the  first  week,  but  I  found  no  rearrangement  necessary  as  the  classifica- 
tion already  made  seemed  to  be  correct.  I  watched  the  platoons  in  order  to  pick  out  any  men  who  were  not  up  to 
the  standard  of  the  group,  but  could  not  detect  a  single  case  that  needed  reclassifying. 

This  exrjeriment  was  much  more  commonly  tried  in  development  battalions  (see  below). 
At  Camp  Gordon,  the  chief  psychological  examiner  spent  the  greater  portion  of  his  time  for 
several  months  advising  and  lecturing  to  officers  on  methods  of  training. 

(g)  Many  company  commanders  reported  that  psychological  rating  was  consulted  by  them 
and  found  of  assistance  in  deciding  what  should  be  done  in  disciplinary  cases.  Thus  a  man 
with  a  low  psychological  rating  might  be  presumed  not  to  have  understood  the  full  meaning 
of  the  offense  which  he  had  committed,  and  might  be  given  another  company  punishment  merely 
instead  of  being  brought  before  a  summary  court  martial.  Numerous  examinations  were  made 
at  the  request  of  company  commanders  in  cases  of  men  who  were  giving  trouble  through  appar- 
ent inability  to  learn,  through  misconduct  and  the  like,  and  special  recommendations  for  treat- 
ment  were  made  by  the  psychologist. 

(h)  The  uses  made  of  the  psychological  examination  of  officers  are  mentioned  elsewhere 
(see  pp.  22f).  It  needs  only  to  be  indicated  here  that  psychological  grades  were  commonly  con- 
sidered by  superior  officers  in  making  assignments  of  their  subordinates  to  special  duty,  in  recom- 
mending promotions,  in  courts-martial  and  in  examining  for  discharge  for  inefficiency. 


116  MEMOIRS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES.  [Vol.xv. 

SERVICES   IN    DEVELOPMENT   BATTALIONS. 

Development  battalions  were  first  authorized  in  May,  1918.  Their  functions  were  "to  re- 
lieve other  organizations  of  all  unfit  men;  to  conduct  intensive  training  with  a  view  to  devel- 
oping such  men;  promptly  to  rid  the  service  of  all  men  who,  after  thorough  trial  and  examination, 
are  found  physically,  mentally,  or  morally  incapable  of  performing  the  duties  of  a  soldier." 
Psychological  examinations  in  all  camps  resulted  in  the  recommendation  of  a  large  number  of 
men  to  such  organizations  on  account  of  mental  unfitness.  In  some  camps  orders  were  issued 
that  no  man  should  be  so  transferred  without  consideration  of  his  psychological  record.  Later 
examinations  inside  the  battalions  themselves  assisted  the  commanding  officer  and  the  medical 
officer  in  charge  in  the  classification  of  men  for  training  and  other  purposes.  In  at  least  eight 
camps  special  training  companies  in  the  battalion  were  formed  primarily  on  the  basis  of  psycho- 
logical grades. 

A  War  Department  circular  on  "the  instruction  in  English  of  soldiers  who  have  not  suf- 
ficient knowledge  of  the  language,"  July,  1918,  directed  that — 

Prom  time  to  time  the  Psychological  Division,  Sanitary  Corps,  will  be  called  upon  to  assist  to  the  best  interests 
of  the  service  in  determining  the  rate  of  progress  of  slow  learning  men  and  the  reasons  for  their  backwardness,  to  the 
end  that  all  practical  and  scientific  means  may  be  used  to  determine  the  best  training  that  should 
be  given  those  undeveloped  mentally  as  well  as  educationally. 

Accordingly  in  many  development  battalions  psychological  officers  became  to  all  intents 
and  purposes  educational  directors.  Numerous  requests  that  special  psychological  officers 
be  assigned  for  full  duty  in  development  battalions  had  to  be  refused  on  account  of  the  in- 
sufficient personnel  of  the  Division  of  Psychology.  At  the  request  of  Col.  Lentz  of  the  General 
Staff,  Capt.  Paterson  was  assigned  to  the  development  battalion  at  Camp  Meade  to  make  a 
special  study  of  the  methods  whereby  psychologists  could  be  of  special  service  in  development 
battalions.  Capt.  Basset  and  Lt.  Houser  were  sent  by  their  commanding  officers  to  the  school 
for  officers  of  development  battalions  held  at  Camp  Meade.  Afterwards  Capt.  Basset  was 
transferred  to  the  infantry  and  placed  in  command  of  the  development  battalion  at  Camp 
Logan. 

In  the  elimination  of  totally  unfit  men,  after  trial  in  the  development  battalion,  psychological 
recommendations  were  considered  even  more  carefully  and  given  greater  weight  than  they  had 
been  in  the  original  examination  of  recruits.  Thus  two  camps  reported  that  some  200  men 
previously  recommended  for  rejection  by  psychologists  and  nevertheless  accepted  for  service, 
ultimately  reached  the  development  battalions  and  were  quickly  discharged  for  mental  defi- 
ciency. 

SERVICES   TO    PSYCHIATRIC    EXAMINERS. 

Theoretically  the  mode  of  cooperation  between  psychologist  and  psychiatrist  was  laid  down 
in  a  joint  memorandum  signed  by  the  chiefs  of  the  two  divisions  involved  (see  pp.  87f.).  In 
practice,  however,  a  great  variety  of  methods  for  securing  this  cooperation  was  developed  in 
the  camps  to  meet  the  special  local  requirements  of  temporal  order  of  examination,  spatial 
location  of  examining  stations,  rush  requirements,  and  the  like.  The  details  of  such  methods 
are  further  described  in  the  section  on  camp  organizations  (pp.  62-87).  Typically  different 
methods,  for  example,  were  in  operation  at  Camps  Lee,  Dix,  and  Pike.  Psychologists  served 
with  recruit  examining  boards  in  nearly  all  camps,  and  with  disability  boards,  and  in  the  neuro- 
psychiatric  wards  of  base  hospitals.  The  fact  that  over  8,000  men,  as  the  result  of  individual 
psychological  examination,  were  recommended  for  special  psychiatric  examination  and  dis- 
charge indicates  the  magnitude  of  this  coordinated  service. 

SERVICES   TO    PERSONNEL   OFFICERS. 

From  the  beginning  of  psychological  examining,  grades  (or  grades  and  scores)  were 
reported  to  personnel  officers  for  entry  upon  qualification  cards.  Personnel  officers  used 
these  ratings  for  a  variety  of  purposes,  some  of  which  are  described  below. 

Before  the  trade  tests  were  established  psychological  grades  were  used  to  a  greater  or 
less  extent  as  a  partial  basis  for  occupational  ratings ;  thus,  for  example,  some  personnel  officers 


No.i.]  PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  ARMY.  117 

made  a  practice  of  giving  no  rating  of  "expert"  in  the  skilled  trades  except  in  connection 
with  a  psychological  grade  of  C  or  better.  Sometimes  in  filling  a  special  requisition  calling  for 
high-grade  men  of  a  given  trade,  they  selected  only  the  men  of  that  trade  having  the  highest 
psychological  ratings.  At  a  later  date  more  definite  information  as  to  the  probable  intelligence 
of  various  occupational  groups  was  furnished  to  the  Committee  on  Classification  of  Personnel 
by  the  psychologists  (see  pp.  819ff.).  One  psychologist  from  the  division,  Maj.  Hayes,  was 
assigned  to  the  trade  tests  laboratory  at  Newark  to  assist  in  the  development  and  standard- 
ization of  trade  tests. 

In  numerous  cases,  where  requisitions  called  for  the  transfer  to  another  camp  of  negro 
recruits  capable  of  becoming  noncommissioned  officers  or  of  filling  other  positions  of  special 
responsibility,  personnel  officers  made  their  selection  solely  on  the  basis  of  psychological  rating. 
Occupational  qualifications  were  often  of  no  significance  in  these  cases  since  so  large  a  per- 
centage of  the  men  were  farmers.  Dependence  was  frequently  placed  upon  the  ratings  in 
the  assignments  to  stevedore  regiments,  pioneer  infantry,  labor  battalions  and  the  like. 
Psychological  ratings  were  commonly  used  by  personnel  adjutants  and  commanding  officers 
as  a  check  upon  the  appropriateness  of  assignments  of  men  to  development  battalions.  Not 
only  were  psychologists'  recommendations  for  special  assignment  closely  followed  in  most 
camps,  but  the  ratings  were  sometimes  also  used  to  prevent  too  numerous  assignments;  thus, 
in  several  camps  where  organization  commanders  were  considered  overzealous  in  raising  the 
standard  of  their  organization  by  such  transfer,  orders  were  issued  from  headquarters  that 
no  man  should  be  transferred  as  inapt  without  consideration  of  his  psychological  rating  or 
in  some  cases  without  joint  recommendation  of  transfer  by  psychologist  and  summary  court 
officer. 

Use  of  psychological  grades  in  the  balancing  of  mental  strength  of  organizations  has  been 
mentioned  in  the  account  of  the  examining  at  Camp  Lee  in  the  fall  of  1917  (Part  II).  More 
intensive  and  systematic  application  of  this  principle  was  made  later  in  several  camps.  (See 
camp  organization  at  Camps  Kearny,  Pike,  Logan,  and  Cody.)  The  similar  practice  of  assign- 
ing remainders  from  the  depot  brigade  to  special  organizations  such  as  antiaircraft  and  other 
machine  gun  battalions,  artillery  parks,  and  the  like,  after  occupational  needs  of  these  organ- 
izations had  been  satisfied,  was  even  more  common.  In  several  camps  psychological  examina- 
tions were  made  a  final  part  of  the  special  examination  to  determine  fitness  for  overseas  duty. 

SERVICES  TO  JUDGE  ADVOCATES. 

As  mentioned  above,  psychological  ratings  were  sometimes  consulted  by  company  com- 
manders in  considering  cases  of  misconduct  before  court-martial  charges  should  be  made. 
Either  independently  or  in  connection  with  psychiatrists  many  offenders  were  given  a  special 
psychological  examination  to  furnish  courts-martial  with  evidence  as  to  the  responsibility  of 
an  accused.  In  several  camps  all  stockade  prisoners  were  examined  as  a  matter  of  routine. 
Capt.  Norton  and  Lieuts.  Folsom  and  Lincoln  were  detailed  for  some  months  to  assist  in  a 
complete  mental  and  social  survey  of  the  entire  prisoner  population  at  Fort  Leavenworth 
Disciplinary  Barracks.  By  order  of  the  Secretary  of  War  all  conscientious  objectors  were 
given  special  psychological  examination.  A  summary  of  the  results  of  these  examinations  is 
presented  elsewhere  in  this  report  (see  pp.  799ff.). 

SERVICES  TO  THE  MORALE  BRANCH  OF  THE  GENERAL  STAFF. 

Activities  of  the  Division  of  Psychology  played  an  important  part  in  bringing  about  the 
organization  of  morale  work.  The  chief  of  the  division  used  every  opportunity  to  promote 
interest  in  recommendations  submitted  by  Col.  E.  L.  Munson  to  the  Surgeon  General  relative 
to  "the  need  for  a  systematic  plan  for  the  psychological  stimulation  of  troops  in  promoting 
fighting  efficiency."  To  this  end  he  organized  two  conferences  for  the  discussion  of  the 
problem  of  controlling  morale,  and  in  addition  provided  members  of  the  General  Staff  with 
pertinent  information. 

As  commanding  officer  of  the  medical  officers'  training  camp  at  Fort  Oglethorpe,  Ga., 
Col.  Munson  later  had  opportunity  to  put  his  ideas  into  effect.     Under  his  instructions  Maj. 


118  MEMOIRS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES.  [Vol.xv, 

Foster,  Capt.  Frost,  and  Lieut.  Anderson  prepared  plans  for  systematic  morale  work  in  the 
detention  camp  at  Camp  Greenleaf,  and,  with  the  assistance  of  eidisted  men  of  the  psychologi- 
cal service,  School  of  Military  Psychology,  organized  practical  service  for  the  camp.  Subse- 
quently this  work  was  extended  throughout  Camp  Greenleaf. 

SERVICES   TO   THE    COMMITTEE    ON    EDUCATION   AND   SPECIAL   TRAINING. 

Majs.  Terman  and  Yoakum  were  in  succession  employed  as  psychologists  by  the  Com- 
mittee on  Education  and  Special  Training  of  the  War  Department.  In  October,  1918,  this 
committee  requested  the  cooperation  of  the  Division  of  Psychology  in  securing  mental  ratings 
of  members  of  the  Student  Army  Training  Corps,  to  serve  as  partial  basis  for  their  admission, 
educational  guidance,  and  assignment.  Permission  was  given  for  the  use  of  the  alpha  examin- 
ation, and  arrangements  M*ere  made  for  administering  the  tests  under  direction  of  faculty 
members  and  with  supervision  of  psychological  officers  who  should  be  temporarily  assigned 
for  the  work  until  others  could  be  commissioned.  The  armistice  prevented  the  extension  of 
testing  to  the  209  schools  which  stated  their  desire  to  use  the  tests.  Only  11  Student  Army 
Training  Corps  miits  have  reported  results  fully.  In  104  others,  reports  are  either  incomplete 
or  indicate  that  the  tests  will  be  used  later.  The  total  number  of  students  in  the  colleges 
who  were  given  the  testis  11,500  and  includes  the  Students'  Army  Training  Corps,  Preserve 
Officers'  Training  Corps,  and  men  and  women  in  the  colleges  and  normal  schools. 

SERVICE   THROUGH    SPECIAL    EXAMINATION. 

In  addition  to  examination  of  the  groups  mentioned  in  the  previous  paragraphs,  numerous 
special  examinations  have  been  made,  usually  by  special  request  to  the  division.  Candidates 
of  the  third  officers'  training  camp,  some  14,000  in  number,  were  given  the  examination  in 
February,  1918,  by  examiners  detailed  for  the  purpose  from  the  four  original  camps.  Examina- 
tion a  was  used.  Examinations  of  candidates  at  later  officers'  training  camps  were  conducted 
by  the  chief  psychological  examiners  at  the  camps  involved.  In  the  fourth  and  later  series 
examination  alpha  was  used.  At  later  periods  the  tests  served  as  'assisting  guides'  in  mak- 
ing final  selections  for  commissions. 

Other  special  examinations  were  made  as  follows:  Candidates  for  commissions  in  the  per- 
sonnel schools  at  Camp  Meigs  and  elsewhere;  civilian  applicants  for  commission  in  the  Quarter- 
master Corps  at  Camps  Bowie  and  Sherman  and  in  the  Intensive  Service  Course  at  Camp  Meigs; 
officers  and  civilian  staff  of  the  office  of  the  Quartermaster  General  at  Washington;  aviation 
candidates  at  Camp  Jackson;  the  chaplains'  school  at  Camp  Taylor;  the  Army  Nurse  Corps  at 
Camps  Kearny,  Lee,  Logan,  and  Sherman ;  the  civilian  personnel  of  the  Civil  Service  Commission 
in  Washington;  soldier  hospital  attendants  at  St.  Elizabeth's  Hospital  for  the  Insane,  Wash- 
ington; mental  cases  at  the  port  of  debarkation  at  Newport  News;  personnel  of  the  Field  Signal 
Service  at  Camp  Alfred  Vail,  N.  J. ;  secretaries  of  the  Young  Men's  Christian  Association  and  of 
the  Knights  of  Columbus  at  Camps  Sherman,  Taylor,  Travis,  and  elsewhere;  191  German  war 
prisoners  at  Camp  Sherman,  and  the  war  prison  barracks  guard  at  Fort  Oglethorpe;  prostitutes 
in  cities  near  Camps  Dix,  Greenleaf,  Hancock,  Newport  News,  Sherman,  and  Travis. 

SERVICES  THROUGH    DEVELOPMENT   OF   SPECIAL   METHODS. 

At  Camp  Lewis  practical  methods  were  devised  by  psychologists  to  demonstrate  the  part 
played  by  trigger  squeeze  and  breathing  in  determining  accuracy  and  improvement  in  rifle 
practice.  Complete  account  of  the  method  is  impossible  in  this  place,  but  the  following  state- 
ment from  the  colonel  of  an  infantry  regiment  who  used  the  devices  will  make  clear  the  chief 
points: 

These  devices  accomplish  the  following: 

(a)  They  demonstrate  ocularly  the  manner  in  which  a  man  aiming  a  rifle  breathes,  whether  he  is  taking  a  full 
breath,  or  breathes  irregularly. 

(6)  They  demonstrate  ocularly  the  manner  in  which  a  man  pulls  the  trigger,  whether  by  a  squeeze  or  jerk;  i.  e., 
the  manner  of  pulling  the  trigger  at  all  stages  of  the  aiming  and  releasing  of  the  firing  pin. 


No.i.]  PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  ARMY.  119 

This  possesses  the  following  value  in  the  instruction  of  the  rifleman: 

(a)  It  enables  the  instructor  to  see  the  errors  in  breathing  and  aiming  at  once. 

(b)  It  enables  the  rifleman  to  see  his  own  errors. 

(c)  It  enables  both  instructor  and  rifleman  to  see  when  those  errors  have  been  corrected. 

(d)  Prom  the  foregoing  it  enables  the  instructor  to  decide  when  the  recruit  is  proficient  in  aiming,  breathing,  and 
trigger  squeezing,  and  prepared  to  pass  on  to  instruction  in  firing  the  rifle. 

(e)  A  practical  test  in  breathing  and  trigger  pull  may  be  prescribed  and  determined  by  means  of  this  device. 

At  Camp  Upton  formal  tests  of  ability  to  understand  and  speak  the  English  language  were 
developed  for  the  purpose  of  determining  what  men  could  not  grasp  (without  special  training  in 
language)  instruction  in  military  drill.  The  tests  gave  measures  of  ability  in  five  grades  on  a 
scale  from  0  to  45  in  the  individual  test  and  from  0  to  30  in  the  group  test.  The  individual 
examination  involved  verbal  answers  to  a  set  of  questions  graded  in  difficulty,  and  upon  per- 
formance of  directions  similarly  graded.  In  the  group  examination  the  score  depended  upon  the 
following  of  graded  directions  in  connection  with  a  series  of  pictures.  The  individual  examina- 
tion required  on  the  average  about  5  minutes,  and  the  group  test  about  10  minutes. 

At  Camp  Sherman  certain  tests  to  assist  in  selection  were  suggested  by  the  chief  psycho- 
logical examiner  and  made  part  of  the  qualifications  of  enlisted  men  considered  for  intelligence 
work.  Beside  the  psychological  test  those  adopted  were  suited  to  measure  discrimination  of 
minute  movements,  localization  of  light,  and  deductive  reasoning. 

At  Camp  Jackson  the  chief  psychological  examiner  assisted  in  the  standardization  of 
educational  tests  used  to  measure  progress  and  ability  in  the  Field  Artillery  Replacement  Depot. 
When  the  armistice  came  he  was  engaged,  by  request  of  the  commanding  general,  in  developing 
further  tests  for  the  special  selection  and  measurement  of  artillerists. 

MISCELLANEOUS    SERVICES. 

Minor  services  too  numerous  to  mention  were  rendered  by  the  Division  to  governmental 
and  civilian  agencies  concerned  either  directly  or  indirectly  with  the  war,  and  to  industrial  and 
educational  institutions,  in  order  that  the  practical  values  of  methods  of  mental  measurement 
might  be  widely  demonstrated  and  the  methods  rapidly  perfected.  In  return  for  these  services 
the  Division  of  Psychology  received  valuable  assistance  from  many  sources  in  accumulating  data 
for  the  revision  of  methods  and  the  evaluation  of  results. 


MATERIALS  OF  EXAMINATION. 


CHAPTER   5. 

PROVISION  OF  MATERIALS  FOR  PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING 


During  the  preofficial  period  of  work  on  methods,  printed  materials  and  equipment  for  the 
preliminary  trial  of  examining  were  manufactured.  These  included  200  copies  of  the  Exam- 
iner's Guide,  some  10,000  examination  blanks,  and  such  simple  examining  apparatus  as  was 
required  by  four  stations.  When  the  Army  accepted  psychological  methods  for  official  trial 
the  unused  balance  of  these  materials  was  turned  over  to  the  War  Department  for  use  in  the 
cantonments. 

The  task  of  designing,  manufacturing,  and  distributing  the  necessary  equipment  for  the 
examining  of  mdlions  of  soldiers  was  so  complex  and  difficult  that  it  required  practically  the 
entire  time  of  one  officer  throughout  the  period  of  work.  The  difficulties  were  increased  by 
revision  of  methods,  the  introduction  of  new  methods,  and  unavoidable  delays  ha  manufac- 
turing and  distribution. 

There  follow  in  order  the  materials  manufactured  (a)  for  the  instruction  of  examiners  in 
the  conduct  of  methods,  (b)  blanks  for  group  examinations,  (c)  blanks  for  individual  examina- 
tions, (d)  report  cards  and  blanks,  (e)  apparatus  for  group  examining,  (/)  apparatus  for  indi- 
vidual examining,  and,  finally,   (g)  supplementary  materials  for  staff  equipment  in  the  field. 

(a)  Examiner's  Guide: 

Original  edition,  July,  1917,  Albany,  N.  Y.,  200  copies;  first  revision,  September  4,  1917,  Washington, 
D.  C,  500  copies  (reprinted  on  pp.  123-153;  second  revision,  September  1,  1918,  Government  Print- 
ing Office,  1,200  copies  (reprinted  on  pp.  153-199). 
(6)  Group  examination  blanks: 

For  segregation  (pp.  279-280;  347  ft".);  literacy  test  (reprinted,  pp.  279-280),  September  4,  1917;  160,000 
(four  forms). 

For  literates:  Group  examinations  a  and  6  (reprinted,  pp.  201-218);  September  4,  1917;  200,000  (five 
forms,  A  to  E).  Group  examination  alpha  (reprinted,  pp.  219-234;  January  19. 1918, 10.000  (form  5); 
February  11,  1918,  500,000  (forms  5  to  9);  May  4,  1918,  500,000  (forms  5  to  9);  June  20,  1918,  1.000.000 
(forms  5  to  9);  July  24,  1918,  1,000,000  (forms  5  to  9). 

For  illiterates:  Group  examination  beta  (reprinted,  pp.  235-258);  January  11,  1918,  5,000  (preliminary 
form);  March  8,  1918,  100,000  (form  0);  May  4,  1918,  125,000  (form  0);  June  13,  1918,  125,000 
(form  0);  June  20,  1918,  300,000  (form  0);  July  24,  1918,  500,000  (form  0). 

(c)  Individual   examination  blanks: 

Individual  examination,  preliminary  form  (reprinted,  pp.  260-266);  September  4,  1917,  60,000. 

Point  Scale  examination  (reprinted,  pp.  268-270):  February  8, 1918,  20,000;  May  4, 1918,  30,000;  July  19, 

1918,  100,000. 
Stanford -Binet  examination  (reprinted,  pp.  271-274);  February  11,  1918,  20.000;  May  4,  1918,  25,000; 

July  19,  1918,  100,000. 
Performance  Scale  examination  (reprinted,  pp.  275-278);  February  23, 1918,  20,000;  May  4,  1918,  25,000; 

July  19,  1918,  100,000. 

(d)  Psychological  records  and  reports: 

Psychological  record,  individual  cards  (reprinted,  pp.  2S6,  289);  September 4, 1917, 16,0,000;  April  4, 1918, 
20,000;  May  4,  1918,  1,000,000;  June  20,  1918,  2.000,000;  July  24,  1918,  1,500,000. 

Call  list  for  individual  psychological  examination  (reprinted,  p.  287);  September  4,  1917,  6,000. 

Report  of  psychological  examination  (reprinted,  p.  287);  September  4,  1917,  6,000;  March  1, 1918,  20,000; 
May  4,  1918,  30,000;  June  20,  191S,  50,000;  July  24,  1918,  200,000. 

Summary  of  psychological  examinations  (reprinted,  p.  288);  September  4,  1917,  1,000. 

120 


No.  1.] 


PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  ARMY. 


121 


(c)  Group  examining  materials: 

Beta  outfit  (blackboard  and  frame),  March  15,  1918,  30;  May  14,  1918,  30. 
(/)  Individual  examining  materials: 

Stanford-Binet,  February  15,  1918,  500  sets;  May  13,  1918,  500  sets. 

Point  Scale,  February  15,  1918,  500  sets;  May  13,  1918,  500  sets. 

Ship  test  (Performance  Scale,  test  1);  February  16,  1918,  200  (100  additional  blocks);  May  14,  1918,  200 
(100  additional  blocks). 

Manikin  (Performance  Scale,  test  2);  February  16,  1918,  200;  May  13,  1918,  200. 

Feature  profile  (Performance  Scale,  test  2);  February  16,  1918,  200;  May  13,  1918,  200. 

Cube  imitation.     (Performance  Scale,  test  3);  February  16,  1918,  200;  May  13,  1918,  200. 

Cube  construction  (Performance  Scale,  test  4);  February  16,  1918,  200;  May  13,  1918,  200. 

Form  board  (Performance  Scale,  test  5);  February  16,  1918,  200;  May  13,  1918,  200. 

Picture  completion  (Performance  Scale,  test  10);  February  16,  1918, 100;  May  13, 1918,  300. 

Picture  arrangement  (Performance  Scale,  test  9);  January  23,  1918,  1,000  sets. 
(g)  Supplementary  materials  for  each  staff  in  the  field : 

Six  gross  lead  pencils;  three  pencil  sharpeners;  two  typewriters;  two  typewriter  tables;  one  chest  of  tools. 

With  the  development  and  introduction  of  three  different  methods  of  individual  examining 
and  of  a  special  procedure  for  the  group  examining  of  illiterates  it  became  necessary  for  the  staff 
of  the  Division  of  Psychology  to  design  and  direct  the  manufacture  of  numerous  items  of  equip- 
ment, of  which  the  principal  ones  have  been  listed  above.  This  work  was  accomplished  expedi- 
tiously and  at  very  reasonable  cost  through  the  patriotic  service  of  various  firms  and  with  the 
generous  assistance  of  Dr.  Healy,  who  permitted  the  unrestricted  use  of  his  revised  picture 
completion  test.  The  Houghton-Mifflin  Co.  also  permitted  the  manufacture  for  army  use  of 
the  Stanford-Binet  materials  and  the  printing  of  a  special  form  of  record  blank. 

One  of  the  principal  sources  of  embarrassment  to  the  division  was  delay  in  transportation. 
It  was  foreseen  that  materials  would  have  to  be  manufactured  in  large  quantities  if  shortages 
were  to  be  avoided  but  it  was  also  foreseen  that  methods  would  necessarily  undergo  radical 
revision  which  would  probably  render  old  materials  useless.  The  staff  consequently  had  to 
compromise,  taking  some  risk  of  shortage  together  with  some  risk  of  waste. 

Since  they  are  important  documents  for  further  scientific  procedures,  as  well  as  for  historical 
purposes,  both  the  first  and  the  second  revisions  of  the  Examiner's  Guide  and  all  of  the  exami- 
nation blanks  and  report  forms  are  reproduced  in  this  volume  (pp.  123  to  199). 

In  March,  1919,  the  Supply  Division  of  the  Office  of  the  Surgeon  General  recommended  the 
sale  of  all  surplus  psychological  materials,  with  the  exception  of  certain  items  and  quantities 
reserved  for  the  use  of  the  permanent  Army.  A  hst  of  these  materials  with  their  approximate 
cost  to  the  Army  follows: 


Group  examination  alpha  blanks 

Group  examination  beta  blanks 

Psychological  record  cards 

Report  of  psychological  examination  blanks 

Performance  Scale  examination  blanks 

Point  Scale  examination  blanks 

Stanford-Binet  examination  blanks 

Beta  outfits 

Picture  completion  tests 

Ship  tests 


Cost. 


SO.  65 

100 

.65 

100 

.05 

100 

.20 

100 

.50 

100 

.50 

100 

.50 

100 

28.50 

Outfit. 

6.00 

Set. 

1.25 

Set. 

Cost. 


I 


Manikin  and  feature  profile  tests 

Dearborn  form  boards - 

Weighted  cubes 

Cube  construction  sets 

Cube  imitation  sets 

Picture  arrangement  sets 

Point  Scale  materials 

Stanford-Binet  materials 

Stenquist  sets 


Lot. 


1.60 

Set 

2.50 

Set 

1.25 

Set 

1.00 

Set 

.50 

Set 

.25 

Set 

.an 

Set 

.an 

Set 

2.00 

Set 

There  is  a  general  belief  that  the  War  Department  paid  extravagantly  for  its  materials 
and  service.  Precisely  the  opposite  is  true  in  the  case  of  psychological  examining,  since  the 
printed  materials  and  examining  equipment  were  purchased  at  figures  far  below  those  usually 
paid  by  civilians,  and  since  highly  trained  examiners  worked  in  the  Army  on  salaries  which 
averaged  considerably  less  than  their  civilian  salaries. 

Estimates  of  the  cost  of  examining  soldiers  indicate  that  during  the  preliminary  period  of 

work  in  four  National  Army  cantonments  psychological  examination  cost  approximately  30 

cents  per  man.     Subsequently  the  introduction  of  new  methods  and  the  growth  of  personnel 

increased  the  amount  to  approximately  50  cents.    In  making  this  estimate  the  cost  of  space  for 

121435°— 21 9 


122  MEMOIKS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES.  [vol.xv, 

psychological  examining  and  the  insurance  or  disability  claims  of  psychological  personnel  have 
been  necessarily  omitted. 

The  two  editions  of  the  Examiner's  Guide  reproduced  in  the  following  pages  are  designated 
respectively  as  "Examiner's  Guide,  first  revision,"  and  "Examiner's  Guide,  second  revision." 
The  first  of  these  differs  from  the  original  Examiner's  Guide  published  in  July,  1917,  only  in 
the  respects  indicated  on  p.  325. 

In  addition  to  the  first  and  second  revised  editions  of  the  complete  guide,  the  specially  pre- 
pared guide  for  use  in  the  Students'  Army  Training  Corps  is  also  reproduced  in  part  (pp.  200 
to  201). 

The  examination  blanks  and  report  forms  used  in  connection  with  the  Examiner's  Guide 
are  reproduced  on  pages  202  to  292;  materials  and  procedures  are  pictured  in  plates  5  to  21. 


Section  1. — Examiner's  guide,  first  revision. 

EXAMINER'S  GUIDE 

FOR  THE  PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINATION  OF  RECRUITS. 

FIRST  REVISION. 

[Prepared  especially  for  military  use  by  the  Subcommittee  on  Methods  of  Examining  Recruits  appointed  by  the  Psychology  Committee  of  the 
National  Research  Council.  Revised  by  direction  of  the  Surgeon  General  of  the  Army  and  printed  by  the  Medical  Department,  U.  S.  A., 
September,  1917.] 

INTRODUCTORY    EXPLANATIONS. 

1.  Object  of  the  tests. — (a)  To  sift  out  those  mental  defectives  who  are  not  qualified  for  military  service.     (6)  To 

discover  men  of  superior  ability  for  report  to  the  commanding  and  company  officers.  These  men  should  be 
considered  for  non-commissioned  officers  or  for  tasks  of  special  responsibility,  (c)  To  discover  men  with 
marked  special  skill. 

2.  Plan  of  the  xoork. 

(1)  Literacy  test:    Time,  5  to  10  minutes;  number,  50  to  80  men  in  a  group. 

(2)  Group  intelligence  examination  a:  Time,  40  to  50  minutes;  number,  50  to  80  men  in  a  group. 

(3)  Group  intelligence  examination  6,  for  those  who  react  slowly  in  (2) :    Time,  40  to  50  minutes;  number, 
any  number  up  to  80  in  a  group. 

(4)  Group  examination  for  skill:    Time,  30  to  40  minutes;  number,  10  to  25  men  in  a  group. 

(5)  Individual  examination,  for  intelligence,  skill,  or  both:    Time,  30  to  60  minutes;  number,  1  at  a  time. 
A  company  will  ordinarily  be  taken  in  three  groups  of  not  more  than  80  men  each.     The  order  of  procedure  is  as 

follows: 

(a)  A  group  of  not  more  than  80  men  will  report  to  the  chief  psychological  examiner,  at  a  room  designated  for  ex- 
aminations (1)  and  (2). 

(6)  The  literacy  test  is  given,  after  which  three  or  four  assistants  collect  the  literacy  test  blanks,  look  them  over 
quickly  (this  can  be  done  in  5  minutes  or  less),  and  send  those  who  have  shown  themselves  illiterates  directly  to  the 
group  examination  for  skill.     The  others  remain  for  test  (2). 

(c)  Those  making  an  unsatisfactory  score  in  group  intelligence  examination  a  will  report  (the  following  afternoon 
if  possible)  in  groups  of  not  more  than  80,  in  designated  room  for  group  intelligence  examination  6,  which  is  a  similar 
test  with  extended  time. 

(d)  Individuals  who  have  made  a  consistently  low  score  in  the  group  tests  will  report  by  appointment  at  individual 
examining  rooms.     It  is  estimated  that  not  over  3  to  5  per  cent  of  the  men  will  require  individual  examination. 

Summarizing:  All  men  take  (1),  and  either  (2)  or  (4).  Those  who  pass  in  (1),  take  (2)  immediately.  Those  who 
fail  in  (1),  go  directly  to  (4).  Those  who  fail  in  (2),  take  (3),  failing  in  (3),  they  take  (4);  failing  in  (4),  they  take  (5). 
Those  who  fail  in  (1)  and  (4)  also  take  (5). 

3.  Organization  and  routine. — The  value  of  the  work  and  the  amount  accomplished  will  depend  largely  upon  the 
efficient  organization  of  routine  procedure.     The  following  are  specially  important: 

(1)  Arrangements  should  insure  the  securing  of  men  for  group  or  individual  testing  without  loss  of  time. 

(2)  Test  blanks  should  be  scored  as  early  as  possible  after  a  test  is  taken,  so  that  individuals  who  fail  may  be  sum- 
moned promptly  for  additional  examination. 

(3)  The  data  for  each  individual  should  be  transferred  to  the  individual  filing  card  at  the  earliest  possible  date 
after  his  examinations  are  completed. 

LITERACY   TEST. 

This  is  given  to  all  men  at  the  time  they  are  assembled  for  group  intelligence  examination  a,  and  precedes  the  lat- 
ter. As  soon  as  the  men  are  seated  (group  of  not  more  than  80),  supply  each  with  a  literacy  test  blank  (blank  side  up) 
and  a  pencil.  After  the  materials  are  distributed  examiner  says:  "Turn  over  the  paper.  Read  what  it  says,  and  do 
what  it  tells  you  to  do.  Ask  no  questions.  You  will  have  3  minutes."  After  3  minutes  the  papers  are  collected  and 
quickly  looked  over  by  three  or  four  assistants  while  the  men  remain  seated.  This  should  not  require  more  than  3  to 
5  minuteB.  Those  who  have  filled  the  blanks  and  have  made  few  or  no  errors  in  line  3  should  remain  seated  for  group 
intelligence  examination  a.  Those  who  could  not  write  or  who  have  made  many  errors  in  lines  1  and  2  should  be  sent 
at  once  to  the  group  skill  tests. 

Coaching  is  prevented  by  using  literacy  blanks  A,  B,  C,  and  I)  in  miscellaneous  order. 

GROUP    INTELLIGENCE    EXAMINATION    a. 

This  is  taken  by  all  who  have  passed  the  literacy  test,  and  immediately  after  the  illiterates  have  been  transferred 
to  the  group  skill  test. 

In  giving  the  directions,  speak  rather  slowly,  distinctly,  and  with  proper  emphasis.  Expect  and  demand  perfect 
order  and  prompt  response  to  commands.     Say:     "This  is  an  examination  to  assist  in  finding  out  what  you  are  best 

123 


124  MEMOIRS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES.  [vol.xv, 

fitted  to  do  in  the  Army  (Navy).    I'm  going  to  pass  around  some  papers  now.    Don't  turn  the  pages  until  I  tell  you  to." 
Have  the  papers  distributed. 

When  all  the  men  are  supplied,  say:  "In  the  Army  (Navy)  you  often  have  to  listen  to  commands  and  then  carry 
them  out  exactly.  I  am  going  to  give  you  some  commands  to  see  how  exactly  you  can  carry  them  out.  Listen  closely. 
Do  what  I  tell  you  to  do  as  carefully  and  quickly  as  you  can.  Some  of  the  things  will  be  very  easy  for  you.  Some 
you  may  find  hard.     Ask  no  questions.     Attend  strictly  to  business.     Don't  watch  any  other  man  to  see  what  he  does. 

"Now,  on  the  page  before  you,  write  your  nanie  after  the  word  'Name.'  Write  your  first  name  first,  then  your 
middle  initial,  if  any,  and  your  last  name.     Take  time  to  write  very  plainly." 

After  name  has  been  written  say:     "Put  your  age  in  years  after  the  word  'Age.' 

"In  the  next  line  write  your  company,  battalion,  regiment,  and  division. 

"In  the  next  line  write  the  name  of  the  country  in  which  you  were  born.  If  you  were  not  born  in  the  United 
States  tell  next  the  number  of  years  you  have  lived  in  this  country.  After  'Race,'  write  the  word  'White.'  (In  ex- 
amining negro  troops  substitute  the  word  'Negro.') 

"In  the  next  line,  after  'Occupation,'  write  your  usual  work,  trade  or  business  (such  as  carpenter,  grocery  clerk, 
laborer,  farmer,  student). 

"Next  put  down  how  much  you  earned  a  week  before  you  entered  the  Army  (Navy). 

"  After  'Schooling'  draw  a  line  under  the  highest  grade  or  school  you  attended.  For  example,  if  the  highest  grade 
you  attended  was  the  fifth  grade,  draw  a  line  under  grade  5;  if  you  finished  the  second  year  in  the  high  school  or 
preparatory  school,  draw  a  line  under  high  school,  year  2,  etc.     (Explain  further  if  necessary.) 

"Look  at  your  papers.  Just  below  where  you  have  been  writing  there  are  several  sets  of  forms — squares,  circles, 
and  so  forth.    First  you  will  be  told  to  do  something  with  the  squares  at  1.  afterwards  with  the  circles  at  2,  and  so  on. 

"When  I  call  'attention,'  stop  instantly  whatever  you  are  doing  and  hold  your  pencil  up,  with  your  elbow  on  the 
table — so.  Don't  put  your  pencil  down  to  the  paper  until  I  say  'go.'  (Examiner  lowers  his  pencil.)  Listen  carefully 
to  what  I  say.  Do  just  what  you  are  told  to  do.  Ask  no  questions.  As  soon  as  you  are  through,  pencils  up.  Remem- 
ber, wait  for  the  word  'Go.'  L" 

N.  B. — Examiner:  Give  the  following  directions  very  distinctly  and  at  moderate  speed.  After  giving  the  com- 
mand "Attention,8'  the  examiner  should  always  notice  carefully  whether  all  pencils  are  up  and  never  proceed  until 
they  are.  This  is  especially  important  in  the  beginning.  Be  careful  not  to  pause  or  to  drop  the  voice  in  the  course  of 
the  compound  direction — e.  g.,  in  2,  before  the  words  "and  also."  Raise  your  pencil  whenever  you  say  "Attention." 
Lower  it  promptly  whenever  you  say  "Go. "  Be  careful  to  use  the  directions  for  test  1  that  fit  the  form  of  record  blank 
distributed. 

Test  l,form  A. 

1.  "Attention!  'Attention'  always  means  'Pencils  up!8  Look  at  1.  When  I  say  'Go'  (but  not  before),  make  a 
cross  in  the  largest  square — GO!B'     (Allow  not  over  3  seconds.) 

2.  "Attention!  Lookat2.  When  I  say 'Go' make  a  cross  in  the  first  circle  and  also  a  figure  1  in  the  third  circle — 
GO!B'     (Allow  not  over  5  seconds.) 

3.  "Attention!  Look  at  3.  When  I  say  'Go'  draw  a  line  from  circle  1  to  circle  4  that  will  pass  above  circle  2  and 
below  circle  3 — GO!B'     (Allow  not  over  5  seconds.) 

4.  "Attention!  Look  at  the  square  and  triangle  at  4.  When  I  say  'Go'  make  a  cross  in  the  space  which  is  in  the 
triangle  but  not  in  the  square,  and  also  make  a  figure  1  in  the  space  which  is  in  the  triangle  and  in  the  square — GO!  " 
(Allow  not  over  10  seconds.) 

5.  "Attention!  Look  at  5.  When  I  say  'Go'  make  a  figure  1  in  the  space  which  is  in  the  circle  but  not  in  the 
triangle  or  square,  and  also  make  a  figure  2  in  the  space  which  is  in  the  triangle  and  circle  but  not  in  the  square — 
GO!3'     (Allow  not  over  10  seconds.) 

fi.  "Attention!  Look  at  6.  When  I  say  'Go'  cross  out  each  number  that  is  more  than  20  but  less  than  30 — 
GO !  ■'     (Allow  not  over  15  seconds.) 

7.  "Attention!  Look  at  7.  Notice  the  three  circles  and  the  three  words.  When  I  say  'Go'  make  in  the  first 
circle  the  first  letter  of  the  first  word;  in  the  second  circle  the  first  letter  of  the  second;  word,  and  in  the  third  circle  the 
last  letter  of  the  third  word — GO!  "     (Allow  not  over  10  seconds.) 

8.  "Attention!  Look  at  8.  When  I  say  'Go'  put  in  the  second  circle  the  right  answer  to  the  question,  'How 
many  months  has  a  year?'  In  the  third  circle  do  nothing,  but  in  the  fourth  circle  put  any  number  that  is  a  wrong 
answer  to  the  question  that  you  just  answered  correctly — GO!  "     (Allow  not  over  10  seconds.) 

(N.  B. — Examiner:  In  reading  9  don't  pause  at  the  word  circle  as  if  ending  a  sentence.) 

9.  "Attention!  Look  at  9.  If  a  machine  gun  can  shoot  more  bullets  a  minute  than  a  rifle,  then  (when  I  say 
'Go')  put  a  cross  in  the  second  circle;  if  not,  draw  a  line  under  the  word  NO — GO  1 "     (Allow  not  over  10  seconds.) 

10.  "Attention!  Look  at  10.  When  I  say  'Go'  cross  out  the  letter  just  before  C  and  also  draw  a  line  under  the 
second  letter  before  H — GO!  "     (Allow  not  over  10  seconds.) 

"During  the  rest  of  this  examination  don't  turn  any  page  forward  or  backward  unless  you  are  told  to.  Now  turn 
over  the  page  to  test  2." 

Test  1,/ormB. 

1.  "Attention!  'Attention'  always  means  'Pencils  up!'  Look  at  1.  When  I  say  'Go'  (but  not  before)  make  a 
cross  in  the  smallest  square — GO !  "     (Allow  not  over  3  seconds.) 

2.  "Attention!  Look  at  2.  When  I  say  'Go'  make  a  cross  in  the  second  circle  and  also  a  figure  1  in  the  third 
circle — GO!  "     (Allow  not  over  5  seconds.) 


No.i.]  PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  ARMY.  125 

3.  "Attention!  Look  at  3.  When  I  say  'Go'  draw  a  line  from  circle  2  to  circle  5  that  will  pass  above  circle  3  and 
below  circle  4 — GO!"'     (Allow  not  over  5  seconds.) 

4.  "  Attention !  Look  at  the  square  and  triangle  at  4.  When  I  say  'Go'  make  a  cross  in  the  space  which  is  in  the 
square  but  not  in  the  triangle,  and  also  make  a  figure  1  in  the  space  which  is  in  the  triangle  and  in  the  square — GO!" 
(Allow  not  over  10  seconds. ) 

5.  "Attention!  Look  at  5.  When  I  say  'Go'  make  a  figure  1  in  the  space  which  is  in  the  triangle  but  not  in  the 
circle  or  square,  and  also  make  a  figure  2  in  the  space  which  is  in  the  square  and  circle  but  not  in  the  triangle— GO  I '' 
(Allow  not  over  10  seconds.) 

6.  "Attention!  Look  at  6.  When  I  say  'Go'  cross  out  each  number  that  is  more  than  30  but  less  than  40 — GO!  •' 
(Allow  not  over  15  seconds.) 

7.  "Attention!  Look  at  7.  Notice  the  three  circles  and  the  three  words.  When  I  say  'Go'  make  in  the  first 
circle  the  last  letter  of  the  first  word;  in  the  second  circle  the  last  letter  of  the  second  word;  and  in  the  third  circle  the 
third  letter  of  the  third  word — GO! "     (Allow  not  over  10  seconds.) 

8.  "Attention!  Look  at  8.  When  I  say  'Go'  put  in  the  second  circle  the  right  answer  to  the  question,  'How 
many  months  has  a  year?'  In  the  fourth  circle  do  nothing,  but  in  the  fifth  circle  put  any  number  that  is  a  wrong 
answer  to  the  question  that  you  just  answered  correctly — GO ! *'     (Allow  not  over  10  seconds.) 

(N.  B. — Examiner:  In  reading  9  don't  pause  at  the  word  circle  as  if  ending  a  sentence.) 

9.  "Attention!  Look  at  9.  If  a  regiment  is  bigger  than  a  company,  then  (when  I  say  'Go')  put  a  cross  in  the 
first  circle;  if  not,  draw  a  line  under  the  word  NO — GO!  "     (Allow  not  over  10  seconds.) 

10.  "Attention !  Look  at  10.  When  I  say  'Go'  cross  out  the  letter  just  before  D  and  also  draw  a  line  under  the  sec- 
ond letter  before  I — GO  I ' '     (Allow  not  over  10  seconds.) 

"  During  the  rest  of  this  examination  don't  turn  any  page  forward  or  backward  unless  you  are  told  to.     Now  turn 

over  the  page  to  test  2." 

Test  l,form  C. 

1.  "Attention!  'Attention'  always  means  'Pencils  up!'  Look  at  1.  When  I  say  'Go'  (but  not  before)  make  a 
cross  in  the  first  square — GO!  "     (Allow  not  over  3  seconds.) 

2.  "  Attention !  Look  at  2.  When  I  say  'Go'  make  a  figure  1  in  the  first  circle  and  also  a  cross  in  the  third  circle — 
GO!"'     (Allow  not  over  5  seconds.) 

3.  "Attention!  Look  at  3.  When  I  say  'Go'  draw  a  line  from  circle  3  to  circle  6  that  will  pass  above  circle  4  and 
below  circle  5 — GO  I  "     (Allow  not  over  5  seconds.) 

4.  "Attention I  Look  at  the  square  and  triangle  at  4.  When  I  say  'Go'  make  a  figure  1  in  the  space  which  is  in 
the  triangle  but  not  in  the  square,  and  also  make  a  cross  in  the  space  which  is  in  the  triangle  and  in  the  square — GO!  ■' 
(Allow  not  over  10  seconds.) 

5.  "Attention!  Look  at  5.  When  I  say  'Go'  make  a  figure  1  in  the  space  which  is  in  the  square  and  not  in  the 
circle  or  triangle,  and  also  make  a  figure  2  in  the  space  which  is  in  the  circle  and  triangle  but  not  in  the  square — GO!" 
(Allow  not  over  10  seconds.) 

6.  "Attention!  Look  at  6.  When  I  say  'Go'  cross  out  each  number  that  is  more  than  40  but  less  than  50 — GO!" 
(Allow  not  over  15  seconds.) 

7.  "Attention!  Look  at  7.  Notice  the  three  circles  and  the  three  words.  When  I  say  'Go'  make  in  the  first 
circle  the  first  letter  of  the  first  word;  in  the  second  circle  the  second  letter  of  the  second  word;  and  in  the  third  circle 
the  last  letter  of  the  last  word — GO!*'     (Allow  not  over  10  seconds.) 

8.  "Attention!  Look  at  8.  When  I  say  'Go'  put  in  the  first  circle  the  right  answer  to  the  question,  'How  many 
months  has  a  year?'  In  the  third  circle  do  nothing,  but  in  the  fourth  circle  put  any  number  that  is  a  wrong  answer 
to  the  question  that  you  just  answered  correctly — GO!''     (Allow  not  over  10  seconds.) 

(N.  B. — Examiner:  In  reading  9  don't  pause  at  the  word  circle  as  if  ending  a  sentence.) 

9.  "Attention!  Look  at  9.  If  a  battleship  is  larger  than  a  submarine,  then  (when  I  say  'Go')  put  a  cross  in  the 
third  circle;  if  not,  draw  a  line  under  the  word  NO-GO!"'     (Allow  not  over  10  seconds.) 

10.  "Attention!  Look  at  10.  When  I  say  'Go'  cross  out  the  letter  just  before  E  and  also  draw  a  line  under  the 
second  letter  before  H — GO!*'     (Allow  not  over  10  seconds.) 

"During  the  rest  of  this  examination  don't  turn  any  page  forward  or  backward  unless  you  are  told  to.    Now  turn 

over  the  page  to  test  2.8' 

Test  1,  form  D. 

1.  "Attention!  'Attention!'  always  means  'Pencils  up!'  Look  at  1.  When  I  say  'Go'  (but  not  before)  make  a 
cross  in  the  last  square — GOH'     (Allow  not  over  3  seconds.) 

2.  "Attention!  Look  at  2.  When  I  say  'Go'  make  a  figure  2  in  the  second  circle  and  also  a  cross  in  the  third 
circle — GO !3'     (Allow  not  over  5  seconds. ) 

3.  "Attention!  Look  at  3.  When  I  say  'Go'  draw  a  line  from  circle  1  to  circle  4  that  will  pass  below  circle  2 
and  above  circle  3 — GO!"'     (Allow  not  over  5  seconds.) 

4.  "Attention!  Look  at  the  square  and  triangle  at  4.  When  I  say  'Go'  make  a  figure  1  in  the  space  which  is  in 
the  square  but  not  in  the  triangle,  and  also  make  a  cross  in  the  space  which  is  in  the  triangle  and  in  the  square — GO!" 
(Allow  not  over  10  seconds.) 

5.  "Attention!  Look  at  5.  When  I  say  'Go'  make  a  figure  2  in  the  space  which  is  in  the  circle  but  not  in  the 
triangle  or  the  square,  and  also  make  a  figure  3  in  the  space  which  is  in  the  triangle  and  circle  but  not  in  the  square — 
GO!1"     (Allow  not  over  10  seconds.) 


126  MEMOIKS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES,  [vol.xv, 

6.  "Attention!  Look  at  6.  When  I  say  'Go'  cross  out  each  number  that  is  more  than  50  but  less  than  60 — GO! " 
(Allow  not  over  15  seconds.) 

7.  "Attention!  Look  at  7.  Notice  the  three  circles  and  the  three  words.  When  I  say  'Go'  make  in  the  first 
circle  the  last  letter  of  the  first  word;  in  the  second  circle  the  middle  letter  of  the  second  word;  and  in  the  third  circle  the 
first  letter  of  the  third  word — GO! ''     (Allow  not  over  10  seconds.) 

8.  "Attention!  Look  at  8.  When  I  say  'Go'  put  in  the  first  circle  the  right  answer  to  the  question,  'How  many 
months  has  a  year?'  In  the  second  circle  do  nothing,  but  in  the  fifth  circle  put  any  number  that  is  a  wrong  answer 
to  the  question  that  you  just  answered  correctly — GO!3'     (Allow  not  over  10  seconds.) 

(N.  B. — Examiner:  In  reading  9  don't  pause  at  the  word  circle  as  if  ending  a  sentence.) 

9.  "Attention!  Look  at  9.  If  taps  sound  in  the  evening,  then  (when  I  say  'Go')  put  a  cross  in  the  first  circle; 
if  not,  draw  a  line  under  the  word  NO — GO!8'     (Allow  not  over  10  seconds.) 

10.  "Attention!  Look  at  10.  When  I  say  'Go'  cross  out  the  letter  just  after  F  and  also  draw  a  line  under  the 
second  letter  after  I — GO!''     (Allow  not  over  10  seconds.) 

"During  the  rest  of  tliis  examination  don't  turn  any  page  forward  or  backward  unless  you  are  told  to.  Now  turn 
over  the  page  to  test  2." 

Test  1,  form  E. 

1.  "Attention!  'Attention.''  always  means  'Pencils  up!'  Look  at  1.  When  I  say  'Go'  (but  not  before)  make  a 
cross  in  the  second  square — GO!''     (Allow  not  over  3  seconds.) 

2.  "Attention!  Look  at  2.  When  I  say  'Go'  make  a  cross  in  the  first  circle  and  also  a  figure  1  in  the  last  circle — 
GO!*'     (Allow  not  over  5  seconds.) 

3.  "Attention!  Look  at  3.  When  I  say  'Go'  draw  a  line  from  circle  2  to  circle  5  that  will  pass  below  circle  3  and 
above  circle  4 — GO! "     (Allow  not  over  5  seconds.) 

4.  "Attention!  Look  at  the  square  and  triangle  at  4.  When  I  say  'Go'  make  a  figure  2  in  the  space  which  is  in 
the  triangle  but  not  in  the  square,  and  also  make  a  figure  3  in  the  space  which  is  in  the  square  and  in  the  triangle — 
GOM'     (Allow  not  over  10  seconds.) 

5.  "Attention!  Look  at  5.  When  I  say  'Go'  make  a  figure  2  in  the  space  which  is  in  the  triangle  but  not  in  the 
circle  or  square,  and  also  make  a  figure  3  in  the  space  which  is  in  the  square  and  circle  but  not  in  the  triangle — GO!" 
(Allow  not  over  10  seconds.) 

6.  "Attention!  Look  at  6.  When  I  say  'Go'  cross  out  each  number  that  is  more  than  60  but  less  than  70— GO8!" 
(Allow  not  over  15  seconds.) 

7.  "Attention!  Look  at  7.  Notice  the  three  circles  and  the  three  words.  When  I  say  'Go'  make  in  theirs' 
circle  the  third  letter  of  the  first  word;  in  the  second  circle  theirs*  letter  of  the  second  word;  and  in  the  third  circle  the 
first  letter  of  the  third  word — GO!9'     (Allow  not  over  10  seconds. ) 

8.  "Attention!  Look  at  8.  When  I  say  'Go'  put  in  the  third  circle  the  right  answer  to  the  question,  'How  many 
months  has  a  year?'  In  the  fourth  circle  do  nothing,  but  in  the  fifth  circle  put  any  number  that  is  a  wrong  answer 
to  the  question  that  you  just  answered  correctly — GO!7'     (Allow  not  over  10  seconds.) 

(N.  B. — Examiner:  In  reading  9  don't  pause  at  the  word  circle  as  if  ending  a  sentence.) 

9.  "Attention!  Look  at  9.  If  a  captain  is  superior  to  a  corporal,  then  (when  I  say 'Go')  put  a  cross  in  the  second 
circle;  if  not,  draw  a  line  under  the  word  NO — GO!''     (Allow  not  over  10  seconds.) 

10.  "Attention!  Look  at  10.  When  I  say  'Go'  cross  out  the  letter  just  after  G  and  also  draw  a  line  under  the 
second  letter  after  H — GO! ''     (Allow  not  over  10  seconds.) 

"During  this  rest  of  this  examination  don't  turn  any  page  forward  or  backward  unless  you  are  told  to.  Now  turn 
over  the  page  to  test  2." 

Test  2,  memory  span. 

N.  B.  Examiner.  Read  the  numbers  (next  page)  in  this  test  very  distinctly  at  the  rate  of  1  digit  per  second, 
taking  special  care  to  avoid  grouping  or  accenting.  Allow  not  over  10  seconds  for  writing  4,  5,  and  6  digit  numbers. 
Allow  not  over  15  seconds  for  writing  7,  8,  and  9  digit  numbers.  Proceed  with  the  numbers  of  form  A  (or  B,  etc.) 
giving  the  two  3-digit  numbers,  the  two  4-digit  numbers,  the  two  5-digit  numbers,  and  so  on  through  the  two  9-digit 
numbers.     Announce  before  each  set  the  number  of  digits  and  the  number  of  the  set.     Thus,  begin  by  saying: 

"Attention!  Look  at  the  directions  while  I  read  them.  '  This  is  a  test  to  see  how  many  figures  you  can  remember 
and  write  down  after  they  are  spoken.  In  the  first  row  of  empty  squares  write  the  first  set  of  figures  you  hear,  as  shown 
in  the  samples;  in  the  second  row  write  the  second  set  you  hear,  and  so  on.' 

"In  this  test  I  shall  not  say  'Go,'  but  you  are  to  keep  your  pencils  raised  until  after  I  have  read  the  whole  set  of 
figures." 

"Attention!"  (Hold  up  the  hand  as  an  example.)  " Keep  pencils  up  until  I  am  through  reading.  Three  figures, 
first  set,  1  3  5."     (Drop  hand.     Allow  not  over  10  seconds.) 

"Attention!"  (Be  sure  that  every  pencil  is  up.)  "Three  figures,  second  set,  6  4  1."  (Drop  hand.  Allow  not 
over  10  seconds.) 

"Attention!    Four  figures,  first  set,"  and  so  on.     (Be  sure  to  begin  in  the  correct  column.) 

"Turn  over  the  page  to  test  3." 


no.  i.]  PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  ARMY. 

Materials  for  group  test  2,  memory  span  and  individual  test  D,  digits  backward. 


127 


B. 


D. 


4  figures,  first  set. . . 

4  figures,  second  set 

5  figures,  first  set . . . 

5  figures,  second  set 

6  figures,  first  set . . . 

6  figures,  second  set 

7  figures,  first  set . . . 

7  figures,  second  sec 

8figures,  first  set... 

8  figures,  second  set 

9  figures,  first  set. . . 
9  figures,  second  se; 


2  8  6  1 
5  3  9  4 


3  9  4  7 
5  1  S3 


2  6  3  9 

3  7  25 


28  5  3 
9  6  17 


4  16  2 

7  5  8  4 


7  4  2  9  6 

8  5  16  4 


5  14  8  6 
16  9  4  7 


3  8  4  2; 
8  3  7  5! 


3  9  261 

4  7  18  6 


5  8  4  7  3 
4  7  5  2  8 


7  2  9  5  3  6 

8  4  2  7  5  1 


4  7  3  6  2  1 
16  2  8  4: 


6  3  9  1  5  S 
5  S  4  9  3  1 


7  3  9  4  8  1 
4  8  16  3  7 


9  5  3  8  6  2 
4  9  7  3  6  1 


7  4  8  2  5  9  1 

8  3  9  6  15  2 


9  4  15  8  2  7 
8  3  6  4  17  2 


6  2  7  1953 

7  16  3  8  5  9 


5  4  9  2  7  3  6 
2  5  19  4  7  3 


6  15  3  8  2  7 
3  6  2  5  9  18 


26958371 
3  7  2  9  4  15  8 


41639582    94271586 
28364917    6973S415 


594827316 
429386175 


964837251 
15S426937 


27153964 
38594716 


3  8  5  9  2  7  16 
19  4  8  6  2  5  3 


51694273  S 
382516974 


9164S3752 
5  2  7  18  4  9  3  6 


692537184 
185937426 


Test  3,  disarranged  sentences. 

"Attention!"  (Hold  the  hand  up.)  "  Look  at  the  directions  at  the  top  of  the  page  while  I  read  them.  "  (Examiner 
reads  slowly.) 

"The  words  morning  the  rises  every  sun  in  that  order  don't  make  a  sentence;  but  they  would  make  a  sentence  if 
put  in  the  right  order,  the  sun  rises  every  morning,  and  this  statement  is  true. 

"Again,  the  words  animal  a  is  the  rare  dog  would  make  a  sentence  if  put  in  the  order,  the  dog  is  a  rare  animal,  but 
this  statement  is  false. 

"Below  are  20  mixed-up  sentences.  Some  of  them  are  true  and  some  are  false.  When  I  say  'Go,'  take  these 
sentences  one  at  a  time.  Decide  what  each  sentence  would  say  if  the  words  were  straightened  out,  but  don't  write 
them  yourself .  Then, if  whatitu'owWsayistrue,  draw  a  line  under  the  word  'true';  if  what  it  would  say  is  false,  draw 
aline  under  the  word 'false.'  If  you  can  not  be  sure,  guess.  The  two  samples  are  already  marked  as  theyshould  be. 
Begin  with  No.  1  and  work  right  down  the  page  until  time  is  called. — Ready — GO! " 

After  2  minutes  say  "STOP! "     Turn  over  the  page  to  test  4." 

Test  4,  arithmetical  problems. 

"Attention!  Look  at  the  directions  at  the  top  of  the  page  while  I  read  them.  'Get  the  answers  to  these  examples 
as  quickly  as  you  can.  Use  the  side  of  this  page  to  figure  on  if  you  need  to.'  I  will  say  'Stop '  at  the  end  of  5  minutes. 
You  are  not  expected  to  finish  all  of  them  but  to  do  as  many  as  you  can  in  the  time  allowed.  The  two  samples  are 
already  answered  correctly. — Ready — GO!" 

After  5  minutes  say  "STOP!     Turn  over  the  page  to  test  5." 

Test  5,  information. 

"Attention!    Look  at  the  directions  at  the  top  of  the  page  while  I  read  them."     (Examiner  reads  slowly.) 

"  Notice  the  sample  sentence:    People  hear  with  the — eyes — ears — nose — mouth.    The  correct  word  is  ears,  because 

it  makes  the  truest  sentence.     In  each  of  the  sentences  below  you  have  four  choices  for  the  last  word.     Only  one  of 

them  is  correct.     In  each  sentence  draw  a  line  under  the  one  of  these  four  words  which  makes  the  truest  sentence. 

If  you  can  not  be  sure,  guess.    The  two  samples  are  already  marked  as  they  should  be. — Ready — GO! " 

After  3  minutes  say  "STOP!    Turn  over  the  page  to  test  6.     Now  you  have  to  turn  your  books  around,  this 

way."     (Examiner  illustrates  the  necessary  rotation.) 

Test  6,  synonym-antonym. 

"  Attentionl    Look  at  the  directions  at  the  top  of  the  page  while  I  read  them."     (Examiner  reads  slowly.) 

"If  the  two  words  of  a  pair  mean  the  same  or  nearly  the  same,  draw  a  line  under  same.  If  they  mean  the  opposite, 

or  nearly  the  opposite,  draw  a  line  under  opposite.     If  you  can  not  be  sure,  guess.    The  two  samples  are  already 

marked  as  they  should  be.- — Ready — GO  ! " 

After  U  minutes  say  "  STOP  1    Turn  over  the  page  to  test  7." 


128  MEMOIRS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES  [vol.  xv, 

Test  7,  practical  judgment. 

"Attention!    Look  at  the  directions  while  I  read  them. 

"  This  is  a  test  of  common-sense.  Below  are  10  questions.  Four  answers  are  given  to  each  question.  You  are  to 
look  at  the  answers  carefully;  then  make  a  cross  in  the  square  before  the  best  answer  to  each  question,  as  in  the  sample 
at  the  top  of  the  page: 

"Why  do  we  use  stoves?    Because — 

□  they  look  well 

□  they  are  black 

|x]  they  keep  us  warm 

□  they  are  made  of  iron 

"  Here  the  third  answer  is  the  best  one  and  is  marked  with  a  cross. 
"Begin  with  No.  1  and  keep  on  until  time  is  called. — Ready — GO  ! " 
After  1  minute  say  "STOP!    Turn  over  the  page  to  test  8." 

Test  S,  number  series  completion. 

(N.  B.     Examiner.     Give  these  instructions  very  slowly.) 

"Attention!     Look  at  the  directions  at  the  top  of  the  page  while  I  read  them."     (Examiner  reads  slowly.) 

"  In  the  lines  below,  each  number  is  gotten  in  a  certain  way  from  the  numbers  coming  before  it.  Study  out  what 
this  way  is  in  each  line  and  then  write  in  the  space  left  for  it  the  number  that  should  come  next.  The  first  two  lines 
are  already  filled  in  as  they  should  be. 

"Look  at  the  finst  sample — 2,  4,  6,  8,  10.  Each  number  is  formed  by  adding  2  to  the  number  before  it,  so  the 
number  after  10,  on  the  dotted  line,  must  be  12. 

"  Look  at  the  second  sample — 11,  12,  14,  15,  17.  Here  you  do  not  add  the  same  number  each  time,  but  you  add 
first,  one,  then  two;  then  one,  then  two;  and  so  on;  so,  to  carry  out  that  plan,  the  number  after  17,  on  the  dotted 
line,  must  be  18. 

"  Sometimes  you  need  to  add,  sometimes  to  subtract.- — Ready — GO!" 

After  2  minutes  say  " STOP!    Turn  over  the  page  to  test  9." 

Test  9,  analogies. 

"  Attention!    Notice  the  words  in  the  first  sample  at  the  top  of  the  page: 

Sky — blue     :    grass,  then  in  parenthesis,  grow,  green,  cut,  dead. 
"Sky  stands  in  the  same  relation  to  blue  that  grass  does  to  one  of  the  four  words  that  follow  it  in  parenthesis; 
that  word  is  green,  because  grass  is  green,  just  as  sky  is  blue. 
"  Again,  notice  the  second  sample: 

"  Fish — swims     :     man,  then  in  parenthesis,  boy,  woman,  walks,  girl. 
"  Here  the  right  word  is  rvalks.     A  fish  swims  and  a  man  walks. 
"Nw  notice  the  third  sample: 

"Day — night    :     white,  then  in  parenthesis,  red,  black,  clear,  pure. 
"  Here  the  right  word  is  black.     Night  is  the  opposite  of  day  and  black  is  the  opposite  of  white. 
"In  each  of  the  lines  below  the  first  two  words  have  a  certain  relation.     Notice  that  relation  and  draw  a  line 
under  the  one  word  in  the  parenthesis  which  has  that  particular  relation  to  the  third  word.     Begin  with  No.  1  and 
mark  as  many  sets  as  you  can  before  time  is  called. — Ready — GO! " 
After  3  minutes  say  "  STOP!    Turn  over  the  page  to  test  10." 

Test  10,  number  comparison. 

"  Attention!    Look  at  the  directions  at  the  top  of  the  page  while  I  read  them."     (Examiner  reads  slowly.) 
"  Draw  a  line  under  the  largest  number  and  also  under  the  smallest  number  in  every  column  on  the  page." 
"Notice  the  samples.     In  the  first  sample  column  you  see  that  87  and  19  are  underlined.     Eighty-seven  is  the 
largest  number  and  19  is  the  smallest  number  in  that  column.     In  the  second  sample  column,  23  and  98  are  under- 
lined;   these  are  the  smallest  and  the  largest  numbers  in  that  column.     In  the  same  way  draw  a  line  under  the 
largest  number  and  also  under  the  smallest  number  in  every  column  on  the  page. — Ready — GO ! " 

After  2  minutes  say,  "  STOP!    Turn  over  to  page  1  again.     In  the  upper  right-hand  corner  where  it  says '  Group 

No.  ,'  put  the  number  101  (or  102,  103,  etc.,  according  to  the  number  of  this  group  in  the  examiner's  series  or 

groups)." 

Have  the  examination  records  and  pencils  collected  immediately  and  before  the  men  are  allowed  to  leave  their 
seats. 

GROUP    INTELLIGENCE   EXAMINATION    &. 

Nature  and  purpose. — This  examination  utilizes  tests  3-9  of  group  examination  a,  but  with  considerably  increased 
time.  Its  purpose  is  to  give  to  those  who  have  made  a  low  score  in  group  examination  a,  a  more  favorable  chance  to 
show  what  they  can  do.  The  proportion  taking  it  may  range  from  10  per  cent  to  40  per  cent  of  those  who  have  taken 
group  examination  a.    Groups  as  large  as  80  may  be  tested  at  once.     Ordinarily  it  will  be  possible  to  test  in  a  single 


No.i]  PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  ARMY.  129 

group  all  those  of  a  company  who  have  passed  the  literacy  test,  but  have  failed  to  earn  a  satisfactory  score  on  group 
examination  a.  The  same  kind  of  blank  is  used  as  for  group  intelligence  examination  a,  but  with  no  attention  to  the 
form  that  was  used  in  the  previous  test  (whether  A,  B,  C,  D,  or  E.) 

Procedure. — After  the  subjects  are  seated  and  supplied  with  test  blanks  and  pencils,  Examiner  says,  "At  the 
top  of  page  1  write  your  name  and  age,  and  fill  out  the  other  blanks  just  as  you  did  before."  After  ample  time  has 
been  all  wed  for  filling  the  blanks  Examiner  says,  "This  examination  is  much  like  the  one  you  have  already  had, 
except  that  you  will  be  given  more  time.  This  time  we  will  not  take  test  1  or  test  2.  Turn  over  the  page  to  test  3. 
(Examiner  and  assistant  see  that  all  subjects  have  turned  to  test  3.)  If  you  have  forgotten  how  to  do  this  test,  read 
the  directions  at  the  top  of  the  page.     Ready— GO! " 

After  5  minutes  Examiner  says,  "Turn  over  the  page  to  test  4.     If  you  have  forgotten  how  to  do  this  test,  read 

the  directions  at  the  top  of  the  page."     And  so  on  for  the  other  tests.     The  time  schedule  for  the  several  tests  is  as 

follows: 

Minutes. 

Test  3.  Disarranged  sentences 5 

Test  4.  Arithmetical  reasoning : 10 

Test  5.  Information 6 

Test  6.  Synonyms,  antonyms 3 

Test  7.  Practical  judgment 3 

Test  8.  Number  series 6 

Test  9.  Analogies 6 

Examiner  takes  care  to  have  all  the  subjects  proceed  from  test  to  test  simultaneously,  saying  each  time:     "I 

you  have  forgotten  how  to  do  this  test  read  the  directions  at  the  top  of  the  page." 

GROUP  SKILL    TEST. 

Nature  and  purpose. — This  is  a  group  test  of  mechanical  skill.  It  is  to  be  given  to  the  following  individuals:  (1 
All  who  have  failed  to  pass  the  literacy  test;  (2)  all  who  have  failed  to  make  a  satisfactory  score  in  group  examination  6. 
"Its  purpose  is  to  reduce  the  number  of  subjects  who  will  have  to  be  given  the  individual  tests. 

Materials  (for  24  subjects). — 24  sets  Stenquist  construction  test,  single  series  1;  1  sample  set  with  which  to  demon- 
strate; individual  examination  blank  for  each  subject. 

Directions. — Time  allowed,  30  minutes. 

1.  Arrange  boxes  on  tables  far  enough  apart  to  discourage  imitation  and  to  give  plenty  of  room  for  individual  work. 
Where  one  room  is  used  for  this  test  alone,  boxes  may  be  left  in  position  during  the  entire  day's  work.  Be  sure  that 
boxes  are  placed  so  that  the  cover  opens  toward  subject.  No  talking  should  be  allowed.  Subjects  will  often  inquire 
about  missing  or  extra  parts,  even  when  none  are  missing  or  extra.  However,  each  set  should  be  carefully  inspected 
each  time  it  is  corrected. 

2.  When  all  subjects  are  seated,  pass  out  the  individual  examination  blanks  and  have  the  heading  filled  out  at 
once.  If  subject  can  not  write  it  is  filled  out  for  him.  Examiner  says:  "Keep  the  blank  and  put  it  inside  the  box 
when  you  are  through.     Do  not  open  the  box  until  I  tell  you  to." 

3.  Examiner  now  takes  his  sample  box,  opens  it  before  the  class  (with  the  cover  toward  himself)  and  says:  "In 
each  one  of  these  boxes  there  are  some  common  mechanical  things  that  have  all  been  taken  apart."  (Examiner  here 
takes  out  the  parts  of  the  bell,  places  them  in  the  tray,  showing  that  it  has  been  dissembled.)  "You  are  to  take  the 
parts  and  put  them  together  as  they  ought  to  be;  that  is,  you  are  to  take  the  parts  and  put  them  together  so  that  each 
thing  will  work  perfectly. 

"Do  not  watch  what  anyone  else  does,  but  work  absolutely  by  yourself.  See  that  the  hinges  of  the  box  are  toward 
you;  when  opened  in  this  position  the  cover  forms  a  tray  in  which  to  work."  (Examiner  here  illustrates  by  appropriate 
gestures  the  way  he  is  holding  his  box,  with  cover  toward  himself.) 

"Do  not  break  the  parts.  Everything  goes  together  easily  if  you  do  it  in  the  right  way.  Begin  with  model  A; 
then  take  B;  then  C;  and  so  on  (examiner  points  to  A,  B,  C,  etc.,  while  explaining).  Put  each  thing  back  in  its  proper 
place  when  you  finish  it.  If  you  come  to  one  that  you  can  not  do  in  about  3  minutes,  go  on  to  the  next.  The  person 
who  gets  the  most  things  right  gets  the  highest  score.     Ready — GO!" 

4.  Examiner  must  be  watchful  to  see  that  all  begin  with  model  A,  and  that  the  completed  models  are  returned  to 
their  proper  places.  When  the  test  is  completed,  make  sure  that  the  record  blank  is  inclosed.  If  any  subject  finishes 
the  test  before  the  time  is  up,  examiner  steps  over  to  him  and  records  on  subject's  blank  the  number  of  minutes  taken, 
and  closes  the  box. 

Scoring. — On  opening  the  box  examiner  takes  the  inclosed  record  blank  and  scores  as  follows  under  F:  Inspect 
model  A,  and  record  its  score  value  under  A  on  the  blank;  then  inspect  model  B,  and  record  its  score  value  under  B, 
etc.  When  examiner  has  recorded  all  the  score  values  he  goes  to  the  next  box,  leaving  his  assistants  (two)  to  take  each 
model  apart,  while  examiner  records  the  scores  for  the  next  box,  and  so  on.  (The  scoring  can  be  done  with  great  speed 
after  a  little  practice.  If  necessary  it  is  almost  always  possible  to  secure  volunteer  assistants  from  among  the  subjects  who 
have  just  been  tested.    Beingalready  familiar  with  the  models,  they  can  be  trained  in  afew  minutes  properly  to  assemble 

♦The  number  who  should  go  from  group  examination  6  to  the  skill  test  can  not  be  stated,  but  it  should  be  very  small.  Probably  not  more 
than  3  to  5  per  cent  of  those  who  pass  the  literacy  test  will  need  to  take  the  skill  test. 


130  MEMOIRS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES.  [vol.xv. 

them.  Examiner  should  appoint  one  as  inspector  to  make  sure  that  every  model  is  dissembled,  and  all  the  parts  in  perfect 
order  before  re-stacking  the  boxes.     One  examiner  and  two  assistants  can  with  practice  score  25  boxes  in  30  minutes.) 

-Score  values. — The  score  value  to  be  given  for  each  degree  of  performance  is  shown  in  the  cuts.  Occasionally 
some  model  will  be  so  assembled  that  it  conforms  to  none  of  the  values  given;  give  the  score  value  nearest  the  same. 
The  various  3core  values  are  quickly  memorized.  In  those  cases  in  which  subject  finishes  before  the  time  is  up,  add 
one-quarter  point  for  each  gain-minute — i.  e.,  for  each  minute  of  the  standard  30  minutes  that  remains  after  he  has 
finished.    In  adding  up  the  final  score  avoid  fractions  by  taking  the  nearest  whole  number. 

Following  is  a  sample  score  properly  filled  out: 

Stenquist  construction  score. 

Model A        B        C       D        E        F 

Score 10        10        9        10        10        9 

Time,  25  min.  Credit  for  time. 


G 

H 

I 

J 

Total 

0 

8 

10 

5 

81 
1 

Total  score 82 

The  above  score  means  that  subject  finished  the  test  in  25  minutes;  5/4  is  added  to  the  total  81;  the  total  score  is 
recorded  as  82.  In  the  majority  of  cases  subject  does  not  finish  before  the  time  is  up  and  no  entry  is  made  under 
"Time." 

See  page  146  for  score  values  of  various  types  of  performance. 

INDIVIDUAL  EXAMINATION. 

It  is  assumed  that  the  group  examinations  will  have  indicated  for  certain  men  the  need  or  desirability  of  individual 
examination. 

Time  permitting,  three  groups,  as  classified  by  the  group  examinations,  should  be  further  examined  by  the  indi- 
vidual method.  These  are  (1)  the  lowest  3  to  5  per  cent;  (2)  some  of  the  highest;  (3)  certain  of  the  irregular  or  atypical 
individuals. 

The  tests  which  are  suggested  for  use  in  individual  examinations  are  not  arranged  as  a  single  scale.  They  may 
be  used  singly  or  in  groups  according  to  need. 

If  the  subject  has  been  examined  by  the  group  method,  the  result  should  indicate  to  the  examiner  lines  of  special 
inquiry  in  the  individual  examination. 

For  illiterates  or  those  who  have  difficulties  with  English ,  tests  A  to  G ,  designated  as  group  I ,  are  specially  recom- 
mended. 

For  those  who  because  of  poor  records  in  the  group  examinations  or  for  other  reasons  are  suspected  of  being  intel- 
lectually subnormal,  tests  K  to  P  and  in  addition  I  and  J,  which  together  constitute  group  II,  or  testB  Q  to  V,  and  in 
addition  I  and  J  (group  III)  are  recommended. 

Subjects  who  because  of  peculiarities  of  behavior  within  or  without  the  examining  room  are  suspected  of  being 
psychotic  may  best  be  examined  by  the  use  of  tests  D,  E,  G,  J,  R,  S,  and  T.  Irregularities  or  inequalities  of  perform- 
ance are  significant  in  these  and  other  tests. 

For  the  further  examining  of  men  who  rank  very  high  in  the  group  examinations  or  who  for  other  reasons  are  thought 
to  be  supernormal,  tests  A,  C,  E,  I,  J,  K,  and  P  are  especially  suitable. 

Summary. 

Illiterate  and  foreign:  Tests  A,  B,  C,  D,  E,  F,  G,  with  such  supplementation  as  proves  desirable.     (Group  I.) 

Intellectually  subnormal:  Tests  K,  L,  M,  N,  O,  P,  I,  J  (Group  II),  or  Tests  Q,  R,  S,  T,  U,  V,  I,  J  (Group  III). 

Psychotic:  Tests  D,  E,  G,  H,  J,  R,  S. 

Intellectually  supernormal:  Tests  A,  C,  E,  I,  J,  K,  P. 

The  danger  of  "coaching"  has  been  provided  for  in  such  tests  as  required  it,  by  the  preparation  of  several  com- 
parable "series"  of  materials.     Usually  there  are  five  "series." 

The  examiner  should  choose  for  a  given  subject  the  "series"  which  is  to  be  used  (for  example,  series  3)  and  should 
record  the  series  number  in  the  space  provided  after  name  of  test  on  record  blank.  So  far  as  feasible,  tests  of  the 
same  series  number  should  be  used  throughout  an  individual  examination. 

N.  B.— Time  is  to  be  scored  throughout  in  seconds. 

Examiners'  Directions  for  Individual  Examination. 

Test  A,  cube  construction. 

Materials. — (1)  a  block  of  wood  (model  1),  1  by  3  by  3  inches,  painted  a  dark  red  on  the  four  edges,  not  on  the 
upper  and  lower  surfaces,  and  cut  to  a  depth  of  2  mm.  so  that  it  closely  resembles  a  composite  of  9  small  cubes ;  (2)  a 
block  (model  2)  like  the  one  described  under  (1),  except  that  in  addition  to  the  four  edges  one  of  the  remaining  sur- 
faces is  painted;  (3)  a  2-inch  cube  (model  3)  un painted  and  cut  on  the  four  surfaces  so  that  it  looks  like  a  composite 
of  8  small  cubes;  (4)  a  3-inch  cube  (model  4),  unpainted,  and  so  cut  on  the  surfaces  that  it  looks  like  a  composite  of 
27  small  cubes;  (5)  the  cubes  (1  inch)  necessary  for  the  construction  of  counterparts  of  the  several  models;  (6)  a  wooden 
box  2  inches  deep,  8  inches  wide  and  13  inches  long,  divided  by  wooden  partitions  into  eight  equal  compartments. 


No.u  PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  ARMY.  131 


Directions. — (a)  Present  model  1  (in  each  case  turn  the  model  over  and  call  attention  to  the  top,  bottom,  and  sides 
as  painted  or  unpainted)  and  the  nine  cubes  with  which  its  counterpart  may  be  constructed,  and  say,  "Put  these 
blocks  together  as  quickly  as  you  can,  so  they  will  look  just  like  this  (point  to  model  1).  Ready — GO! "  Discontinue 
the  test  if  subject  fails  on  two  successive  parts. 

Scoring. — With  a  stop-watch  examiner  measures  in  seconds  the  time  required  for  the  correct  arranging  of  the  cubes. 
He  also  counts  the  number  of  separate  moves  or  acts  (the  minimum  number  is  9).  Every  time  a  block  is  put  on  the 
table  or  is  placed  in  some  position  should  be  counted  as  a  move.  If  subject  stops  work  before  all  the  cubes  are  in  their 
proper  places,  or  before  the  time  is  up,  he  should  be  urged  to  continue;  but  time  should  be  taken  and  errors  counted 
when  subject  puts  lastf  block  in  place.  Each  misplaced  block,  at  the  end,  is  counted  as  three  moves.  The  presence 
or  absence  of  a  definite  plan  of  work  is  to  be  recorded. 

Time  for  work,  2  minutes. 

(5)  In  the  same  way  present  model  2  and  the  cubes  necessary  to  construct  its  counterpart,  saying  to  subject, 
"Arrange  these  blocks  as  quickly  as  you  can  so  they  will  look  just  like  this  (point  to  model  2).     Ready — GO!" 

Scoring. — Same  as  for  (a). 

Time  for  work,  2  minutes. 

(c)  Present  model  3  and  the  eight  cubes  painted  on  three  sides  and  say  to  subject,  "Now  fit  the  blocks  together 
so  they  will  look  just  like  this  (point  to  model  3).     Ready — GO!" 

Scoring. — Same  as  for  (a). 
Time  for  work,  2  minutes. 

(d)  Present  model  4  and  the  cubes  from  which  its  counterpart  may  be  constructed.  The  1-inch  cubes  should 
be  classified  according  to  the  number  of  sides  painted  and  arranged  in  four  adjacent  compartments  of  box  (6)  so  that 
subject  may  locate  immediately  any  desired  variety  of  cube.  Examiner  says  to  subject,  "  I  want  you  to  fit  the  blocks 
together  so  they  will  look  just  like  this  (take  up  model  5  and  turn  it  over).  You  see  it  is  not  painted  anywhere.  You 
will  find  here  (pointing  to  appropriate  compartment  of  box)  the  unpainted  block;  here  the  ones  painted  on  only  one 
side,  and  so  on).     Do  not  take  out  any  block  till  you  are  ready  to  use  it.     Ready — GO! " 

Scoring. — Same  as  for  (a).  If  subject  gives  up  before  time  is  called,  each  misplaced  block  is  to  be  counted  as 
three  moves. 

Time  for  work,  5  minutes. 

(e)  Present  the  27  cubes  again,  properly  distributed  in  the  compartments  of  box  (6),  saying,  "Now,  fit  the  blocks 
together  so  that  the  whole  of  the  outside  (point  to  model  4)  will  be  painted.     P^eady — GO!" 

Scoring. — Same  as  for  (d). 

Time  for  work,  5  minutes. 

iV.  B. — Examiners  will  ordinarily  find  it  uneconomical  of  time  to  give  more  than  parts  (a),  (b),  and  (e). 

In  scoring  each  part,  the  degree  of  planning  should  be  scored:  A  (very  good);  B  (fair);  C  (very  poor). 

Test  B.  clock  test. 

Materials. — (1)  Alarm  clock;  (2)  settings  of  clock. 

Directions. — Examiner  selects  from  the  five  series  of  settings  presented  below  one  for  use  with  a  given  subject 
He  then  proceeds  with  the  test  as  follows: 

Settings  of  clock. 


(a) 

SERIES. 

I 

! 

3 

4 

5 

6:18 

3:11 

10:34 

11:04    |. 

4:02 

((-) 

6:18 

3:32 

3:11 

2:16 

10:34 

6:53 

11:04    1 

12:55 

4:02 

12:20 

(c) 

2:36 

7:13 

8:13 

2:41 

4:57 

11:25 

5:32    | 

6:28 

5:47 

9:29 

w 

9:18 

3:45 

1:26 

5:07 

9:39 

7:48 

8:08    | 

1:41 

6:03 

1:31 

W 

6:07 

1:30 

5:37 

7:2S 

2:41 

8:13 

6:43    1 

8:34 

4:07 

1:21 

(a)  With  clock  set  as  indicated  in  (a)  first  trial  (series  1,  for  example)  examiner  says  to  subject,  "What  time  is 
it?"     A  second  trial  is  given  with  the  additional  setting  under  (a). 

Scoring. — Response,  followed  by  a  +  or  a  —  sign  to  indicate  correctness  or  incorrectness. 

(6)  With  clock  properly  set  and  placed  before  subject,  examiner  says,  "What  time  would  it  be  if  the  two  hands 
of  the  clock  were  to  trade  places,  so  that  the  large  hand  takes  the  place  where  the  small  one  is  and  the  small  one  takes 
the  place  where  the  large  one  is.  " 

Scoring. — Response.     Consider  correct  (+)  if  error  does  not  exceed  3  minutes. 

Time  limit,  1  minute.     Record  time  in  seconds  for  (c),  (<£),  and  (c). 

(c)  Same  as  (6),  except  that  clock  face  is  not  visible  to  subject. 

(d)  Same  as  (c). 

(e)  Same  as  (rf). 


132 


MEMOIRS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES. 


[Vol.  XV, 


Test  C,  cube  imitation  (Knox). 

Materials.— (1)  Four  one-inch  hardwood  cubes  fastened  securely  to  a  wooden  base  1  inch  wide  by  }^  inch  thick 
by  12  inches  long.  The  end  cubes  are  1  inch  from  the  end  of  the  base.  The  distance  between  the  cubes  is  2  inches. 
Both  cubes  and  base  are  painted  a  dark  red.  The  cubes  are  numbered,  1  to  4,  from  right  to  left.  (2)  A  fifth  cube  of 
the  same  size  unattached  and  similarly  painted.     (3)  Ten  imitation  problems  (a  to  j),  as  printed  on  record  sheet. 

Directions. — Examiner  places  the  cube  board  before  subject  at  a  convenient  distance  from  him  and  at  right  angles 
to  his  line  of  vision,  with  the  numbered  side  of  the  cubes  directed  away  from  him  and  says,  "Watch  carefully  and  then 


rORNI  BOARD  *3 


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Problem    A 
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Problem     C 
Eight's  e  para  Ye.  movtmenKs 


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Problem  .  B 

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Q         □         □ 

O  HX 


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Probltrr*  JO 

Nine    separate   movements 


Fig.  A. — Forni  board  (Test  E)  with  pieces  arranged  In  various  problems  for  subject  to  replace. 

do  just  what  I  do. "  Examiner  next  with  the  fifth  cube  taps  the  attached  cubes  in  a  predetermined  order,  as  for  example 
in  (a)  1,  2,  3,  4,  at  the  rate  of  one  per  second.  He  now  lays  the  tapping  cube  down  before  subject  midway  between  the 
second  and  the  third  cubes,  but  nearer  to  subject  than  to  the  cube  board  and  says,  "Do  that."  Before  giving  the  second 
trial,  examiner  says,  "I  am  going  to  repeat  each  one." 

Give  a  second  trial  whether  or  not  the  first  trial  is  correct. 

Scoring. — Record  the  response  as  right  (+)  or  wrong  (  — ),  using  a  screen  to  prevent  subject  from  seeing  the  score 
which  examiner  records. 

(6-j)  Similarly  give  parts  (6)  to  (j)  in  order  unless  subject  fails  in  five  successive  parts.  In  that  event  discontinue 
the  test. 


no.i.]  PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  ARMY.  133 

Test  D,  maze  (Porteus). 

Materials. — Four  mazes,  after  Porteus,  with  slight  modifications,  printed  on  a  separate  four-page  record  sheet. 
On  page  1  appears  the  maze  for  10  years  (maze  10);  on  page  2  that  for  11  years  (maze  11),  and  so  on. 

Directions. — Present  to  subject  maze  10,  saying,  "With  your  pencil  start  at  S  and  mark  the  shortest  way  out,  aa 
quickly  as  you  can.     Do  not  cross  any  lines  and  do  not  turn  back  unless  you  have  to.    Ready- — GO!" 

If  because  of  mistakes  the  lines  become  so  numerous  as  to  render  the  record  confusing,  examiner  should  give  subject 
a  fresh  maze  sheet  and  have  him  continue  his  tracing  of  the  path  from  the  point  of  interruption.  These  record  sheets 
should  be  numbered  1,  2,  etc.,  in  order. 

Scoring. — Record  the  time  in  seconds  (a)  from  start  signal  "Go"  to  first  pencil  mark  (this  is  adjustment  period); 
(b)  from  beginning  tracing  at  subject  to  finish,  or  calling  of  time  by  examiner  (this  is  tracing  time);  (c)  the  total 
time,  sum  of  (a)  and  (6).  Record  also  the  number  of  errors  in  tracing  (an  error  is  any  movement  of  approximately  a 
centimeter,  or  more,  in  a  wrong  direction). 

Similarly  present  in  turn  mazes  11,  12,  and  13,  unless  subject  fails  on  two  successive  parts  of  the  test. 

Test  E.form  board. 

Materials. — Form  board  No.  3,  designed  by  W.  F.  Dearborn. 

Directions. — (a)  Place  the  board  before  subject,  arranged  as  shown  in  figure  A,  problem  A  (p.  132).  Say  to  subject, 
"Without  making  any  more  moves  than  you  have  to,  change  these  blocks  around  so  you  can  find  a  place  for  this  extra 
square  (point  to  square  beside  the  board).     Don't  have  any  blocks  left  over.     Ready — GOl" 

Scoring. — Record  time  in  seconds  from  start  to  finish,  and  the  number  of  moves. 

Time  for  work,  2  minutes. 

(6)  Present  the  board  arranged  for  problem  B,  saying,  "I  want  you  to  change  the  blocks  around  so  you  can  find 
places  for  these  two  extra  squares  (point  to  them).     Ready — GO!" 

Time  for  work,  3  minutes. 

(c)  Present  the  board  arranged  for  problem  C,  saying,  "I  want  you  to  change  the  blocks  around  so  you  can  find 
places  for  these  four  extra  blocks.    Ready — GO!" 

Time  for  work,  4  minutes. 

((f)  Present  the  board  arranged  for  problem  D,  saying,  "I  want  you  to  change  the  blocks  around  so  you  can  find 
places  for  these  five  extra  blocks.    Ready — GO!" 

Time  for  work,  5  minutes. 

Test  F.  construction  (Stenquist). 

Materials. — One  set  of  Stenquist  construction  test,  single  series  1. 

Directions.— Vl&ce  the  open  box  before  subject,  with  coveropen  toward  him.  Say  to  him:  "Take  these  mechanical 
things  and  put  them  together  as  they  ought  to  be;  that  is,  take  the  parts  and  put  each  thing  together  so  that  it  will 
work  perfectly.  Begin  with  model  A,  then  take  B,  then  C,  and  so  on.  But  if  you  come  to  one  you  can  not  do  in  about 
3  minutes  go  on  to  the  next  one.    The  person  who  gets  the  most  things  right  gets  the  highest  score.     Ready — GO!" 

Scoring. — See  directions  for  group  tests  (pp.  129-130).    Plates  showing  various  forms  of  construction  are  opposite 

pages  146-147  of  this  Guide. 

Test  G,  orientational  information. 

Materials. — Set  of  10  questions  printed  below  and  listed  in  record  blank  (a)  to  (j).    They  contain  20  items. 

(a)  When  were  you  born?    Where?    What  is  your  race  or  nationality? 

(6)  What  day  is  it?    What  month?    What  day  of  the  month?    What  year? 

(c)  Where  are  you  now? 

((f)  Name  the  days  of  the  week  beginning  with  Sunday.    Now  name  them  backward  beginning  with  Saturday. 

(e)  Name  the  months  of  the  year  beginning  with  January.    Now  name  them  backward  beginning  with  December. 

(/)  In  which  month  is  "New  Year's  DayC "    Christmas? 

(g)  How  is  leap  year  different  from  other  years? 

(h)  Where  does  the  sun  rise?     Set? 

(i)  If  you  face  north  what  direction  is  to  your  right? 

(j)  Name  the  seasons.     What  season  has  the  longest  days?    The  shortest? 

Directions. — This  test  is  to  be  used  for  illiterates,  those  who  have  difficulty  with  English,  or  subjects  who  do  very 
poorly  in  the  group  examination,  the  individual  tests,  or  both.  Examiner  should  use  his  judgment  about  its  appro- 
priateness and  probable  value.  The  test  is  recommended  for  subjects  whose  responses  are  irregular  or  otherwise  peculiar 
and  who  may  be  psychotic. 

Scoring. — So  far  as  space  and  time  permit  response  should  be  recorded;  otherwise,  record  merely  symbol  for  cor- 
rect or  incorrect  response.     Number  of  items  correct  may  tentatively  be  used  as  measure  of  orientational  information. 

Test  H,  association. 

Materials. — Stop  watch  and  record  blank. 

Directions. — Say  to  subject,  "Now  I  am  going  to  read  to  you  a  list  of  ordinary  English  words,  one  at  a  time,  words 
like  fox,  tree,  green  and  such.  Each  time  I  speak  a  word  you  should  answer  by  saying  the  first  word  that  comes  into 
your  mind  on  hearing  it;  the  very  first  word  it  makes  you  think  of.     So  if  I  should  say  fox,  you  might  answer  geese, 


134 


MEMOIRS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES. 


[Vol.  XV, 


or  runs,  or  red,  or  tail,  or  animal,  or  any  word  that  happened  to  come  into  your  mind.  If  I  should  say  tree,  you  might 
answer  oak,  or  leaves,  or  green,  or  anything  like  that.  Don't  waste  time  hunting  around  for  some  especially  good 
word.     It  doesn't  make  any  difference  whether  I  see  any  connection  or  not.     Try  a  few  to  start  with." 

Then  give  sample  words  for,  apple,  fork,  cure,  quick,  grass,  as  far  as  necessary  for  illustration.  Ordinarily  one  or 
two  will  be  enough.  As  soon  as  subject  has  the  idea,  proceed  with  the  experimental  series.  Speak  stimulus  words 
distinctly  and  with  falling  inflection.     Start  stop  watch  on  beginning  stimulus  word  and  stop  it  on  hearing  the  response. 

Scoring. — Write  each  response  legibly  in  the  column  provided  for  it,  and  immediately  after  it,  in  the  same  column, 
write  the  time  in  fijths  of  a  second.  Thus  1  2/5  seconds  is  written  as  7.  If  no  response  is  obtained  in  30  seconds  leave 
a  blank  and  proceed  to  next  stimulus  word.  If  a  response  is  not  clearly  heard,  ask  subject  to  repeat,  spell,  or  otherwise 
indicate  it  clearly.  If  subject  misunderstands  a  stimulus  word,  note  what  was  understood.  A  seeming  irrelevance 
may  have  been  caused  in  this  way.  If  subject  asks  to  change  a  response  previously  given,  the  first  is  scored  as  actual 
response,  but  the  second  should  be  noted. 

In  recording  the  responses,  note  and  mark  tendencies  to  perseveration,  sound  association,  or  other  responses  of 
nonsense  character.     In  large  numbers  these  have  been  found  indicative  of  psychopathic  conditions. 

Reaction  times  being  distributed,  their  median  should  not  be  over  15  (3  seconds).  Other  indications  of  abnormal 
condition  are:  (1)  Many  inordinately  long  reaction  times  not  explained  by  unintelligibility  of  the  stimulus  word  to 
subject;  and  (2)  predominance  of  "predicate"  reactions  with  special  value  content,  such  as  religion-uncertainty, 
work-distasteful,  lion-frightful,  and  the  like. 

For  numerical  scoring  of  responses,  use  abridged  Kent-Rosanoff  frequency  tables  (supplied  separately).  The  fre- 
quency of  each  response  in  a  thousand  cases  is  recorded  from  these  tables  in  the  column  of  the  test  blank  provided  for 
it.  Score  5  for  each  response  not  found  in  abridged  tables.  If  the  median  of  these  quantities  is  less  than  20,  abnormal 
mental  processes  are  indicated. 

Test  I,  digits  backward. 

Materials. — Series  of  digits  for  group  test  2  (p.  127),  forms  A,  B,  etc. 

Directions. — Examiner  selects  a  particular  series  of  digits  (as  for  instance,  those  of  form  A),  designates  it  by  its 
appropriate  letter  on  the  record  blank,  and  proceeds  with  the  test.  Each  group  of  digits  is  read  distinctly  at  the  rate 
of  one  per  second  and  recorded  in  the  space  provided,  as  reproduced  by  subject  orally. 

To  subject,  examiner  says,  "I  am  going  to  read  some  numbers  to  you.     I  want  you  to  listen  carefully  and  then 

say  them  backward, — this  way — iflsay3 — 5 — 1  you  should  say  1 — 5 — 3.     Now  try  this  one.     Listen!     5 — S — 1 " 

Response "and  this:    9 — 4 — 6 "Response 

Examiner  now  presents  the  several  parts  of  the  test  in  order  until  subject  has  failed  on  four  parts  in  succession 
or  finished. 

(a)  Examiner  says  to  subject,  "Listen  carefully.  I  am  going  to  say  four  numbers.  'When  I  stop,  you  say  them 
backward.     Ready!" 

Examiner  should  state  each  time  the  number  of  digits  to  be  given. 

Test  J,  vocabulary . 

Materials. — Accompanying  five  series  of  words. 

Directions. — Place  the  list  so  that  subject  may  see  the  words  and  pronounce  them  if  he  wishes.  If  a  word  is  pro- 
nounced incorrectly,  examiner  should  give  the  correct  pronunciation.     Formula:  "What  does  the  word mean?" 

If  subject  hesitates  or  seems  to  think  that  he  must  give  a  formal  definition,  examiner  says,  "It  doesn't  matter  how 
you  say  it.  All  I  care  for  is  to  find  out  whether  you  know  what  the  word  means.  Tell  me  the  meaning  any  way  you 
want  to  express  it."     Subject  is  encouraged  as  liberally  as  necessary . 

Ordinarily  it  will  not  be  necessary  to  secure  responses  to  all  of  the  40  words  in  a  series,  as  some  will  obviously  be  too 
hard  or  too  easy  for  the  subject  being  tested.  This  is  especially  true  in  series  1,  the  words  of  which  have  been  graded 
accurately  according  to  difficulty.  In  each  series,  however,  the  testing  should  be  over  a  wide  enough  range  to  secure 
an  accurate  score. 

Scoring. — Credit  each  response  as  +  or  — .  Occasionally  half  credits  may  be  given,  but  in  general  thiB  should  be 
avoided. 

The  score  is  -4-  if  the  response  shows  that  subject  knows  at  least  one  approximately  correct  meaning  of  the  word. 
It  is  not  necessary  that  the  meaning  given  be  the  most  common  one.  The  form  of  definition  is  disregarded  in  com- 
putation of  score,  but  for  clinical  purposes  it  is  well  to  designate  especially  superior  definitions  by  -f  +. 

Series  1. 

1  lecture  11  forfeit  21  conscientious  31  gelatinous: 

2  guitar  12  majesty  22  philanthropy  32  milksop 

3  scorch  13  shrewd  23  exaltation  33  declivity 

4  bonfire  14  Mars  24  frustrate  34  irony 

5  misuse  15  dilapidated  25  flaunt  35  incrustation 


6  haste 

7  puddle 

8  skill 

9  impolite 
10  juggler 


16  hysterics 

17  priceless 
IS  tolerate 

19  disproportionate 

20  repose 


26  promontory 

27  infuse 

28  lotus 

29  avarice 

30  embody 


36  artless 

37  laity 

38  precipitancy 

39  perfunctory 

40  retroactive 


No.  1.] 


PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  ARMY. 


135 


Series  2. 


1  hurry 

11  dike 

21  infringe 

31  fervid 

2  dizzy 

12  navigable 

22  congenial 

32  maternal 

3  spaniel 

13  overlook 

23  booty 

33  decorous 

4  decay 

14  jubilant 

24  bogus 

34  weird 

5  cautious 

15  embers 

25  optimist 

35  surf 

6  duel 

16  conspicuous 

26  interval 

36  swoon 

7  scoundrel 

17  perpetual 

27  stockade 

37  oblong 

8  noble 

18  absorb 

28  rant 

38  implacable 

9  voluntary 

19  tragic 

29  forego 

39  symposium 

10  encourage 

20  unfurl 

30  pallid 
Series  S. 

40  retrograde 

1  forest 

11  predict 

21  masterpiece 

31  corrode 

2  escape 

12  assemble 

22  effeminate 

32  franchise 

3  moist 

13  capitulate 

23  petty 

33  plastic 

4  totter 

14  annoy 

24  scapegoat 

34  emulsion 

5  rubbish 

15  contemplate 

25  destitute 

35  edict 

6  undertake 

16  bestow 

26  bewilder 

36  vesture 

7  jumble 

17  cooper 

27  stamina 

37  tweed 

8  cog 

18  swarthy 

28  intermittent 

38  curator 

9  genuine 

19  hypocrite 

29  disruption 

39  extirpate 

10  repent 

20  masculine 

30  tenure 
Series  A. 

40  liturgy 

1  beneath 

11  brewery 

21  pestilence 

31  envoy 

2  strap 

12  avalanche 

22  sagacity 

32  gruesome 

3  holiday 

13  demonstrate 

23  oasis 

33  oscillate 

4  trump 

14  descend 

24  valid 

34  dissonant 

5  transom 

15  rational 

25  shroud 

35  heinous 

6  expel 

16  countless 

26  aloof 

36  heirarchy 

7  enter 

17  lank 

27  requisite 

37  radiate 

8  century 

18  illiterate 

28  immaculate 

38  elegy 

9  wriggle 

19  outwit 

29  evade 

39  labial 

10  adventurous 

20  emergency 

30  alloy 

Series  5. 

40  vista 

1  bonnet 

11  jury 

21  hostler 

31  aquatic 

2  vaccinate 

12  endure 

22  prostrate 

32  heresy 

3  echo 

13  gullible 

23  discreet 

33  paternal 

4  solve 

14  ascend 

24  clump 

34  citron 

5  intoxicated 

15  transparent 

25  hull 

35  missile 

6  abundant 

16  courtesy 

26  trellis 

36  porous 

7  blemish 

17  melancholy 

27  smolder 

37  virile 

8  republic 

18  submit 

28  pedestrian 

38  amulet 

9  enormous 

19  humorist 

29  opaque 

39  laconic 

10  cartoon 

20  terminate 

30  deluge 

40  tendril 

Test  K,  Utter  line. 

Materials. — Two  pages  of  letters,  (a)  and  (6),  each  containing  five  series,  and  the  key  to  the  letter  test. 

Directions. — (a)  The  examiner  points  each  time  to  the  group  of  letters  to  be  arranged.  While  giving  the  directions 
for  trial  1,  he  points  to  1  and  M  and  say?,  "You  see  these  letters.  Look  at  them  carefully.  If  they  were  made  out  of 
cord  or  tape,  the  letter  I  would  take  a  much  shorter  piece  of  tape  than  the  M.  You  see  what  I  mean.  Arrange  the 
letters  according  to  the  total  length  of  cord  or  tape  needed.  First  write  the  letter  I,  because  that  would  take  the  shortest 
piece  of  tape,  then  the  letter  that  would  take  the  next  shortest  piece,  and  so  on.  Take,  plenty  of  time,  and  use  your  best 
judgment." 

Examiner  hands  subject  a  piece  of  paper  and  a  pencil.  While  subject  does  part  (6),  examiner  copies  subject's 
arrangement  of  (a)  in  space  provided  on  blank,  and  so  on. 

(6)  "Now  do  the  same  with  these  letters." 


136  MEMOIRS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES.  ivol.xv, 

If  more  than  one  letter  is  misplaced  in  two  successive  trials,  the  test  is  discontinued.     Examiner  may  give  (a)  or 
(6)  of  other  series  if  he  wishes  to  test  subject  further. 
Scoring. — Record  time  and  errors. 


Time  allowed  for  work  on  each  part,  2  minutes 

LETTER 

LINE,    PART    (a) 

Series  1 

(a) 

Z  1  M  T  N 

Series  2 

(a) 

V  M  L  E  1 

Series  3 

(a) 

M  1  Y  X  H 

Series  4 

(a) 

V  1  T  M  X 

Series  5 

(a) 

N  1  F  M  L 

LETTER 

LINE,    PART    (b) 

Series  1 

(b) 

YIMHVX 

Series  2 

(b) 

ZT  K  M  N  1 

Series  3 

(b) 

L  M  1  A  K  F 

Series  4 

(b) 

E  Y  Z  1  M  N 

Series  5 

(b) 

HT  M  Z  1  F 

KEY    TO    LETTER    LIKE 

Series  1 

(a) 

1  TZ  N  M 

(b) 

lYVXH'M 

Series  2 

(a) 

1  L  V  E  M 

(b) 

ITZKNM 

Series  3 

(a) 

1  Y  X  H  M 

(b) 

1  L  F  A  K  M 

Series  4 

(a) 

1  T  V  X  M 

(b) 

IYZENM 

Series  5 

(a) 

1  L  F  N  M 

(b) 

1 T  FZ  H  M 

no.  i.]  PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  ARMY.  137 

Test  L,  disarranged  sentences. 

Materials.— Dissected  sentences  given  below. 

Directions. — (a)  Examiner  shows  subject  set  (a)  of  series  selected  for  use  (covering  the  others),  and  says,  "I  am 
going  to  show  you  some  words.  You  will  have  one  minute  to  put  these  words  in  their  proper  order  so  that  they  will 
make  a  good  sentence;  make  good  sense.     Use  all  the  words,  but  no  others." 

If  the  subject  does  not  give  a  logical  arrangement  of  the  first  sentence  within  one  minute,  read  the  sentence  off 
correctly  for  him,  pointing  to  each  word  as  it  is  spoken. 

Scoring. — Record  the  time.    Write  the  first  letter  of  each  word  as  given  by  subject,  and  mark  the  response  +  or  — . 

Series  1. 
(a)     warm    winter    in    we    clothes    wear 
(6)    trees    roots    have    their    ground    the    in 
(c)    skillful    makes    much    careful    become    practice    one 

Series  2. 

(a)  feet    wear    to    are    shoes    the    on 

(b)  does    angry    not    to    it    get    pay 

(e)    summer    makes    in    warm    grow    sunshine    plants 
Series  3. 

(a)  hard    high    to    are    mountains    climb 

(b)  get    grow    they    as    children    taller    older 

(c)  plants    becomes    the    when    wither    dry    ground 

Series  4- 
(a)    honey    flowers    gather    bees    the    from 
(6)    horse    elephant    is    smaller    a    than    an 
(c)    steam    it    into    when    changes    boils    water 

Series  5. 
(a)    times    mistakes    make    men    all    at 
(6)    a    than    is    automobile    an    slower    horse 
(c)    snow    change    into    cold    often    winds    rain 
Test  M,  absurdities. 

Directions. — Examiner  says  to  subject,  "I  am  going  to  read  something  which  has  something  foolish  or  funny  in 
it,  some  nonsense.  Listen  and  toll  me  what  is  foolish  about  it."  Then  examiner  reads  in  order,  somewhat  slowly 
and  in  a  matter  of  fact  voice,  the  10  absurdities  of  one  of  the  five  series.  After  each  of  the  first  three  or  four  examiner 
says:  "What  was  foolish  about  that?"  If  subject  is  silent  for  15  seconds,  examiner  repeats,  "What  was  foolish  about 
that?"  Then  if  there  is  no  response  in  15  seconds  more,  examiner  goes  to  next.  If  subject  fails  on  the  first,  that  one 
is  read  again.     The  others  are  not  to  be  read  a  second  time  unless  examiner  requests  it. 

If  it  is  not  clear  from  the  response  whether  the  absurdity  has  been  detected,  examiner  says,  "What  do  you  mean?" 
Only  this  general  form  of  question  may  be  employed.  Questioning  which  might  suggest  the  right  answer  must  be 
carefully  avoided. 

Scoring. — Each  of  the  10  items  is  scored  +  or  — ;  no  half  credits.  Plus  means  that  the  essential  point  in  the 
absurdity  has  been  detected. 

Series  1. 

(a)  The  poor  sick  man  lay  fiat  on  his  back,  entirely  speechless,  and  all  his  cry  was,  "Water!  Water!" 
(6)  A  man  said,  "I  know  a  road  from  my  house  to  the  city  which  is  down  hill  all  the  way  to  the  city  and  down 
hill  all  the  way  back  home." 

(c)  The  fireman  hurried  to  the  burning  house,  got  his  fire  hose  ready,  and  after  smoking  a  mild  cigar  put  out  the 
fire. 

(d)  The  commissioners  have  decided  to  build  a  new  jail  out  of  the  materials  of  the  old  jail,  but  they  are  going  to 
keep  the  prisoners  in  the  old  jail  until  the  new  one  is  finished. 

(«)  I  saw  a  nicely  dressed  gentleman  on  the  street.     He  had  his  hands  in  his  pockets  and  was  swinging  a  cane. 
(/)  In  an  old  graveyard  in  Virginia  they  have  discovered  a  small  skull  which  is  believed  to  have  been  that  of 
George  Washington  when  he  was  about  ten  years  old. 

(g)  A  tramp  found  ten  dollars.     He  went  to  a  store  and  bought  a  hat  for  eight  dollars  and  an  overcoat  for  two  dollars. 
121435°— 21 10 


138  MEMOIRS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES.  [vol.xv, 

(h)  John  was  saddling  his  horse  one  day  and  thoughtlessly  put  the  saddle  on  backward.     When  told  of  his  mistake, 

he  said,  "How  do  you  know  which  direction  I  am  going  to  ride?" 

(t)  A  mistake  is  much  worse  than  a  lie,  for  all  people  make  mistakes  and  only  liars  tell  lies. 

0)  The  wind  blew  strong  from  the  west  and  carried  the  smoke  over  the  roof  of  the  house  straight  toward  the  setting 

sun. 

Series  2. 

(a)  A  man  had  smallpox  twice.     The  first  time  it  killed  him,  but  the  second  time  he  got  well  quickly. 

(6)  A  bicycle  rider  being  thrown  from  his  bicycle  in  an  accident  struck  his  head  against  a  stone  and  was  instantly 
killed.     They  picked  him  up  and  carried  him  to  the  hospital,  and  they  do  not  think  he  will  get  well  again. 

(c)  The  poor  sick  man  lay  flat  on  his  back  six  weeks  in  the  month  of  August  and  suffered  terribly. 

((f)  While  walking  backward  the  man  struck  his  forehead  against  a  stone  wall  and  was  knocked  insensible. 

(e)  Though  armed  with  nothing  but  his  pocketknife  he  killed  the  robber  with  a  single  shot. 

(/)  A  man  said  to  his  friend,  "I  hope  you  will  live  to  eat  the  chickens  that  scratch  sand  on  your  grave." 

(g)  Just  before  sunset  we  sat  in  the  shade  of  a  tall  tree  and  amused  ourselves  by  watching  the  shadows  as  they 
gradually  grew  shorter  and  shorter. 

(h)  A  man  said  he  liked  the  moon  better  than  the  sun,  because  the  moon  shines  at  night  when  we  need  the  light 
while  the  sun  shines  in  the  day  when  it  is  already  light. 

(i)  When  the  price  of  food  is  high,  wages  ought  to  be  low  in  order  to  make  things  fair  for  everybody. 

(j)  There  was  once  a  man  so  strong  that  he  could  lift  himself  high  off  the  ground  by  pulling  up  on  his  boot  straps. 

Series  3. 

(a)  One  day  we  came  in  sight  of  several  icebergs  that  had  been  entirely  melted  by  the  warmth  of  the  Gulf  Stream. 

(5)  Yesterday  the  police  found  the  body  of  a  girl  cut  into  eighteen  pieces  and  they  believe  that  she  killed  herself, 
(c)  A  father  wrote  to  his  son,  "  I  inclose  ten  dollars.  If  you  do  not  receive  this  letter,  please  send  me  a  telegram." 
((f)  A  man  wished  to  dig  a  hole  in  which  to  bury  some  rubbish.    He  could  not  decide  what  to  do  with  the  dirt 

from  the  hole.     A  friend  suggested  that  he  dig  the  hole  large  enough  to  hold  the  dirt  too. 

(e)  At  the  crossroads  was  a  guidepost  with  the  following  directions:  "Philadelphia,  3 J  miles.  If  you  can  not  read, 
inquire  at  the  blacksmith  shop. 

(/)  The  reason  why  winter  is  colder  than  summer  is  because  in  winter  there  is  a  large  amount  of  snow,  while  in 
summer  there  are  only  warm  rains. 

(g)  Walter  came  to  school  tardy  only  one  day  last  year,  and  that  was  Christmas  morning. 

(h)  With  an  umbrella  under  her  arm  and  a  purse  in  her  right  hand  the  daintily  dressed  woman  walked  slowly  along 
the  road  in  a  heavy  rain. 

(i)  When  wages  are  low,  laborers  should  get  their  pay  in  gold  rather  than  in  silver,  because  gold,  being  more  precious 
than  silver,  will  buy  more  food. 

(j)  It  is  safer  to  travel  in  an  automobile  than  on  a  train,  because  a  train  wreck  may  kill  a  hundred  people  while 
an  automobile  wreck  never  kills  more  than  a  few. 

Series  4- 

(a)  Walter  now  has  to  write  with  his  left  hand  because  two  years  ago  he  lost  both  his  arms  in  an  accident. 

(6)  An  engineer  said  that  the  more  cars  he  had  on  his  train  the  faster  he  could  go. 

(c)  A  well-known  railroad  had  its  last  accident  five  years  ago  and  since  that  time  it  has  killed  only  one  person  in  a 
collision. 

((f)  They  found  the  young  man  locked  in  the  room  with  his  hands  and  feet  tied  behind  him.  They  think  that  he 
locked  himself  in. 

(e)  I  read  in  a  paper  that  they  fired  two  shots  at  a  man.     The  first  shot  killed  him,  but  the  second  did  not. 

(/)  An  old  lady  says  that  God  is  very  good,  because  He  always  makes  the  largest  rivers  flow  past  the  largest  cities. 

(g)  An  Irishman  called  at  the  post  office  to  get  his  mail.  "What  is  your  name?"  said  the  postmaster.  "Why?" 
said  the  Irishman,  "you  will  find  my  name  on  the  envelope." 

(h)  A  kind-hearted  man  who  was  taking  a  heavy  bag  of  grain  to  town  on  his  horse,  sat  on  his  horse  and  lifted  the 
bag  to  his  own  shoulder  in  order  to  make  the  load  easier  for  his  horse. 

(i)  A  gentleman  fell  from  his  carriage  and  broke  his  neck,  but  received  no  further  damage. 

(j)  In  some  States  there  are  laws  to  prevent  a  man  from  marrying  his  widow's  sister. 

Series  5. 

(a)  It  has  been  found  that  the  last  car  of  a  train  is  damaged  most  in  case  of  accident.  It  therefore  seems  best  to 
leave  off  the  last  car. 

(6)  There  was  a  railroad  accident  yesterday,  but  it  was  not  very  serious.     Only  forty-eight  people  were  killed. 

(c)  A  wheel  came  off  of  Frank's  automobile  and  as  he  could  not  get  the  wheel  back  on  he  had  to  run  his  automobile 
to  the  shop  for  repairs. 

(if)  A  boy  who  was  asked  where  Mr.  Smith  lived,  said,  "The  first  house  you  come  to  is  a  barn.  The  next  is  a 
haystack.     The  next  is  Mr.  Smith's." 

(e)  The  storm  which  began  yesterday  has  continued  three  days  without  a  break. 

(/)  Henry's  dog  has  three  puppies,  so  when  Henry  builds  a  little  house  for  them  he  will  have  to  make  one  large 
door  for  the  mother  dog  and  three  small  doors  for  the  three  puppies. 


No.  1.] 


PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  ARMY. 


139 


(g)  The  judge  said  to  the  prisoner,  "You  are  to  be  hanged,  and  I  hope  it  will  be  a  warning  to  you." 

(h)  Frank  and  his  sister  brush  their  teeth  every  morning.  Once  Frank  made  a  mistake  and  brushed  his  teeth  with 
his  sister's  brush.     This  made  his  sister  very  angry,  and  she  got  even  with  him  by  brushing  her  teeth  with  his  brush. 

(i)  The  main  difference  between  a  president  and  a  king  is  that  a  king  sits  on  a  throne,  while  a  president  sits  on  a 
chair. 

(j)  They  began  the  meeting  at  two  o'clock,  but  they  set  the  hands  of  the  clock  back  so  that  the  meeting  might 

surely  close  before  sunset. 

Test  N,  controlled  association  (rimes.). 

Materials. — List  of  words,  given  below. 

Directions. — (a)  Examiner  says,  "You  know  whata  rime  is.  'Hat,'  'rat,'  and  'cat'  rime  because  they  sound  alike. 
'Unite,'  'light,'  and  'anthracite'  also  rime  with  one  another  because  they  all  end  in  'ite.'  (Pronounce.)  Now  I'll  give 
you  a  word  and  you  will  have  one  minute  to  tell  me  as  many  words  as  you  can — short,  words  or  long  words — that  rime 
with  it.  The  word  is — examiner  gives  word  (a)  of  series  selected  for  use.  Tell  me  all  the  words  you  can  think  of  that 
rime  with ." 

Scoring. — Write  down  as  many  of  the  responses  as  possible  and  record  the  number  of  right  and  wrong  responses  given 
within  the  time  limit. 

Time  of  work,  1  minute  for  each  part. 

(6)  "Tell  me  all  the  words  you  can  think  of  that  rime  with ."     Examiner  gives  word  (b)  of  same  series, 

taking  care  to  stress  the  last  syllable  only;  e.  g.,  permit'. 


Series  1. 

(a)  stone. 

(b)  permit. 

(c)  resist. 


Series  2. 
(a) load. 

(b)  without. 

(c)  receive. 


Series  3. 

(a)  pan. 

(b)  until. 

(c)  desire. 


Series  4. 
(a)  fear. 
(6)  unwrap, 
(c)  began. 


Series  5. 

(a)  pour. 

(b)  combine. 

(c)  severe. 


Test  0,  likenesses  and  differences. 
Directions. — Examiner  Eelects  one  of  the  five  series  and  gives  its  10  items  in  the  order  in  which  they  come  in  the 

"Guide."     When  a  difference  is  asked  for,  the  formula  is,  "What  is  the  difference  between  and   ?" 

When  a  likeness  is  asked  for,  the  formula  is,  "  In  what  way  are and alike?" 

If  a  likeness  is  given  when  a  difference  is  asked  for  (or  vice  versa),   examiner  says,  "No,  tell  me  the  difference 

between and "     (Or,  "Tell  me  how and are  alike.")     Only  in  such  cases  is  a  second  trial 

given,  but  a  correction  spontaneously  offered  is  accepted.  If  the  meaning  of  a  response  is  not  clear,  examiner  says, 
"What  do  you  mean?"  No  other  questioning  is  permissible.  If  subject  hesitates  to  attempt  a  response  he  should  be 
encouraged. 

Scoring. — Each  item  should  be  scored  4-  or  — .  Half  credits  are  not  allowed.  For  items  (a)  to  (h)  of  each  series, 
any  real  likeness  (or  difference)  is  satisfactory;  it  need  not  be  the  most  essential  one.  The  standard  of  scoring  corre- 
sponds to  that  employed  in  current  Binet  procedure. 

Item  (i)  is  passed  only  if  an  essential  likeness  is  given,  though  it  need  not  be  elegantly  expressed.     The  essential 
similarities  called  for  in  the  (i)  items  are  considered  to  be  as  follows: 
coal — a  waterfall;  sources  of  power,  heat,  or  electricity. 

addition-^multiplication;  multiplication  a  short  method  of  addition;  both  accomplish  the  same  thing,  etc. 
eye — ear;  both  sense  organs,  avenues  of  information,  etc. 
egg — seed;  beginning  of  development;  or  a  sex  product. 
farm— factory ;  places  where  things  are  produced. 

The  scoring  of  item  (j)  is  analogous  to  that  for  Binet's  test  of  giving  differences  between  abstract  words. 
For  president — king,  any  one  of  the  three  main  differences  (power,  accession,  tenure)  is  acceptable. 
When  possible,  the  response  should  be  recorded,  in  abbreviated  form.     When  a  response  can  not  be  graded 

definitely  as  +  or  — ,  examiner  should  say,  "In  what  other  way  are and alike  (different)." 

If  a  difference  is  given  when  a  likeness  is  asked  for,  examiner  writes  (d).  If  a  likeness  is  given  when  a  difference 
is  asked  for,  this  is  indicated  by  (l). 

(N.  B. — Attention  is  called  to  the  possible  significance  of  difficulty  caused  subject  by  the  shift  of  Aufgabe  from 
giving  likenesses  to  giving  differences,  or  vice  versa.) 

Series  1. 
(N.  B. — In  all  the  series  differences  are  indicated  by  an  *.) 
*(a)  What  is  the  difference  between  a  cannon  and  a  rifle? 
(6)  In  what  way  are  a  hat  and  a  coat  alike? 
(c)  In  what  way  are  a  hoe  and  a  razor  alike? 
*(d)  What,  is  the  difference  between  a  hatchet  and  a  hammer? 
(e)  In  what  way  are  a  rose,  a  potato,  and  a  tree  alike? 
(/)  In  what  way  are  a  table,  a  chair,  and  a  bed  alike? 
*(g)  What  is  the  difference  between  a  president  and  a  king? 
(h)  In  what  way  are  a  cat,  a  snake,  a  bird,  and  a  fish  alike? 
(i)  In  what  way  are  the  eye  and  the  ear  alike? 
*(j)  What  is  the  difference  between  character  and.  reputation? 


140 


MEMOIRS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES. 


[Vol.  XV, 


Series  2. 


*(a)  plate — saucer. 

(6)  pen — pencil. 

(c)  animal — plant. 
*(d)  the  sun — the  moon. 

(e)  snake — cow — sparrow. 


*(a)  cat — hen. 

(6)  watch — clock. 

(c)  mosquito— sparrow. 
*(d)  nail' — screw. 

(e)  wool — cotton — leather. 


*(a)  knife — fork. 

(b)  needle — pin. 

(c)  steam — electricity. 
*(d)  bucket — basket. 

(e)  book— teacher — newspaper. 


*(a)  hat — cap. 

(6)  cigar — cigarette. 

(c)  brick— stone. 
*(rf)  river — lake. 

(f)  knife  blade — penny- 


Scries  S. 


(J)  lamb— calf— child. 
*{g)  lawyer— judge. 

(h)  grass — cotton — tree — thistle. 

(i)  coal — a  waterfall. 
*(j)  mistake — lie. 


(J)  spider — fly— elephant. 
*(g)  rascal — thief. 
(h)  ship — bicycle — automobile — train. 


Series  4. 


Series  5. 


-piece  of  wire. 


(i)  egg — seed. 
*(j)  anger — rage. 


if)  physician — surgeon — dentist. 
*(g)  surgeon — ordinary  physician. 

(h)  dog — tree — spider — eagle. 

(i)  farm — factory. 
*(j)  laziness— idleness. 


(/)  scissors — knife — axe. 
*{g)  man — gentleman. 

(h)  water — blood — oil — milk. 

(i)  addition — multiplication. 
*(i)  poverty— misery. 


Test  P,  ingenuity. 


Directions.- — The  formula  is  as  follows:  "A  soldier  must  measure  out  exactly  3  ounces  of  medicine  for  a  sick  com- 
rade. He  has  only  an  8-ounce  bottle  and  a  5-ounce  bottle  to  do  it  with.  Show  how  he  can  use  these  two  bottles  to 
get  just  the  right  dose  of  3  ounces  without  any  guessing.  Begin  by  filling  the  8-ounce  bottle."  Examiner  writes 
8 — 5 — 3  on  a  piece  of  paper,  leaves  it  in  sight  of  subject,  and  says,  "Remember  you  have  an  8-ounce  bottle  and  a 
5-ounce  bottle  to  get  exactly  3  ounces.  Tell  me  how  you  would  do  it  and  tell  me  everything  you  do."  Directions 
are  not  to  be  repeated.     Subject  is  not  allowed  to  figure  with  a  pencil.     The  solution  must  be  given  orally. 

The  above  illustration  of  the  formula  is  for  problem  (a)  of  series  1.  The  other  (a)  problems  are  stated  in  the  same 
way,  using  the  appropriate  numbers.  In  giving  the  (6)  problems  and  (c)  problems  the  formula  is  abbreviated  to, 
"This  time  you  have  a  5-ounce  bottle  and  a  7-ounce  bottle  to  get  3  ounces;  begin  by  filling  the  5-ounce  bottle." 

One  series  of  three  problems  should  be  given  to  each  subject.  The  problems  are  always  to  be  presented  in  the 
order  (a),  (6),  (c). 

Time  allowed  is  2  minutes  for  the  (a)  problems  and  5  minutes  each  for  the  (b)  and  (c)  problems.  Work  on  the 
(6)  and  (e)  problems  is  discontinued  after  2  minutes  if  subject  has  not  completed  the  third  step  in  the  solution.  When 
any  problem  has  been  failed  the  experiment  is  discontinued. 

The  solution  must  be  unaided  other  than  by  general  encouragement.  If  subject  asks  if  the  bottles  are  marked, 
examiner  should  say  "No."  If  subject  asks  whether  it  is  permissible-to  pour  from  one  bottle  to  another,  the  answer 
is  "Yes." 

Scoring. — Examiner  records  all  the  steps  made  by  subject,  or  as  nearry  all  as  possible.  The  recording  should  be 
done  in  the  notation  employed  in  the  problem  lists  below.  Thus,  for  problem  (a)  the  steps  are  fS  (fill  8);  8t5  (pour 
from  8  to  5);  e5  (empty  5).  The  steps  taken  are  not  to  be  numbered  in  the  record  blank;  they  are  merely  recorded  in 
order  in  the  above  notation. 

(N.  B. — Examiner.  Observe  that  one  of  the  measures  must  be  filled  or  emptied  at  each  step  in  a  correct  solution. 
It  will  be  noted  that  each  of  the  problems  as  written  below  gives  first  the  measure  to  be  filled  first,  then  the  other 
measure,  and  then  the  quantity  to  be  obtained.  Thus  8 — 5 — 3  means  an  8-ounce  bottle  and  a  5-ounce  bottle  to  get 
3  ounces;  the  8-ounce  bottle  to  be  filled  first.) 


No.  1.] 


PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  ARMY. 


141 


INGENUITY 

PROBLEMS. 

No. 

Problems. 

Steps. 

Solution. 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

SERIES  1. 

la 
lb 
lo 

8—5—3 
5—7—3 
9—7—4 

f8 
f5 
19 

8t5 
5t7 
9t7 

e5 
15 

3  in  8 

3  in  5 

4  in  9 

St7 

e7 

19 

e7          9t7 

9t7 

e7 

SERIES  2. 

2a 
2b 
2c... 

7-^—3 
8—5—11 
4—9—3 

17 
f8 
f4 

7t4 
8t5 
4t9 

e4 
e5 

14 

3  in  7 
8+3=11 
3  in  4 

8t5 
4t9 

18 
14 

4t9 

e9 

SERIES  3. 

3a 
3b 
3c 

7 — 4—10 

5—8—7 

f9 

n 

15 

9t4 
7t4 
5t8 

e4 
e4 
f5 

5  in  9 

7+3=10 

2+5=7 

7t4 
5t8 

f7 

e8 

5t8 

15 

SERIES  4. 

4a 
4b 

4c 

9—5—4 
8—7—9 
6—7—11 

19 
f8 
16 

9t5 
8t7 
6t7 

e5 

e7 
f6 

4  in  9 

8+1=9 

6+5=11 

8t7 
6t7 

18 

67 

6t7 

16 

SERIES  5. 

5a 
5b 
5c 

9—7—2 

6—8—4 
7—5—4 

19 
16 

17 

9t7 
6tS 
7t5 

e7 
f6 
eo 

2  in  9 
4in6 
4in7 

6t8 
7t5 

eS 

17 

7t5 

e5 

Test  Q,  memory  for  designs. 

Materials. — Use  the  four  plates  of  designs  on  pages  147-148.  Examiner  provides  subject  with  pencil  and  paper 
beforehand. 

Directions. — Formula  for  (a)  and  (6):  "I  am  going  to  show  you  a  drawing.  You  will  have  just  10  seconds  to  look 
at  it,  then  I  will  take  it  away  and  let  you  draw  it  from  memory.  Don't  begin  till  I  say  'Go.' "  Formula  for  (c)  and 
(d):  "This  time  I  will  show  you  two  drawings.  You  will  have  only  10  seconds  to  look  at  them,  then  I  will  take  them 
away  and  you  are  to  draw  them  both  from  memory."1 

Before  exposing  the  designs,  examiner  says,  "Ready.  Look  closely."  When  designs  are  removed,  examiner 
says,  "GO." 

Designs  are  exposed  with  greatest  length  of  page  horizontal,  and  with  front  of  "guide"  toward  examiner. 

Scoring. — The  possible  scores  for  each  of  the  four  items  are  full  credit,  half  credit,  failure.  The  standards  for 
these  scores  correspond  to  current  scoring  of  the  Binet  design.  Full  credit  is  given  only  if  the  essential  plan  of  the 
design  has  been  grasped  and  reproduced.  A  slight  error  reduces  the  credit  to  half.  Half  credit  is  given  for  (c)  and 
(d)  when  one  of  the  two  parts  is  reproduced  correctly  and  the  other  half  correctly. 

Full  credit  is  given  for  (d)  only  in  case — (1)  left  design  is  drawn  with  four  parts  and  the  right  with  six;  (2)  the 
right  design  is  made  longer  than  the  left;  (3)  the  divisions  of  the  left  design  are  made  equal  and  those  of  the  right  pro- 
gressively smaller  from  left  to  right. 

Test  R,  logical  memory. 

Materials. — (1)  Paragraphs  designated  as  passage  1,  2,  3,  etc.,  on  page  142;  (2)  tracing  paper. 

Directions. — Having  selected  a  passage  for  use  and  recorded  its  number  in  the  place  provided  on  the  record  blank, 
examiner  places  the  passage  (in  guide)  before  subject,  and  says,  "Bead  this  out  loud.  Try  to  remember  it  as  well  as 
you  can.     No  matter  whether  you  remember  the  exact  words  or  not." 

The  time  of  reading  is  to  be  measured  with  a  stop  watch.  Errors  (omissions  or  changes)  and  defective  articula- 
tions are  to  be  recorded.     Mistakes  which  are  corrected  are  not  counted. 

As  soon  as  subject  has  finished  reading,  examiner  takes  the  guide,  places  a  piece  of  tracing  paper  over  the  barred 
copy  of  the  passage  and  says,  "Now  tell  me  what  you  read."  Examiner  should  indicate  each  idea  recalled  by  mark- 
ing it  on  the  tracing  paper.  If  subject  pauses  for  15  seconds,  examiner  says,  "  What  else?"  Allow  credit  for  responses 
begun  during  the  next  15  seconds,  after  which  discontinue  the  test.  Examiner  should  record  all  false  memories  or 
tendencies  to  fabrication. 

Time  for  recall,  2  minutes. 


i  Begin  with  design  (a),  on  p.  14S,  and  give  in  the  order  (a),  (6),  (c),  (d). 


142  MEMOIRS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES.  [Vol.  xv, 

•janrea^s  qspug  B  Xq  XBp  jxau  aqi  }jod  ojut  iqSnojq  aiajA.  Xaqx  "eas  XABaq  aq}  ut 
sjfjoo  ajjij  ?n°q^  passo}  aiaAs.  sjBoq  aqi  qSnoqcj  'panasaj  jps  ajaii  'uautodi  Sutpnput  'sjaSuassBd  X^xts  aq^  'ssaujjj^p  puB 
uuo^bmous  Suiputpq  b  jo  a^tds  uj     'SuraaAa  XBpuoj^  joodjaAi'j  juau  auitn  b  2piu)8  spoj^  As.a^  jautj  UBauaray  aqx 

Passage  1. 

The  American  |  liner  |  New  York  |  struck  a  mine  |  near  Liverpool  |  Monday  evening.  I  In  spite  of  a  blinding 
snowstorm  |  and  darkness,  |  the  sixty  passengers,  |  including  women,  |  were  all  rescued,  I  though  the  boats  |  were  tossed 
about  I  like  corks  |  in  the  heavy  sea.  |    They  were  brought  |  into  port  |  the  next  day  |  by  a  British  |  steamer.  | 

•maq}  joj  spooS  apapq^B  Xnq  puB  spuno^SXtqd  aqj  aAOjdnrt  01  pasn  aq  \\y&.  Xauom  stqx  -sjadBd  jo  snoj  pajpunq  b  jbao 
pa.taq}BS  Xaqx  'tnaqi  Sutras  puB  sapjq  ui  raaqj  Stnwnd  'saaBjd  atjqnd  puB  sanioq  itaqj  iuojj  sjadudsAau  pjo  Strrjaanoa 
Xq  Xanoui  spqj  ^o§  Xaqx     "A^p  aqi  jo  spunojSXBid  jooqos  aqi  joj  OOOoJ  sabS  Xpuaoaj  uojSntqsB^  jo  uajpjpqa  aqx 

Passage  2. 

The  children  j  of  Washington  |  recently  gave  |  $2000  |  for  the  school  |  playgrounds  |  of  the  city.  |  They  got  this 
money  |  by  collecting  |  old  newspapers  I  from  their  homes  |  and  public  places,  |  putting  them  in  bales  |  and  selling 
them.  |  They  gathered  |  over  a  hundred  tons  of  papers.  |  This  money  will  be  used  |  to  improve  |  the  playgrounds 
and  buy  athletic  goods  for  them.  | 

Sop  aot[od  ;saq  aqi  sajTBtn  Sop  daaqs  UBadoing  aqx  'amp  jo  spuoaas  apqBnpiA  puB  sa^oi^s  Stnmtums 
Xubui  dabs  Xaqi  qatqjtt  Xq  'dBaj  SutXg  13  a^Btn  0%  }q8nB^  ajB  Xaqi  ''jno  Sut^u^e  puB  jajBAi  aq?  o^  uMop  Sunrcnu  jo  pca^a 
-ui     'aidoad  Sunmoip  anasai  0}  paumj  osps  bjb  sSop  aotpd     'atmi  jbai  ut  papunoji  aqi  pug  01  paunu?  aiB  bSoq 

Passage  3. 

Dogs  I  are  trained  |  to  find  |  the  wounded  I  in  war  time.  I  Police  dogs  |  are  also  trained  |  to  rescue  |  drowning 
people.  I  Instead  of  running  down  to  the  water  I  and  striking  out,  |  they  are  taught  |  to  make  a  flying  leap,  |  by  which 
they  save  |  many  swimming  strokes  |  and  valuable  J  seconds  of  time.  |  The  European  |  sheep  dog  I  makes  the  best 
police  dog.  I 

■paanturan  padrosa  uajpuqa  oa.%  Xruo  'asnoq-jooqas  aqj  mojj  aauB} 
-sip  Suo(  b  auiAW  v  bsojdb  puB  api8ip;q  b  UMop  Uj&ojqi  eiaj&  uaiprpqo  aqx  'aSBip^A  itaqi  ui  asnoq-jooqaB  aqi  pajpaiM 
ipqs  b  uaqM.  painful  Xjanouas  sjaqio  puB  'imq  XtrBjBj  10  panPl  a-iaA*.  aauBjj;  uiaqjjou  ut  uajpjnp  poqas  XuBpi 

Passage  4- 

Many  |  echool  children  I  in  northern  |  France  |  were  killed  |  or  fatally  hurt,  |  and  others  seriously  injured  |  when 
a  shell  I  wrecked  I  the  school-house  I  in  their  village.  |  The  children  I  were  thrown  |  down  a  hillside  |  and  across  |  a 
ravine  I  a  long  distance  |  from  the  school-house.  |     Only  two  children  |  escaped  uninjured.  | 

•jaq  joj  asjnd  b  dn  apBtn  Bjaogjo  aqx  'anp  bba  }uai  aqt  puB  uaipjiqa 
d\m\  moj  pBq  aqg  -sjBuop  aAg  'inoqB  jo  paqqoj  puB  ajojaq  ?qStu  aqj  ^aaj}g  ajBjg  no  dn  pjaq  uaaq  pBq  aqs  jBqi  notiB^g 
IFH  A?0  aiH  1B  pajjodaj  'Sutpimq  aoqjo  ub  ui  UBmoji  qnjos  b  bb  paXoidraa  'uojsog  q^nog  jo  uosdraoqx  Buny 


Anna  Thompson  |  of  South  Boston,  |  employed  as  a  scrub  woman  I  in  an  office  building,  |  reported  |  at  the  City 
Hall  I  Station  j  that  she  had  been  held  up  |  on  State  Street  |  the  night  before  |  and  robbed  |  of  about  five  dollars. 
She  had  four  |  little  children  |  and  the  rent  |  was  due.  |    The  officers  |  made  up  |  a  purse  |  for  her.  | 

Test  S,  comprehension  test. 

Directions. — Say  to  subject,  "I  am  now  going  to  ask  you  some  questions.  Listen  closely,  and  answer  them  as 
well  as  you  can."  Then  give  the  five  questions  of  the  series  chosen  for  use  slowly  and  distinctly,  with  expression. 
Subject  may  be  given  such  encouragement  to  reply  as  the  occasion  demands,  but  examiner  must  avoid  suggesting  cor- 
rect answers.  If  the  response  is  too  vague,  question  further  in  such  terms  as,  "What  do  you  mean?  "  "What  makes 
it  so  and  so?  "  and  the  like.  Questions  may  be  reread  once  if  subject  requests  it.  Effort  should  be  made  to  secure  a 
response  which  can  be  scored  as  +  or  — . 

The  purpose  of  the  test  is  to  indicate  the  reasonableness  of  subject's  mental  processes.  Disturbances  of  thought 
processes  may  be  topical,  and  many  questions  fail  to  bring  them  out,  whereas  others  do.  In  examining  a  suspected 
psychotic,  examiner  should  give,  in  addition  to  one  of  the  regular  series,  selections  from  other  series,  using  such  ques- 
tions as  in  his  judgment  are  best  suited  to  bring  out  the  suspected  abnormality. 

Scoring.— The  scoring  for  each  item  remains  to  be  worked  out.  For  this  reason  it  is  important  that  examiner  record 
enough  of  each  response  to  give  its  essential  content.    This  will  make  possible  the  later  alteration  of  scores. 

Effort  should  be  made  to  score  each  response  as  +  or  —  according  to  some  definite  standard.  Current  standards 
for  scoring  the  Binet  "difficult  comprehension  "  questions  will  serve  as  a  point  of  departure.  Absurd  responses  should 
be  especially  noted. 

Time  for  response,  1  minute  for  each  question.  If  the  subject  requests  a  second  reading,  the  time  is  measured 
from  the  end  of  the  second  reading. 


No.  1.] 


PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  ARMY. 


143 


Series  1. 

(a)  If  you  have  a  bucket  full  of  eggs  in  one  hand  and  an  empty  basket  in  the  other,  and  a  man  offers  to  give  you 
some  sweet  cider,  how  would  you  get  it  home? 

(b)  Why  is  it  better  to  judge  a  man  by  what  he  does  than  by  what  he  says? 

(c)  Why  should  people  have  to  pay  taxes? 

(rf)  Why  are  people  who  are  born  deaf  usually  dumb? 

(e)  Why  does  land  in  the  city  cost  more  than  land  in  the  country? 

Series  2. 
(a)  If  a  child  runs  out  in  front  of  an  automobile  and  is  run  over  by  it,  what  should  the  driver  do? 
(6)  If  you  picked  up  a  pocketbook  on  the  road  with  a  hundred  dollars  in  it,  what  would  you  do  to  find  the  owner? 

(c)  Which  would  you  forgive  more  quickly;  a  man  who  did  you  an  injury  when  he  was  angry,  or  a  man  who  did  you 
an  injury  when  he  wasn't  angry? 

(d)  Why  is  it  better  to  pay  bills  by  check  than  by  cash? 

(e)  Why  are  unmarried  men  preferred  for  military  service? 

Series  S. 
(a)  What  should  you  do  if  you  find  a  sealed,  stamped,  and  addressed  envelope  in  the  street? 
(6)  What  should  you  do  with  a  2-year-old  child  that  you  find  lost  on  a  city  street? 

(c)  What  should  you  say  if  someone  asks  your  opinion  about  somebody  you  don't  know  very  well? 

(d)  Why  is  it  often  a  good  thing  for  a  man  to  have  his  life  insured? 

(e)  Why  do  banks  usually  prefer  married  men  for  cashiers? 

Series  4- 

(a)  You  are  hauling  a  load  of  lumber;  the  horses  get  stuck  in  the  mud,  and  there  is  no  help  to  be  had.  What  should 
you  do? 

(b)  Your  mother  is  sick  and  has  no  money.  You  earn  a  dollar  and  are  taking  it  to  her.  On  the  way  you  meet  a 
child  who  cries  and  wants  a  nickel  for  some  candy.    What  should  you  do? 

(c)  Why  has  New  York  become  the  largest  city  in  America? 

(d)  Why  is  a  man  who  borrows  money  willing  to  pay  interest  on  it? 

(e)  Why  should  women  and  children  be  saved  first  in  a  shipwreck? 

Series  5. 

(a)  What  should  you  do  if  your  neighbor  dumps  rubbish  in  your  dooryard? 

(b)  Why  is  electric  light  better  than  gaslight? 

(c)  You  are  driving  along  a  lonely  road  with  a  wagonload  of  people,  and  you  meet  a  man  badly  hurt  lying  in  the 
road.     Your  wagon  can  not  hold  any  more,  and  no  other  help  may  come  for  hours.     What  should  you  do? 

(d)  Why  should  people  have  to  get  a  license  to  get  married? 

(e)  A  man  is  60  years  old  and  has  nobody  to  keep  but  himself.  He  has  ten  thousand  dollars.  What  should  he  do 
with  it? 

Test  T,  sentence  construction  (three  words). 

Materials. — Sets  of  three  words,  given  below. 

Directions.— (a)  Examiner  says,  "Now,  I  am  going  to  give  you  three  words.  Join  them  with  other  words  in  any 
order  so  as  to  make  a  sentence  that  has  all  three  words  in  it.  The  three  words  are  (examiner  reads  set  (a)  of  series  se- 
lected for  use).     Go  ahead  and  make  up  a  sentence  that  has  all  three  words  in  it." 

N.  B. — Examiner:  Do  not  show  the  words  or  illustrate  what  a  sentence  is.  If  the  subject  does  not  begin  to  respond 
within  a  minute,  repeat  the  directions,  using  set  (b).     If  still  there  is  no  response  within  a  minute,  discontinue  the  test. 

Scoring. — Write  down  what  the  subject  says  and  score  the  test  +  or  — . 

(b)  Examiner  says,  "Now  make  up  a  sentence  that  has  these  three  words  in  it."  (Examiner  reads  set  (b)  of  series 
being  used.) 

(c)  Same  procedure  as  for  (b),  using  set  (c). 


Scries  1. 

(a)  grocer,  sugar,  scales 

(b)  thread,  cloth,  button 

(c)  pleasure,  theater,  people 

Series  S. 

(a)  accident,  train,  night 

(b)  water,  fish,  animal 

(c)  wealth,  miser,  friends 

Series  5. 

(a)  plants,  root,  ground 

(b)  newspaper,  fire,  city 

(c)  business,  invention,  machine 


Series  2. 

(a)  forest,  gun,  hunter 

(b)  parade,  crowd,  circus 

(c)  success,  books,  information 

Series  4. 

(a)  woman,  ribbon,  hat 

(b)  cloud,  light,  moon 

(c)  poverty,  spendthrift,  fortune 


144 


MEMOIRS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES. 


[Vol.  XV, 


Test  U,  arithmetical  reasoning. 

Say  to  subject,  "If  a  man  buys cents  worth  of  postage  stamps  at  the  post  office  and  pays  a  (dime,  quarter, 

half  dollar,  dollar),  how  much  change  does  he  get  back?" 

Series  of  Problems. 


Series. 

(a) 

CM 

(<•■> 

W 

1 

6  from  10 
4  from  10 
3  from  10 

7  from  10 

8  from  10 

8  from  25 

9  from  25 
7  from  25 
6  from  25 
4  from  25 

14  from  50 
13  from  50 

16  from  50 
12  from  50 

17  from  50 

53  from  100 
36  from  100 
27  from  100 
61  from  100 
43  from  100 

2 

3 

1 

5 

Time  for  each  problem,  15  seconds. 

One  series  of  these  simple  problems  is  to  be  given.  If  they  are  readily  solved,  subject  should  be  teBted  further 
with  one  of  the  following  problems: 

le.  If  a  man's  salary  is  $20  a  week  and  he  spends  $14  a  week,  how  long  will  it  take  him  to  save  $300? 

2e.  If  2  pencils  cost  5  cents,  how  many  pencils  can  you  buy  for  50  cents? 

3e.  At  15  cents  a  yard,  how  much  will  7  feet  of  cloth  cost? 

4e.  Six  men  can  dig  a  trench  in  three  days.     How  many  men  will  it  take  to  dig  it  in  half  a  day. 

5e.  If  a  man  buys  two  cigars  at  7  cents  each  and  a  pipe  for  65  cents,  how  much  change  should  he  get  from  a  $2  bill? 

Time  for  each  problem,  1  minute. 

Test  V,  code  learning. 

Materials. — Accompanying  sample  code  and  five  test  codes,  designated  by  numbers. 

Directions. — Examiner  shows  subject  the  sample  code,  saying,  "These  lines  (illustrating  with  pencil  drawings 
of  symbols)  are  used  to  represent  letters  in  a  kind  of  secret  writing."  Examiner  now  shows  how  the  word  son  may 
be  written  with  the  code  symbols.  Then  he  says,  "Now  I  am  going  to  show  you  a  form  in  which  different  letters 
are  used.  Study  it  carefully  until  I  take  it  away."  Examiner  presents  one  of  the  five  codes  for  20  seconds.  He  then 
places  before  subject  a  sheet  of  paper  on  which  the  letters  from  e  to  m  (in  alphabetical  order)  have  been  written  in 
advance,  and  says,  "Put  the  lines  which  stand  for  it  around  each  letter." 

(N.  B. — Examiner  must  not  allow  subject  to  redraw  the  code  figure  from  memory.) 

Scoring. — On  the  record  blank  examiner  enters  a  symbol,  -f-  or  — ,  according  to  whether  the  response  is  correct 
or  incorrect.     The  total  number  of  correct  responses  is  also  to  be  recoided. 

Time  for  work  in  writing  the  symbols,  2  minutes. 


no.  i.]  PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  ARMY. 

Sample  code. 


145 


p 

w 

q 

t 

o 

n 

u 

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s 

o  n 


h 

Code  1. 
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1 

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Code  2. 
k 

e 

i 

1 

f 

h 

m 

g 

146 


MEMOIRS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES. 

Code  S. 


[Vol.  XV, 


k 

e 

J 

1 

f 

i 

m 

g 

n 

k 

Code  4. 

1 

m 

e 

f 

g 

J 

i 

h 

Code  5. 


j 

i 

h 

k 

1 

m 

e 

f 

g 

Memoirs  National  Academy  of  Sciences  XV. 


Part  I,  PI.  13. 


0  9  d  o  offi 


HI  1U 


1  0 


9 


! 


10  9  1 


0  0 


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10  8  9  5  1 


v  & 


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10 


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Fig.  B.— SCORE   VALUES    FOR   VARIOUS  TYPES   OF   PERFORMANCE  WITH    STENQUIST 

MATERIALS. 


Memoirs  National  Academy  of  Sciences  XV. 


Part  I,  PI.  14. 


I    ill 


10 


in 


i 


I 


m 


0 


hV 


—  0 


Elf 


Fig.  C— SCORE   VALUES    FOR   VARIOUS   TYPES   OF   PERFORMANCE   WITH    STENQUIST 

MATERIALS. 


No.  1.] 


PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  ARMY. 


147 


STENQUIST  CONSTRUCTION  TEST,  SINGLE  SERIES  I. 

[Standard  score  values.    Standard  time,  30  minutes.    All  scores  on  a  scale  of  0  to  10.] 


A.  Wrench: 

Perfect 

Nut  toward  handle 

Nut  toward  head 

Head  wrong  and  nut  wrong 

Merely  stuck  together,  nut  neglected 

B.  Chain: 

Perfect 

All  links  right  but  one 

Links  half  looped 

Links  merely  stuck  in,  etc 

C.  Paperclip: 

Perfect 

One  lever  reversed 

Both  levers  reversed 

Levers  in  right  place ,  but  not  clear  in 

Levers  put  in  backward 

Parts  merely  stuck  together,  aimlessly 

D.  Bicycle  bell: 

Perfect 

Correct  except  spring  not  hooked 

Correct   except   lever   reversed  and  spring 

unhooked 

Lever  and  spring  O.  K.,  pinion  wrong 

(Hammer  and  cover  counted  as  in  place  in 

above). 

Hammer  wrong,  add  2  to  other  penalties 

No  attempt 

E.  Coin  holder: 

Perfect 

Correct,  but  cover  unhooked 

Caps  out  of  place 

Center  stud  omitted  orinverted 

Center  stud  misplaced 

No  attempt 


Penalty. 


Score. 


F.  Clothes  pin: 

Perfect 

Spring  over  large  end 

Spring  in  place  on  one  lever  only 

Spring  over  small  end 

All  parts  misplaced,  or  no  attempt 

G.  Shut  off,  for  rubber  hose: 

Perfect 

Lever  reversed 

Lever  underneath 

Parts  merely  stuck  together  aimlessly 

No  attempt 

H.  Push  button: 

Perfect 

Correct  except  not  snapped  shut,  i.  e.,  merely 
laid  together  in  correct  position 

Merely  laid  together,  back  reversed 

No  attempt 

I.  Lock: 

Perfect 

Correct  except  spring  omitted  or  wrong 

Bolt  only  in  place,  other  parts  wrong 

(Cover  is  assumed  to  be  in  place  in  all  the 
above). 

No  attempt 

J.  Mousetrap: 

Perfect 

All  right  except  one  spring 

Both  springs  wrong,  otherwise  right 

Only  loop  lever,  pin,  and  bait  trigger  right 

Only  loop  lever  and  pin  right 

No  attempt 


Penalty. 


Score. 


10 
2 
1 
1 
0 


3 

2 
0 

10 
5 
1 


10 
7 
4 
2 
1 
0 


N.  B. — Examiner:   A  few  cases  will  occur  in  which  the  degree  of  performance  does  not  conform  to  any  of  the 
above.     Mark  such  values  as  equal  to  the  one  nearest  like  it  above. 


<L  1 


d.  2 


Fig.  D  i— Exposure  designs  for  Test  Q .  p.  1 4 1 . 


m 


c.  1  c.  2 

Fig.  E'— Exposure  designs  for  Test  Q,  p.  141. 


Exposure  designs  of  Figs.  D  to  G  were  presented  to  subject  in  the  order  indicated  by  small  letters  a,  b,  c,  and  d. 


148 


MEMOIRS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES. 


[Vol.  XV, 


©      • 

9  & 


© 


• 


© 

• 

• 

• 

Fig.  Fi— Exposure  design  for  Test  Q,  p.  141. 


a 

Fig.  Gi— Exposure  design  for  Test  Q,  p.  141. 


Section  2. — Directions  for  scoring  examination  a. 

[Sent  out  as  supplement  to  the  Examiner's  Guide  first  revision.) 
Test  1. 

Item,  3. — The  line  may  begin  or  end  either  on  the  circumference  or  within  the  circle  and  may  just  touch  either  of 
the  inner  circles  but  should  not  cut  through  either  one. 

Item  4. — In  this  and  item  5  the  figures  or  cross  should  not  be  made  to  extend  across  any  black  line  unless  slightly 
as  though  by  accident. 

Item  6. — Here  the  proper  numbers  may  be  crossed  out  in  any  manner,  but  underlining  is  counted  wrong. 

Item  8. — In  the  circle  marked  "not  12"  (on  stencil)  there  may  be  any  number  which  is  not  12,  such  as  5,  0,  27. 

Item  10. — -Underlining  in  place  of  crossing  out  counts  wrong  and  vice  versa. 

Test  2. 

If  all  the  digits  in  any  set  are  given  and  in  the  right  order,  the  set  may  count  as  right,  even  though  written  in  the 
wrong  line  of  squares.     No  set  is  correct  unless  the  digits  are  all  given  and  in  the  right  order. 

Scorers  should  take  notice  when  the  same  error  occurs  throughout  the  blanks  of  a  given  group  and  consider  the 
possibility  of  an  error  having  been  made  by  the  examiner  in  giving  the  test. 

Test  3. 

If  in  each  item  the  proper  word  "true''  or  "false"  is  clearly  indicated  in  any  manner,  such  as  by  a  check,  the 
item  may  count  as  right.  If  only  the  word  "  true"  is  underlined  all  the  way  down  the  page,  or  similarly  only  the  word 
"false,"  a  score  of  zero  may  be  given  immediately  with  no  further  notice. 

'Test  4.  • 

Items  9  and  13  may  count  as  right,  even  though  the  decimal  point  is  left  out,  providing,  of  course,  the  figures  are 
right.    The  fraction  in  item  15  may  be  expressed  either  as  a  decimal  or  as  a  common  fraction. 

Test  S. 

If  in  any  item  the  proper  word  is  clearly  indicated  in  any  manner,  such  as  by  check  or  by  crossing  out  the  other 
three,  the  item  may  count  as  right.  However,  if  two  or  more  of  the  last  four  words  in  each  line  are  underlined  or  other- 
wise indicated,  the  item  shall  count  as  wrong.     Underlining  words  other  than  the  last  four  may  be  overlooked. 

Test  6. 

If  in  each  item  the  proper  word  "same"  or  "opposite"  is  clearly  indicated,  as  by  a  check,  the  item  may  count  as 
right.  If  only  the  word  "same"  is  underlined  all  the  way  down  the  page,  or  similarly  only  the  word  "opposite,"  a 
score  of  zero  should  be  given  immediately. 

Test  7. 

If  in  any  item  the  proper  answer  is  clearly  indicated  in  any  manner,  as  by  a  check  in  the  square  or  by  underlining, 
the  item  may  count  as  right.  If,  however,  in  any  item  two  or  more  answers  are  indicated,  the  item  shall  count  as 
wrong. 

Test  S. 

Here  the  proper  number  should  be  put  in  each  blank  place. 


1  Exposure  designs  of  Figs.  D  to  G  were  presented  to  subject  in  the  order  indicated  by  small  letters  a,  b,  c,  and  d. 


No.  1.] 


PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  ARMY. 


149 


Test  9. 

If  in  any  item  the  proper  word  in  the  parenthesis  is  clearly  indicated  in  any  manner,  the  item  may  count  as  right. 

However,  if  two  or  more  words  in  a  parenthesis  are  indicated,  the  items  shall  count  as  wrong.     Underlining  words 

outside  the  parenthesis  may  be  overlooked! 

Test  10. 


If  in  any  item  the  proper  numbers  are  clearly  indicated  in  any  manner,  the  item  may  count  as  right, 
two  numbers  are  indicated  in  any  column,  however,  the  item  shall  count  as  wrong. 
In  any  test,  responses  which  have  been  corrected  stand  as  corrected. 


If  more  than 


Section  3. — Instructions  for  scoring  and  combining  tests  of  individual  examination  series. 

The  method  of  scoring  and  combining  the  tests  of  the  individual  examination  series  was  based  on  tests  of  340 
unselected  men  in  Camps  Devens,  Lee,  and  Taylor. 

The  method  involves  the  following  procedure:  (1)  A  raw  score  is  obtained  for  each  test,  A,  B,  C,  etc.  (2)  Each  of 
these  raw  scores  is  transmuted  into  an  •'equalized3'  or  "absolute-"  score  by  means  of  a  table.  (3)  These  "absolute8' 
scores  are  then  averaged  and  the  average  is  multiplied  by  10  to  clear  it  of  decimals.  The  score  thus  obtained  is  the 
measure  of  intelligence. 

The  method  of  combining  the  scores  of  the  several  tests  was  arrived  at  as  follows:  For  the  tests  in  which  time  was 
not  counted,  frequency  distributions  were  plotted  for  number  of  right  responses.  These  tests  are  listed  in  table  9. 
For  the  remaining  tests  (listed  in  table  10)  distributions  were  plotted  both  for  time  and  amount  accomplished.  On  the 
basis  of  these  plots,  rules  were  drawn  up  for  the  assignment  of  points  bath  for  time  and  accomplishment.  These  rules 
are  embodied  in  table  10.  The  intention  of  the  plan  is  to  assign  equal  increments  of  points  for  theoretically  equal  incre- 
ments of  merit  both  in  speed  and  accomplishment.  For  each  of  the  tests  a  raw  score  was  secured  according  to  the 
directions  in  table  9,  table  10,  and  the  "Instructions  for  Scoring." 

The  assumption  was  made  that  the  degrees  of  performance  in  each  test  attained  by  the  same  percentage  of  the 
group  were  equal  in  absolute  value.  The  further  assumption  was  made  that  the  abilities  of  the  individuals  of  the 
group  in  each  test  were  distributed  normally.  On  the  basis  of  these  assumptions  the  achievement  of  the  median  indi- 
vidual was  assigned  the  absolute  value  of  15  points.  The  lower  quartile  achievement  was  assigned  10  points,  the  upper 
quartile  of  achievement  was  assigned  20  points,  and  bther  percentages  were  assigned  values  in  accordance  with  the 
assumption  made  regarding  distribution  of  intelligence. 

This  operation  was  accomplished  as  follows:  Distributions  of  the  total  raw  scores  in  each  of  the  tests  A  to  V,  exclud- 
ing tests  F  and  H,  were  plotted  in  the  ogive  form  and  smoothed.  A  scale  was  then  applied  to  the  ogive  in  each  case 
and  values  were  assigned  to  the  scores  attained  by  each  percentage  of  individuals  corresponding  to  the  values  of  y 
which  would  correspond  to  the  same  percentages  if  the  ogive  had  been  normal.  The  absolute  values  of  scores  ranged 
in  most  cases  from  approximately  zero  to  approximately  30.  In  several  instances,  however,  where  a  large  number  of 
individuals  got  a  raw  score  of  zero,  it  was  necessary  to  give  an  absolute  value  somewhat  above  zero  to  the  raw  score  of 
zero. 

The  intention  is  that  a  single  absolute  measure  of  the  intelligence  of  an  individual  may  be  obtained  by  averaging 
the  absolute  scores  in  any  number  of  tests,  and  multiplying  by  10  to  clear  of  decimals.  Assuming  the  data  on  which 
the  method  was  based  to  be  representative,  the  absolute  (that  is,  the  weighted  or  equalized)  total  score  of  an  individual 
of  median  ability  should  be  approximately  150.  The  upper  and  lower  quartile  scores  should  be  approximately  200 
and  100,  respectively. 

Table  9. — Scoring  of  tests  in  which  time  is  not  counted. 


Test. 

Score. 

Score 
range. 

do 

do 

0to9 

Table  10. — Scoring  of  tests  in  which  time  is  counted. 
TEST  A. 


Moves:  Credit. 

Time:  Credit  only  if  blocks  assembled. 

5 

4 

3 

2 

1 

0 

5 

4 

3 

o 

1 

(o) 

9 

9 

8 

27 

27 

11 
11 
10 
29 
29 

15 
15 
15 
33 
33 

25 
25 
25 
40 
40 

50 
50 
50 
70 
70 

Over. 
Over. 
Over. 
Over. 
Over. 

10 
20 
20 
60 
60 

25 
30 
30 
120 

120 

50 
50 
50 
180 
180 

80 
80 
80 
240 
240 

(6) '. 

(c) 

(d) 

(e) 

150 


MEMOIRS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES. 


[Vol.  XV, 


Table  10.- — Scoring  of  tests  in  which  time  is  counted — Continued. 
TEST  B. 


Time:  Credit  only  if  answer  correct. 


Points. 


<«)■ 
(&>- 

U). 
(«). 


IS 

30 
60 
60 


Suggestion:  For  each  instance  of  questioning  by  examiner  count  off  1  point. 

TEST  D. 


Successful  steps:  Credit  whether  in  time  limit  or  not. 

Time:  Credit  only  if  exit  made  without  crossing  line  of  maze. 

5 

4 

3 

2 

1 

3 

2 

1 

0 

(a) 

5 
5 
5 
5 

4 
4 
4 
4 

3 
3 
3 
3 

2 

2 
2 
2 

1 
1 
1 

1 

20 
20 
20 
20 

40 
40 
40 
40 

70 
70 
70 

70 

120 

(6) 

120 

(c) 

120 

120 

For  each  correction  by  examiner  count  off  1  point. 


TEST  E. 

Moves:  Credit  only  if  problem  solved. 

Time:  Credit  only  if  problem  solved. 

5 

4 

3 

2 

1 

0 

Points 

5 

4 

3 

2 

1 

(a) 

3 
5 
11 
12 

4 
6 
14 
15 

7 
10 
20 
20 

Over. 
Over. 
Over. 
Over. 

10 
10 
20 
20 

20 
20 
40 

40 

40 
40 
70 
70 

70 
70 
110 
110 

120 

(,)....     

120 

\d... 

8 
9 

9 
10 

180 

(d) 

180 

TEST  K. 

Degree  of  success:  Credit. 

Time:  Credit  only  if  correct. 

6 

3 

3 

2 

1 

0 

(o) 

Reversal  of  2. 
do 

15 
15 

30 
30 

CO 
60 

120 

\bi 

do 

120 

TEST  L. 


Success:  Credit. 

Time:  Credit  only  if  correct. 

5 

3 

3 

2 

1 

n 

(a) 

Correct  (sponta- 
neous). 

7 

7 
7 

15 

15 
15 

30 

30 
30 

60 

(6) 

do 

60 

id ::: 

do 

do 

60 

TEST  N. 


Number  rimes:  Credit. 

Time:  Credit  only  if  five  rimes  given  with  no  errors. 

7 

6 

5 

4 

1 

3 

2 

1 

0 

(a) 

5 
5 
5 

3 
3 

3 

2 
2 
2 

1 
1 
1 

Each  error. 
do 

10 
10 
10 

20 
20 

20 

40 
40 

40 

60 

(6) 

60 

(c) 

do 

60 

TEST  P. 


Time:  Credit  only  if  solution  correct. 


Points. 


15 
15 
15 


30 
30 
30 


60 
60 
60 


120 
120 
120 


No.  1.] 


PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  AKMY. 


151 


TEST  T. 


Quality:  Credit. 

Time:  Credit  only  with  success. 

4 

3 

2 

3 

2 

1 

(a).     

Very  good... 

Fair... 
...do... 

Very  poor. 

7 

7 

7 

15 
15 
15 

30 

(b)          



30 

(c) 

do 

...do... 

do 

30 

li 

Table  11. — For  equalizing  raw  scores  in  the  individual  examinations. 

[Directions:  Look  for  the  raw  score,  in  any  test,  in  the  column  at  the  left  headed  "raw  score."  Then  look  in  the  column  headed  by  the  test 
letter  for  the  equalized  score.  To  find  a  single  score  for  an  individual  in  the  individual  examination,  find  the  average  of  his  equalized  scores  and 
multiply  by  10.J 


Raw 

score. 

Equalized  scores. 

A 

B 

C 

D 

E 

G 

I 

J 

K 

L 

M 

N 

O 

P 

Q 

R 

S 

T 

U 

V 

0 
1 
2 
3 
4 
5 

1 
3 

4 
5 
5 
6 

2 

5 
8 
10 
12 
14 

0 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 

1 
3 
3 
3 

4 
4 

0 
1 
2 
2 
3 
3 

0 
0 
0 
1 
1 
1 

6 
12 
15 

18 
20 
22 

3 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 

5 

5 

0 
6 
7 
8 
10 
12 

6 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 

3 
6 
7 
9 
11 
13 

9 

18 

4 
9 
10 
11 
12 
14 

4 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 

3 

7 

9 

13 

18 

23 

6 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 

3 

6 
8 
11 
16 

22 

0 
17 
19 
21 
23 
24 

12 

7 

14 

12 

6 

8 
9 
10 

7 
7 
8 
9 
9 

16 
18 
20 
21 
22 

8 
10 
12 
14 
16 

4 
4 
5 
5 
5 

4 
4 
5 
5 
6 

2 

2 
3 
3 

4 

24 
26 
28 
29 
30 

11 
12 
13 
14 
15 

15 
16 
17 
18 
19 

13 
14 
15 

16 

14 
17 
20 
23 
27 

10 
17 
17 
18 
18 

15 

18 
21 
24 

27 

19 
21 
22 
23 
24 

16 
17 
19 
20 
22 

12 
14 
16 

18 
20 

15 

16 
17 
18 
19 

26 
27 
28 
30 

25 
20 
27 
28 
30 

11 
12 
13 
14 
15 

10 
11 
12 
13 

11 

23 
24 
25 
26 

27 

IS 
20 
22 
24 
25 

6 
6 
7 
7 

8 

7 
7 
8 
9 
10 

4 
5 
6 
7 

8 

15 

10 
16 
17 
18 

20 
22 
24 
26 

28 

17 
18 
19 
20 
21 

19 
19 
20 
20 
21 

30 

25 
25 
26 
26 
27 

25 
28 

21 
23 
24 
25 

20 

20 
21 
22 
23 
24 

10 
17 
18 
19 
20 

11 
15 
16 
16 
17 

27 
28 
28 
29 
29 

20 
27 
28 
29 
30 

9 
10 
11 
12 
13 

11 

12 
13 
14 
15 

9 
10 
12 
14 
17 

18 
19 
19 
20 
21 

30 

22 
23 
24 
25 
26 

22 
23 
24 
25 
26 

27 
28 
28 
29 
29 

27 
28 
29 
30 
31 

25 
26 
27 
28 
29 

21 
22 
23 
24 

25 

18 
18 
19 
20 
21 

29 
30 

14 
15 
17 
18 
19 

16 
18 

20 
21 
22 

23 

21 
22 
23 
23 

24 

27 
28 
29 
30 

27 
28 
29 
30 

29 
30 

30 

26 
27 
28 
29 
30 

22 
23 
24 
25 

25 

20 
21 
22 
23 
24 

23 
24 
25 
26 

27 

24 
25 
25 
25 
26 

31 
32 
33 
34 
35 

26 
26 
27 

27 

28 

25 
20 
27 
27 
28 

28 
28 
23 
29 
29 

26 
26 
27 
27 
27 

36 
37 
38 
39 
40 

28 
28 
29 
29 

29 

28 
20 
29 
29 
30 

30 

27 
28 
28 
28 
28 



41 
42 
43 
44 
45 

29 
29 
30 
30 
30 

29 
29 
29 
29 
30 

46 
47 
48 
49 
50 

30 
30 
30 
30 
31 

30 
30 
30 
30 
31 

Table  12. — Showing  scores  obtained  by  certain  percentages  of  the  group  of  Sit  unselected  men. 


I 


Percentile j       0 

Score  attained 260 


5 

10 

15 

20 

25 

30 

40 

50 

60 

70 

75 

80 

85 

90 

95 

100 

218 

205 

195 

187 

180 

174 

162 

150 

138 

126 

120 

112 

102 

86 

65 

40 

Instructions  for  giving  and  scoring  the  tests  according  to  table  10: 

Test  A.  Cube  construction. — In  test  A  any  one  of  the  five  parts,  (a),  (6),  (e),  (d),  or  (c),  may  be  concluded  in  one 
of  the  following  three  ways.  Either  the  subject  will  have  completed  the  assemblage  of  the  blocks  into  the  form  of 
the  model  within  the  time  limit,  he  will  have  quit  and  refused  to  try  further,  or  he  will  have  been  told  to  stop  because 
the  time  limit  has  been  reached.     The  giving  of  credit  for  time  is  contingent  upon  the  completion  of  the  assembling. 


152  MEMOIRS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES.  [vol.xv, 

Thus  in  the  second  and  third  of  the  above  cases  no  credit  is  to  be  given  for  time ;  but  in  the  first  case  points  are  given  for 
time  as  follows:     If,  for  example  in  (a),  the  nine  blocks  are  assembled — 

Within  120  seconds  but  not  within  SO  seconds,  count  1  point  (see  table). 

Within  80  seconds  but  not  within  50  seconds,  count  2  points. 

Within  50  seconds  but  not  within  25  seconds,  couunt  3  points. 

Within  25  seconds  but  not  within  10  seconds,  count  4  points. 

Within  10  seconds,  count  5  points. 
No  matter  whether  the  subject  finishes  or  not,  credit  is  given  for  the  degree  of  success  attained  as  follows:    Count 
each  misplaced  or  unassembled  block  as  three  moves  and  add  the  number  thus  obtained  to  the  number  of  moves  actu- 
ally made.     If  the  total  number  of  moves  thus  obtained,  in  (a),  for  example,  is — 

Not  over  9  moves,  count  5  points  (see  table). 
Over  9  moves  but  not  over  11  moves,  count  4  points. 
Over  11  moves  but  not  over  15  moves,  count  3  points. 
Over  15  moves  but  not  over  25  moves,  count  2  points. 
Over  25  moves  but  not  over  50  moves,  count  1  point. 
Over  50  moves,  count  0  point. 

A  subject  completing  the  assemblage  in  65  seconds,  having  made  12  actual  moves  and  leaving  3  blocks  out  of 
place,  will  be  scored  as  follows:  3X3=9  (moves  for  errors) ;  9+12=21  (moves  in  all). 

This  number  being  less  than  25,  but  not  less  than  15,  2  points  are  given  for  moves.  Forty-five  seconds  being  less 
than  50,  but  not  less  than  25,  the  subject  is  given  3  points  for  time.  Five  points  (2+3)  are  therefore  given  for  part  (a). 
Parts  (6),  (c),  (d),  and  (e)  are  scored  similarly.  The  total  number  of  points  given  for  parts  (a),  (b),  (c),  (d),  and  (e) 
constitutes  the  raw  score  for  test  A.     The  raw  scores  for  test  A  may  therefore  vary  from  0  to  50. 

The  general  plan  of  scoring  time  in  the  remaining  sets,  B,  D,  E,  K.  L,  N,  P,  and  T,  is  similar  to  that  employed 
in  A.  Any  contingency  governing  the  giving  of  credit  fur  time  is  given  above  each  time  schedule.  The  plan  in 
each  case,  as  in  A,  is  to  note  in  the  table  the  time  within  which  the  solution  is  made  and  to  give  credit  for  the  number 
of  points  indicated  directly  above  that  amount  of  time. 

Test  B.  Clock  test. — In  any  of  the  four  parts,  (6),  (c),  (d),  or  (c),  if  the  subject  has  made  no  correct  response  as 
the  time  limit  approaches,  say,  "If  you  are  not  sure  of  the  right  answer  tell  now  what  you  think  it  is  and  we  will 
go  on  to  the  next. "  (The  object  is  to  preclude  the  giving  of  a  zero  score  for  default  when  subject  may  have  right  answer 
in  his  mind  but  hesitates.) 

Amend  the  directions  for  (c),  (d),  and  (e)as  follows:  If  subject  has  given  a  wrong  answer  considerably  within  the 
limit,  say,  "Are  you  sure  that  is  right?"  If  subject  answers  in  the  affirmative,  count  the  item  wrong  and  proceed 
to  the  next.  If  he  gives  the  right  answer,  with  no  further  comments  on  the  part  of  the  examiner,  count  the 
item  +  and  take  the  time  to  the  giving  of  right  answer. 

In  any  one  of  the  five  items,  (a),  (6),  (c),  (d),  or  (e),  the  response  is  counted  either  right  or  wrong;  if  wrong 
give  no  credit  for  the  items;  if  right,  give  credit  for  time  as  per  table,  provided,  however,  that  if  subject  has  been  questioned 
by  examiner  as  noted  above,  one  point  in  the  score  for  that  time  is  counted  off.  If,  for  example,  subject  gave  first  an  incor- 
rect answer  and  upon  being  questioned,  then  gave  a  correct  answer  to  item  (c)  or  (d)  or  (e)  in  25  seconds,  this  being 
within  30  seconds,  but  not  within  15  seconds,  subject  should  receive  2  points  for  time  minus  1  point  for  suggestion — 
1  point  for  the  item. 

The  score  for  test  B  consists  of  the  sum  of  the  numbers  of  points  received  for  parts  (a),  (6),  (c),  (d),  and  (e),  and  may 
therefore  vary  from  0  to  22. 

Test  D.  Maze  test.—Ii,  after  subject  has  finished  a  maze,  it  appears  that  a  line  of  the  maze  has  been  crossed  (not 
due  to  awkwardness),  examiner  should  say,  "You  have  crossed  a  line  here"  (pointing  to  the  place),  "You  see,  that 
is  not  an  open  space.  Begin  here  and  see  if  you  can  find  a  path  out  without  crossing  any  lines."  Start  the  subject 
again  at  a  point  on  his  pencil  mark  just  before  it  crosses  the  line  of  the  maze.  Repeat  if  necessary  and  if  within  the 
time  limit.     Note  time  only  when  subject  has  finished  without  crossing  a  line. 

Test  D  will  then  be  scored  as  follows:  If  subject,  in  a  limit  of  2  minutes,  has  reached  the  exit  in  the  maze  by  a 
path  which  does  not  cross  a  line,  give  credit  for  time  as  per  table. 

Whether  subject  finishes  in  the  time  limit  or  not,  give  credit  for  the  degree  of  success  he  has  attained  in  the  maze 
as  follows:  Consult  accompanying  key  maze  blank  in  which  are  blue  arrows.  (Not  reproduced  here.  It  was  practi- 
cally identical  with  the  key  mazes  of  Fig.  L,  page  188.)  To  make  any  turn  or  turns  indicated  by  one  arrow,  the 
first  time,  without  crossing  any  of  the  blue  lines  cutting  off  blind  alleys,  constitutes  a  "successful  step"  in  the  solu- 
tion. The  completion  of  five  successful  steps  will  be  noted  to  constitute  a  correct  solution  of  each  maze.  Each  step 
is  either  successful  or  unsuccessful.  If  successful,  count  1  point;  if  not,  count  0  points.  The  score  for  accomplishment 
for  each  maze  is,  therefore,  the  number  of  successful  steps;  provided,  however,  that  an  error  of  crossing  a  line  (even 
though  correction  has  been  made  as  above  indicated)  counts  off  1  point.  The  score  for  each  part  (a),  (6),  (c),  or  (</), 
is,  then,  the  sum  of  the  score  for  time  and  the  score  for  accomplishment.  The  total  raw  score  for  test  D  is  the  surr  of 
the  four  scores  for  the  parts.     The  range  of  this  score  will  be  seen  to  be  from  0  to  32. 

Test  E.  Form  board.  (Dearborn). — If  subject  fails  to  solve  the  problem  in  any  part,  (a),  (6),  (c),  or  (d),  within  the 
time  limit,  score  the  part  zero.  If,  however,  a  correct  solution  has  been  accomplished  within  the  time  limit,  give 
credit  for  time  and  for  moves  as  shown  in  the  table.    Thus  if  (a)  is  solved  in  the  time  limit  of  120  seconds,  but  not 


No.i.]  PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  ARMY.  153 

within  70  seconds,  give  1  point  for  time,  etc.  If  the  solution  in  (a)  is  accomplished  in  more  than  7  moves,  score  0  for 
moves;  if  within  7  or  not  within  4  moves  give  1  point  for  moves,  etc. 

Test  K.  Letter  line. — Score  each  part,  (a)  or  (b),  as  follows:  For  correct  solution  give  6  points;  if  the  solution  is 
correct  except  for  the  reversal  of  two  letters  which  are  adjacent  in  the  key,  give  3  points.  For  a  solution  involving  a 
greater  error,  give  0  points.     If  correct  solution  is  given  within  the  time  limit,  give  credit  for  time  as  per  table. 

Test  L.  Disarranged  sentences. — If  the  subject  gives  a  sentence  considerably  within  the  time  limit,  but  with  an 
error,  say,  "Are  you  Bure  you  have  the  right  word?"  (or,  "Are  you  sure  you  used  all  the  words?"  or,  "Use  just 
the  words  given  here").  "Look  again  and  see."  Then  if  subject  gives  a  correct  solution  within  the  time  limit, 
score  the  item,  4-s(plus  after  suggestion),  and  take  time  to  the  giving  of  the  correct  solution.  Score  each  part  of  test  L 
as  follows:  For  failure  to  give  a  correct  solution  within  the  time  limit  give  a  score  of  0  points  for  that  part.  If  a  cor- 
rect solution  is  given  within  the  time  limit,  give  credit  for  time  as  per  table  and  for  the  solution  as  follows:  Spontane- 
ous correct  solution,  5  points.     Correct  solution  after  suggestion,  2  points. 

Tesrt  N.  Controlled  association  (rimes). — Give  credit  for  each  part  as  follows:  If  no  rimes  are  given,  allow  no 
credit  for  the  part.  If  one  or  more  rimes  are  given, allow  credit  as  per  table — thus:  One  rime,  4  points;  two  rimes, 
5  points;  three  or  four  rimes,  6  points;  five  or  more  rimes,  7  points.  For  each  word  given  which  does  not  rime,  cut 
off  one  point,  provided  no  negative  scores  are  given  any  part.  If  five  rimes  are  given  with  no  errors  within  the 
time  limit,  give  credit  for  time  as  per  table. 

Test  P.  Ingenuity  ( Terman.) — Amend  the  directions  for  test  P  so  as  to  impose  a  time  limit  of  2  minutes  on  each 
of  the  three  parts,  (a),  (b),  and  (c),  instead  of  allowing  5  minutes  on  (b)  and  (c).  Give  no  credit  for  any  part  of  the 
test  that  is  failed.     For  each  part  correctly  solved  give  credit  for  time  of  solution  as  per  table. 

Test  T.  Sentence  construction. — Score  each  part  as  follows:  If  the  three  ideas  are  not  combined  so  as  to  express  a 
a  single  thought,  give  no  credit  for  the  part.  If  the  three  ideas  are  connected  in  a  single  thought,  but  so  as  to  make  a 
very  poor  sentence  (poor  in  thought  or  ungrammatical),  give  2  points.  If  the  sentence  is  of  medium  quality  (slight 
errors  in  grammar  allowed)  give  3  points.  If  very  good  (strictly  grammatical  and  showing  superior  thought)  give  4 
points.     If  any  credit  is  given  an  item  for  quality,  credit  that  item  also  for  time  as  per  table. 

Section  4. — Examiner's  guide,  second  revision. 
EXAMINER'S  GUIDE 

FOR 

PSYCHOLOGICAL   EXAMINING 
IN  THE  ARMY. 

[Prepared  especially  for  military  use  by  the  Subcommittee  on  Methods  of  Examining  Recruits  of  the  Psychology  Committee  of  the 
National  Research  Council.  Revised  by  direction  of  the  Surgeon  General  of  the  Army  and  printed  by  the  Medical  Department,  U.  S.  A., 
September  1917.    Second  revision,  July,  1918.) 

I.  Introductory  Statement. 

1.    PURPOSES    OF   PSYCHOLOGICAL   EXAMINATION. 

(a)  To  classify  soldiers  according  to  their  mental  ability,  thus  supplementing  personnel  records  of  occupational 
qualifications  and  assisting  with  assignment  in  the  Army. 

(6)  To  supply  a  mental  rating  for  each  soldier  which  shall  assist  personnel  officers  in  building  organizations  of 
equal  or  of  appropriate  mental  strength. 

(c)  To  assist  regimental,  company  and  medical  officers  by  careful  examination  and  report  on  men  who  are  not 
responding  satisfactorily  to  training,  or  are  otherwise  troublesome. 

(d)  To  assist  officers  of  development  battalion  with  classification,  grading,  training,  and  ultimate  assignment  of 
men. 

(e)  To  assist  in  discovering  men  of  superior  mental  ability  who  should  be  selected  for  officers'  training  camps,  for 
promotion  or  for  assignment  to  special  tasks. 

(/)  To  assist  in  discovering  and  properly  placing  men  of  marked  special  skill,  as  for  example,  observers  or  scouts 
for  intelligence  service. 

(g)  To  assist  in  discovering  men  who  are  mentally  inferior  and  who  in  accordance  with  degree  of  defectiveness 
should  be  recommended  for  discharge,  development  battalions,  labor  organizations  or  regular  military  training. 

2.    GENERAL   PLAN    OP    EXAMINATION. 

(1)  Segregation  of  men  obviously  illiterate. 

(2)  Group  examination  alpha  (for  literates): 

Time,  40  to  50  minutes. 

Number,  100  to  200  men  in  a  group. 

(3)  Group  examination  beta  (for  illiterates  and  men  failing  in  examination  alpha): 

Tame,  50  to  60  minutes. 
Number,  up  to  60  men  in  a  group. 

(4)  Individual  examinations  (for  men  failing  in  beta,  or  referred): 

Point-scale  examination. 

Stanford-Binet  examination.        >  Time,  15  to  60  minutes. 

Performance-scale  examination.  J 

Mechanical  skill  examination  (supplementary).     Time,  15  to  30  minutes. 

121435°— 21 11 


154  MEMOIRS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES.  ivol.xv. 

The  order  of  procedure  is  as  follows: 

(a)  A  group  consisting  of  100  to  200  men  will  report  to  the  psychological  examiner  at  designated  room  for  examina- 
tion alpha. 

(6)  Men  who  can  not  read  and  write  English  at  all  should  first  be  eliminated  from  this  group  by  directing  those 
who  can  not  read  or  write  to  stand,  and  by  observing  the  manner  in  which  the  remainder  fill  out  the  headings  of  the 
examination  alpha  blank.  Those  who  are  eliminated  should  be  sent  to  the  special  beta  examining  room ;  the  remainder 
should  be  given  examination  alpha. 

(c)  Men  found  later  to  have  made  scores  of  less  than  15  (raw  score)  in  examination  alpha  should  be  given  examina- 
tion beta. 

(d)  Individuals  rated  D —  after  beta  or  after  alpha  and  beta  will  report  by  appointment  for  individual  examination. 
It  is  estimated  that  not  over  5  per  cent  of  the  strength  of  an  organization  should  require  individual  psychological 
examination . 

Summary. — All  enlisted  men  take  either  alpha  or  beta.  Those  who  can  read  and  write  English,  take  alpha  im- 
mediately. Those  who  can  not,  take  beta  immediately.  Those  who  make  scores  of  less  than  15  in  alpha  take  beta. 
All  who  fail  in  beta  take  individual  examination.  The  form  of  individual  examination  given  varies  with  the  character- 
istics of  the  subject.  Point  Scale  or  Stanford-Binet  examination  may  be  given  to  subjects  who  are  able  to  understand 
English  fairly  well.  To  all  other  subjects  performance-scale  examination  should  be  given  either  alone  or  in  addition 
to  one  of  the  other  scales. 

3.    ORGANIZATION   AND    ROUTINE. 

The  value  of  these  examinations  will  depend  upon  the  perfection  of  organization  and  the  efficiency  of  the  routine 
procedure  which  is  developed  by  the  examining  staff.     The  following  points  are  especially  important: 

(a)  Previous  arrangement  should  insure  the  prompt  reporting  of  men  either  by  groups  or  individually  at  a  given 
time  and  place  for  prescribed  examination.  Company  officers  accompanying  groups  to  be  examined  should  be  asked 
to  list  men  who  give  trouble,  or  whom  they  would  like  to  Bee  examined  individually;  reasons  and  company  record 
should  be  noted  in  each  case. 

(b)  Group  and  individual  examination  blanks  should  be  scored  and  recorded  as  promptly  as  possible,  and  ratings 
prepared  for  immediate  report.  The  chief  psychological  examiner  is  responsible  for  one  complete  file  of  all  examina- 
tions, to  be  kept  in  easily  accessible  form  by  organizations.  All  available  lists  of  names,  such  as  company  rosters, 
personnel  officer  lists,  etc.,  should  be  used  by  examiners  to  simplify  and  to  increase  the  accuracy  of  the  reports.  Time 
will  often  be  saved  by  typing  or  writing  scores  directly  on  such  lists,  especially  if  they  can  be  obtained  in  duplicate 
or  triplicate. 

(c)  The  intelligence  rating  of  every  man  examined  should  be  reported  promptly  to  personnel  officer,  with  comment 
concerning  any  special  aptitude  noted.  Company  commanders  should  also  have  all  available  information  as  soon  as 
men  are  assigned. 

(d)  All  cases  of  mental  deficiency,  as  well  as  all  cases  for  which  neuro-psychiatric  examination  is  especially  indi- 
cated, should  be  referred  promptly  to  the  psychiatrist  through  the  camp  or  division  surgeon.  Complete  report  of 
psychological  examination,  on  blank  furnished  for  the  purpose,  must  accompany  every  such  case,  whether  referred 
for  discharge,  assignment  to  special  organization,  or  neuropsychiatric  examination. 

(«)  Psychological  record  card,  complete  with  recommendation  and  disposition  of  case,  and  report  on  cases  rec- 
ommended for  neuro-psychiatric  examination  should  be  forwarded  to  the  Surgeon  General's  Office,  Division  of  Psy- 
chology, after  the  soldier  has  left  camp. 

(/)  Weekly  statistical  sheet  should  be  sent  promptly  on  or  before  Tuesday  of  each  week  to  Surgeon  General's 
Office.     It  should  be  supplemented  by  such  letter  statements  and  special  reports  as  seem  desirable. 

(g)  Every  effort  should  be  made  to  cooperate  as  fully  and  effectively  as  possible  with  all  officers  of  the  camp  or 
division  for  the  increased  efficiency  of  the  Army. 

February  2,  1918,  the  following  instructions  were  issued,  by  the  divisions  concerned,  to  promote  cooperation  and 
increase  the  efficiency  of  the  psychological  and  neuro-psychiatric  services: 

PROVISION  FOR  COORDINATION  OF  PSYCHIATRIC  AND   PSYCHOLOGICAL   EXAMINATIONS  IN   DIVISIONAL   TRAINING  CAMPS. 

It  is  agreed  between  the  Division  of  Psychology  and  the  Division  of  Neuro-psychiatry: 

(1)  That  psychiatric  survey  of  organizations  shall  be  made  in  conjunction  with  psychological  survey. 

(2)  That  for  this  purpose  psychiatric  examiners  shall  be  present  at  group  psychological  examinations,  to  observe 
the  behavior  and  appearance  of  soldiers.  It  is  further  provided  that  the  work  of  the  psychiatrist  shall  not  interfere 
with  the  proper  conduct  of  psychological  examination. 

(3)  That  rooms  numbered  5  and  6  in  psychology  building  shall  be  designated  for  psychiatric  examining. 

(4)  That  the  name,  rank,  and  organization  of  individuals  receiving  grade  E  in  group  psychological  examination 
shall  be  reported  promptly  to  the  division  psychiatrist  through  the  division  surgeon. 

(5)  That  report  of  individual  psychological  examination  shall  be  accepted  by  psychiatrist  as  part  of  the  medical 
examination  and  shall  be  included  in  the  case  record  if  subject  be  recommended  for  discharge  or  for  special  assignment. 

Pearce  Bailey, 
Major,  M.  R.  C,  Chief  of  Division  of  Neuro-psychiatry . 
Robert  M.  Yerkesv 
Major,  S.  C,  N.  A.,  Chief  of  Division  of  Psychology. 


No.1.]  PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  ARMY.  155 

4.    UTILIZATION   OF   RESULTS. 

Psychological  ratings  should  be  valuable  alike  to  personnel  officers,  line  officers,  and  medical  officers.  To  the 
first,  as  partial  basis  for  placement  of  soldiers;  to  the  second,  as  supplementary  information  for  guidance  in  connection 
with  training,  or  special  treatment  of  men  who  give  trouble;  and  to  the  third,  as  partial  basis  for  recommendation  for 
discharge,  special  examination,  or  medical  treatment. 

The  results  of  examination  should  be  made  available  to  these  officers  as  early  as  possible.  It  is  therefore  the  duty 
of  the  psychological  examiner  to  see  that  every  drafted  man  is  examined  as  promptly  as  possible  after  arrival  in  camp, 
and  that  report  is  immediately  made  to  the  personnel  officer,  to  the  medical  officer  if  the  case  requires  it,  and  subse- 
quently to  the  company  commander  to  whom  the  man  is  assigned. 

The  draft  contains  an  adequate  number  of  high-grade  men  to  fill  positions  of  responsibility.  The  psychological 
examination  helps  to  reveal  noncommissioned  officer  material  and  suitable  candidates  for  officers'  training  camps. 
It  also  supplies  partial  basis  for  assignment  of  men  to  specific  trades  or  occupations  in  the  Army.  In  making  selections 
for  training  in  any  specialized  branch  of  military  service  it  will  probably  be  wise  to  select  individuals  whose  intelligence 
scores  are  well  above  the  lower  quartile  for  the  occupation  in  question.  Apart  from  inequalities  in  experience  or  special 
training,  the  difference  in  the  scores  of  two  men  will,  in  a  general  way,  indicate  their  relative  value  for  assignment  to  a 
specific  trade  or  occupation. 

Emphasis  should  be  placed  upon  the  desirability  of  balancing  the  special  trades  and  occupations  in  the  various 
companies  and  regiments.  Each  unit  should  have  its  proper  share  of  high,  medium,  and  low  grade  men  for  special 
assignments  as  well  as  for  the  ranks.  It  is  evident  that  the  ultimate  value  of  the  psychological  service  in  balancing  the 
units  will  depend  very  largely  upon  the  establishment  of  proper  cooperative  relations  with  personnel  officers.  Frequent 
conferences  with  the  personnel  officers  should  be  held,  and  ways  and  means  considered  for  securing  effective  coordina- 
tion of  effort. 

To  be  of  the  greatest  value  the  psychological  examination  should  be  given  at  the  earliest  possible  date  after  the 
arrival  of  the  men  in  camp,  in  order  that  the  personnel  officer  may  have  the  results  on  the  qualification  cards  when 
making  assignments.  Unless  the  scores  are  available  and  used  properly  at  this  time,  companies  will  be  built  up  that 
are  very  uneven  in  general  intelligence.  In  order  to  balance  companies  and  regiments  satisfactorily  it  is  necessary  to 
observe  not  only  the  special  requirements  laid  down  in  the  tables  of  organization,  but  also  the  requirement  that  there 
shall  be  equivalent  grades  of  intelligence  in  company  organizations  and  in  the  various  trades  and  occupations  demanded 
in  each. 

Cooperative  relations  should  be  established  between  psychiatrists  and  psychological  examiners  in  order  that  com- 
pany commanders  and  personnel  officers  may  obtain  promptly  detailed  information  concerning  any  individual  recruit. 
The  lower  grades  of  mental  capacity  are  clearly  indicated  by  the  alpha  and  beta  examinations.  The  lowest  cases  should 
be  given  individual  examination  with  the  least  possible  delay.  Company  commanders  should  be  encouraged  to  refer 
for  examination  men  whose  drill  or  conduct  is  unsatisfactory.  Where  development  battalions  have  been  formed  special 
study  should  be  made  of  the  results  of  the  development  work  in  the  case  of  men  of  various  grades  of  intelligence.  The 
psychological  service  should  be  able  to  make  an  effective  contribution  in  the  handling  of  development  units. 

5.    CONFERENCES    WITH   OFFICERS. 

In  order  that  the  results  of  examinations  may  be  used  effectively,  it  is  necessary  that  psychological  examiners 
take  pains  to  acquaint  all  officers  in  their  stations  with  the  nature  and  uses  of  intelligence  ratings.  To  this  end,  con- 
ferences with  groups  of  officers,  by  regiments  or  other  convenient  unit,  should  be  arranged  by  the  chief  psychological 
examiner.  In  these  conferences  the  methods  of  examining  should  be  explained  clearly  and  simply,  and  the  possible 
ways  of  using  psychological  information  described  and  illustrated.  The  examiner  should  strive  especially  to  take 
the  military  point  of  view.  Unwarranted  claims  concerning  the  accuracy  of  the  results  should  be  avoided.  In  general, 
straightforward  commonsense  statements  will  be  found  more  convincing  than  technical  descriptions,  statistical  exhibits, 
or  academic  arguments. 

In  order  to  make  such  conferences  of  the  greatest  value,  the  views  and  criticisms  of  officers  should  be  elicited  as 
fully  as  possible.     In  this  way  misunderstandings  will  be  cleared  up  and  the  way  paved  for  effective  cooperation. 

The  criticisms  most  likely  to  arise  are  the  following:  (1)  That  the  score  made  is  greatly  influenced  by  such  acci- 
dental factors  as  fatigue,  homesickness,  illness,  time  of  day,  etc.  (2)  That  the  tests  do  not  measure  real  ability,  but 
instead  merely  reflect  the  man's  educational  and  social  advantages.  (3)  That  the  score  may  be  greatly  influenced 
by  coaching  or  by  a  repetition  of  the  test. 

While  it  has  been  well  enough  established  that  such  factors  as  these  are  not  present  in  a  sufficient  degree  to  invali- 
date seriously  the  test  results,  their  presence  can  not  be  denied.  It  can  hardly  be  claimed  that  the  mental  or  physical 
condition  of  the  subject  and  the  circumstances  under  which  the  test  is  given  have  no  effect  upon  the  score.  Similarly, 
it  would  be  unreasonable  to  suppose  that  the  result  is  wholly  uninfluenced  by  educational  advantages.  While  coaching 
is  not  likely  to  invalidate  the  results  to  any  great  extent  in  Army  testing,  it  is  nevertheless  a  factor  which  should  be  care- 
fully guarded  against  by  measures  designed  to  prevent  the  dissemination  of  blanks.  As  regards  practice  effects,  it  has 
been  found  that  the  average  gain  in  a  repeated  alpha  examination  is  approximately  8  points  (raw  score).  The  P.  E. 
of  an  alpha  raw  score  is  approximately  5  points.  While  cases  will  admittedly  occur  in  which  men  will  receive  a  rating 
on  the  psychological  examination  somewhat  higher  or  lower  than  they  deserve,  this  would  occur  on  any  method  of 
classification  that  might  be  used.     It  may  well  be  emphasized  that  the  psychological  examination  furnishes  for  immedi- 


156  MEMOIRS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES.  [vduxv, 

ate  use  a  rating  of  the  men  which  in  validity  compares  not  unfavorably  with  ratings  furnished  by  officers  after  months 
of  acquaintance. 

In  using  the  psychological  results  there  is  a  tendency  to  overlook  the  fact  that  they  give  evidence  concerning  but 
one  quality  important  in  a  good  soldier.  The  company  commander  should  be  cautioned  not  to  neglect  the  importance 
of  other  qualities,  such  as  personal  appearance,  energy,  military  experience,  leadership,  initiative,  tact,  etc.  It  is  no 
criticism  of  the  psychological  rating  that  it  fails  to  measure  these  other  qualities  of  the  soldier.  All  it  does  is  to  afford 
a  reasonably  reliable  measure  of  one  essential  quality — i.  e.,  general  intelligence.  Although  there  is  a  fairly  high 
correlation  between  general  intelligence  and  other  desirable  traits,  like  character,  leadership,  etc.,  the  fact  must  not  be 
overlooked  that  there  are  individuals  of  high  intelligence  who  are  not  properly  fitted  to  command.  It  has  been  proved 
quite  definitely  that  the  results  of  the  psychological  examinations  are  valuable  when  properly  used.  They  can  not, 
however,  be  made  to  take  the  place  of  all  other  criteria.  Each  officer  should  be  encouraged  to  scrutinize  the  men  of 
his  command  carefully  in  order  to  discover  their  individual  differences  in  other  traits  as  well  as  in  intelligence. 

Individual  cases  will  be  found  in  which  the  information  of  the  company  commander  is  greatly  at  variance  with  the 
psychological  rating.  In  such  cases  one  would  not  be  warranted  in  making  sweeping  claims  for  the  infallibility  of  the 
test  results.  It  should  be  pointed  out  that  the  discrepancy  may  be  due  to  the  presence  or  absence  of  important  traits 
not  measured  by  the  intelligence  examination.  Such  cases,  however,  afford  opportunity  for  the  psychological  examiner 
to  make  clear  the  value  of  a  rating  which  is  absolute  rather  than  relative.  The  company  commander  will  readily 
appreciate  the  fact  that  his  own  estimate  is  relative;  that  he  inevitably  judges  his  men  with  reference  to  the  average  in 
his  company.  For  this  reason  in  the  company  which  in  general  is  inferior  a  high  man  will  be  overestimated .  Similarly, 
in  a  specially  high  company  a  low  man  will  be  underestimated.  Company  commanders  will  readily  appreciate  the  im- 
portance of  bringing  to  light  extreme  cases  of  unevenness  in  different  organizations  in  order  that  such  inequalities  may  be 
remedied. 

II.  Segregation  of  Illiterates. 

Subjects  reporting  for  group  examination  belong  in  one  of  the  following  classes: 

(1)  Men  totally  illiterate  or  unable  to  understand  English; 

(2)  Men  who  read  or  write  English  only  with  difficulty; 

(3)  Men  who  read  and  write  English  readily. 

Examination  alpha  will  not  measure  the  intelligence  of  the  first  group;  it  may  or  may  not  yield  a  reliable  measure 
for  the  second  group;  it  will  measure  the  intelligence  of  the  third  group. 

Group  1  should  be  given  beta  only;  group  3  should  be  given  alpha  (but  not  beta  unless  the  score  earned  in  alpha 
was  below  D);  group  2  should  be  given  both  alpha  and  beta  in  order  that  men  making  below  D  in  alpha  because  of 
language  difficulty  may  have  opportunity  to  improve  their  scores  in  examination  beta. 

Examiners  should  eliminate  at  the  outset  of  examination  alpha  all  total  illiterates  and  men  who  can  not  understand 
English,  by  ordering  these  to  stand  and  to  leave  the  alpha  room.  They  may  then  be  referred  to  examination  beta. 
Officers'  statements  that  men  can  not  read  and  write  may  be  used  to  advantage  in  making  this  separation. 

After  these  men  have  been  segregated  and  the  remaining  group  satisfactorily  placed,  each  man  is  supplied  with  a 
pencil.  Then  examiner  should  say:  "We  are  going  to  pass  around  some  papers  now;  don't  turn  any  of  the  pages  until 
I  tell  you  to."  Have  assistant  distribute  alpha  booklets,  face  up,  making  sure  that  only  one  is  handed  to  each  man. 
As  soon  as  the  booklets  have  been  distributed  examiner  should  continue,  slowly  and  distinctly,  pausing  after  each 
instruction  to  give  subjects  time  to  respond:  "Now,  at  the  top  of  the  page  before  you,  print  your  name  after  the  word 
'Name,'  print  your  first  name  first,  then  your  middle  initial,  if  any,  and  then  your  last  name.  Take  time  to  print  very 
plainly." 

After  name  has  been  written,  say:  "Put  your  rank  in  the  Army  after  the  word  'Rank,'  such  as  private,  corporal, 
sergeant,  sergeant  first  class, ' '  etc.  ' ' Put  your  age  in  years  after  the  word  ' Age. ' "  "In  the  next  line  write  your  com- 
pany, regiment,  arm,  and  division."     (Examiner  should  mention  designation  of  these.) 

"In  the  next  line  write  the  name  of  the  State  or  country  in  which  you  were  born."  "If  you  were  not  born  in  this 
country,  tell  next  the  number  of  years  you  have  lived  in  the  United  States."  "After  'Race'  write  the  word  'White.' " 
(In  examining  negro  troops  substitute  the  word  "Negro."  If  there  are  Indians  in  the  group,  ask  them  to  write  the  word 
"Indian."     Similarly  for  Chinese,  Japanese,  Philippinos,  etc.) 

"In  the  next  line  after  'Occupation,'  write  your  usual  work,  trade,  or  business  (such  as  carpenter,  grocery  clerk, 
laborer,  farmer,  student)."  "Next  put  down  how  much  you  earned  a  week  before  you  entered  the  Amy;  not  how 
much  a  day  or  a  month,  but  how  much  a  week." 

"After  'Schooling,'  draw  aline  under  the  highest  grade  or  school  you  attended.  For  example,  if  the  highest  grade 
you  attended  was  the  fifth  grade,  draw  a  line  under  Grade  5;  if  you  attended  the  second  year  in  the  high  school  or 
preparatory  school,  draw  a  line  under  High  School,  Year  2,  etc." 

After  these  directions  have  been  given,  the  orderlies  should  systematically  examine  the  paper  of  each  man  to  dis- 
cover his  ability  to  carry  out  the  above  directions.  Those  subjects  who  are  unable  to  read  and  write  sufficiently  to  fill  out 
these  headings  should  be  commanded  to  stand,  and  on  completion  of  preliminary  survey  by  examiner  and  his  assistants 
should  be  ordered  to  enter  examining  room  for  examination  beta. 

The  above  direction  is  based  upon  the  assumption  that  a  man  who  can  not  understand  the  directions  given  by 
examiner,  read  the  words  "occupation,"  "weekly  wages,"  "schooling,"  etc.,  and  write  the  necessary  replies,  can  not 
do  justice  to  himself  in  examination  alpha. 


no.  i.]  PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  ARMY.  157 

III.  Group  Examination  Alpha 

1.   PROCEDURE. 

Examination  alpha  is  to  be  given  to  all  subjects  who  remain  in  the  room  after  the  elimination  of  illiterates.  In 
giving  the  following  directions  examiner  should  speak  rather  slowly,  distinctly,  and  with  proper  emphasis.  He  should 
expect  and  demand  perfect  order  and  prompt  response  to  commands. 

When  everything  is  ready  examiner  proceeds  as  follows:  "Attention!  The  purpose  of  this  examination  is  to  see  how 
well  you  can  remember,  think,  and  carry  out  what  you  are  told  to  do.  We  are  not  looking  for  crazy  people.  The  aim 
is  to  help  find  out  what  you  are  best  fitted  to  do  in  the  Army.  The  grade  you  make  in  this  examination  will  be  put  on 
your  qualification  card  and  will  also  go  to  your  company  commander.  Some  of  the  things  you  are  told  to  do  will  be 
very  easy.     Some  you  may  find  hard.     You  are  not  expected  to  make  a  perfect  grade,  but  do  the  very  best  you  can. 

"Now,  in  the  Army  a  man  often  has  to  listen  to  commands  and  then  carry  them  out  exactly.  I  am  going  to  give 
you  some  commands  to  see  how  well  you  can  carry  them  out.  Listen  closely.  Ask  no  questions.  Do  not  watch  any 
other  man  to  see  what  he  does. 

"Look  at  your  papers.  Just  below  where  you  have  been  writing,  there  are  several  sets  of  forms — circles,  triangles, 
and  so  forth.     First  you  will  be  told  to  do  something  with  the  circles  at  1,  afterward  with  the  circles  at  2,  and  so  on. 

"When  I  call  'Attention,'  stop  instantly  whatever  you  are  doing  and  hold  your  pencil  up — so.  Don't  put  your 
pencil  down  to  the  paper  until  I  say  'Go.'  (Examiner  lowers  his  pencil.)  Listen  carefully  to  what  I  say.  Do  just 
what  you  are  told  to  do.     As  soon  as  you  are  through,  pencils  up.     Remember,  wait  for  the  word  'Go'. " 

N.  B. — Examiner:  Give  the  following  instructions  very  distinctly  and  at  moderate  speed.  After  giving  the  com- 
mand "Attention,  "  always  notice  carefully  and  have  orderlies  notice  whether  all  pencils  are  up.  Never  proceed  until 
they  are.  This  is  especially  important  in  the  beginning.  Be  careful  to  use  the  directions  that  fit  the  form  of  alpha  book- 
let distributed.  Be  careful  not  to  pause  or  to  drop  the  voice  in  the  course  of  a  compound  direction,  e.  g.,  in  2,  before  the 
words  "and  also."     Raise  your  pencil  whenever  you  say  "Attention. "     Lower  it  promptly  whenever  you  say  "Go." 

Test  l,form  5. 

1.  "Attention!  'Attention' always  means 'Pencils  up! '  Look  at  the  circles  at  1.  When  I  say 'Go '(but  not  before) 
make  a  cross  in  the  first  circle  and  also  a  figure  1  in  the  third  circle.— GO!"     (Allow  not  over  5  seconds.) 

2.  "Attention!  Look  at  2,  where  the  circles  have  numbers  in  them.  When  I  say  'Go'  draw  a  line  from  circle  1  to 
circle  4  that  will  pass  above  circle  2  and  below  circle  3. — GO!"     (Allow  not  over  5  seconds.) 

3.  "Attention!  Look  at  the  square  and  triangle  at  3.  When  I  say  'Go'  make  a  cross  in  the  space  which  is  in  the 
triangle  but  not  in  the  square,  and  also  make  a  figure  1  in  the  space  which  is  in  the  triangle  and  in  the  square. — GO!" 
(Allow  not  over  10  seconds.) 

4.  "Attention!  Look  at  4.  When  I  say  'Go'  make  a  figure  1  in  the  space  which  is  in  the  circle  but  not  in  the  tri- 
angle or  square,  and  also  make  a  figure  2  in  the  space  which  is  in  the  triangle  and  circle,  but  not  in  the  square. — GO!" 
(Allow  not  over  10  seconds.) 

N.  B. — Examiner:  In  reading  5,  don't  pause  at  the  word  circle  as  if  ending  a  sentence. 

5.  "Attention!  Look  at  5.  If  a  machine  gun  can  shoot  more  bullets  a  minute  than  a  rifle,  then(when  I  say  'Go') 
put  a  cross  in  the  second  circle;  if  not,  draw  a  line  under  the  word  NO. — GO!"     (Allow  not  over  10  seconds.) 

6.  "Attention!  Look  at  6.  When  I  say  'Go'  put  in  the  second  circle  the  right  answer  to  the  question:  'How  many 
months  has  a  year?'  In  the  third  circle  do  nothing,  but  in  the  fourth  circle  put  any  number  that  is  a  wrong  answer  to 
the  question  that  you  have  just  answered  correctly. — GO!"     (Allow  not  over  10  seconds.) 

7.  "Attention!  Look  at  7.  When  I  say  'Go'  cross  out  the  letter  just  before  C  and  also  draw  a  line  under  the  second 
letter  before  H. — GO!"     (Allow  not  over  10  seconds.) 

8.  "Attention!  Look  at  8.  Notice  the  three  circles  and  the  three  words.  When  I  say  'Go'  make  in  the  first  circle 
the  first  letter  of  the  first  word;  in  the  second  circle  the  first  letter  of  the  second  word,  and  in  the  third  circle  the  last 
letter  of  the  third  word. — GO!"     (Allow  not  over  10  seconds.) 

9.  "Attention!  Look  at  9.  When  I  say  'Go'  cross  out  each  number  that  is  more  than  20  but  less  than  30. — GO!" 
(Allow  not  over  15  seconds.) 

10.  "Attention!  Look  at  10.  Notice  that  the  drawing  is  divided  into  five  parts.  When  I  say  'Go'  put  a  3  or  a  2 
in  each  of  the  two  largest  parts  and  any  number  between  4  and  7 in  the  part  next  in  size  to  the  smallest  part. — GO!" 
(Allow  not  over  15  seconds.) 

11.  "Attention!  Look  at  11.  When  I  say  'Go'  draw  a  line  through  every  even  number  that  is  not  in  a  square,  and 
also  through  every  odd  number  that  is  in  a  square  with  a  letter. — GOl"     (Allow  not  over  25  seconds.) 

12.  "Attention!  Look  at  12.  If  7  is  more  than  5,  then(when  I  say  'Go')  cross  out  the  number  6  unless  6  is  more 
than  8,  iu  which  case  draw  a  line  under  the  number  7. — GO   !"     (Allow  not  over  10  seconds.) 

"During  the  rest  of  this  examination  don't  turn  any  page  forward  or  backward  unless  you  are  told  to.  Now  turn 
over  the  page  to  test  2." 

Test  1,  form  6. 

1.  "Attention!  'Attention' always  means 'Pencils  up!'  Look  at  the  circles  at  1.  When  I  say 'Go' but  not  before, 
make  a  cross  in  the  second  circle  and  also  a  figure  1  in  the  third  circle. — GO!"     (Allow  not  over  5  seconds.) 

2.  "Attention!  Look  at  2,  where  the  circles  have  numbers  in  them.  When  I  say  'Go'  draw  a  line  from  circle  2  to 
circle  5  that  will  pass  above  circle  3  and  below  circle  4. — GOl"     (Allow  not  over  5  seconds.) 


158  MEMOIRS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES.  [Vol.xv, 

3.  "Attention!  Look  at  the  square  and  triangle  at  3.  When  I  say  'Go'  make  a  cross  in  the  space  which  is  in  the 
square  but  not  in  the  triangle,  and  also  make  a  figure  1  in  the  space  which  is  in  the  triangle  and  in  the  square. — GO  I" 
(Allow  not  over  10  seconds.) 

4.  "Attention!  Look  at  4.  When  I  say  'Go'  make  a  figure  1  in  the  space  which  is  in  the  triangle  but  not  in  the 
circle  or  square,  and  also  make  a  figure  2  in  the  space  which  is  in  the  square  and  circle,  but  not  in  the  triangle. — GO!" 
(Allow  not  over  10  seconds.) 

N.  B. — Examiner:  In  reading  5,  don't  pause  at  the  word  circle  as  if  ending  a  sentence. 

5.  "Attention!  Look  at  5.  If  a  regiment  is  bigger  than  a  company,  then  (when  I  say  'Go')  put  a  cross  in  the  first 
circle;  if  not,  draw  a  line  under  the  word  NO. — GO!"     (Allow  not  over  10  seconds.) 

6.  "Attention!  Look  at  6.  When  I  say 'Go' put  in  the  second  circle  the  right  answer  to  the  question:  'How  many 
months  has  a  year?'  In  the  fourth  circle  do  nothing,  but  in  the  fifth  circle  put  any  number  that  is  a  wrong  answer  to 
the  question  that  you  just  answered  correctly. — GO!"     (Allow  not  over  10  seconds.) 

7.  "Attention!  Look  at  7.  When  I  say  'Go'  cross  out  the  letter  just  before  D  and  also  draw  a  line  under  the  second 
letter  before  I. — GO!"     (Allow  not  over  10  seconds.) 

8.  "Attention!  Look  at  8.  Notice  the  three  circles  and  the  three  words.  When  I  say  'Go'  make  in  the  first  circle 
the  last  letter  of  the  first  word;  in  the  second  circle  the  last  letter  of  the  second  word  and  in  the  third  circle  the  third  letter 
of  the  third  word. — GO!"     (Allow  not  over  10  seconds.) 

9.  "Attention!  Look  at  9.  When  I  say  'Go'  cross  out  each  number  that  is  more  than  30  but  less  than  40. — GO!" 
(Allow  not  over  15  seconds.) 

10.  "Attention!  Look  at  10.  Notice  that  the  drawing  is  divided  into  five  parts.  When  I  say  'Go'  put  a  3  or  a  2 
in  each  of  the  two  smallest  parts  and  any  number  between  4  and  7  in  the  part  next  in  size  to  the  largest  part. — GO!" 
(Allow  not  over  15  seconds.) 

11.  "Attention!  Look  at  11.  When  I  say  'Go'  draw  a  line  through  every  odd  number  that  is  not  in  a  circle  and  also 
through  every  odd  number  that  is  in  a  circle  with  a  letter. — GO!"     (Allow  not  over  25  seconds.) 

12.  "Attention!  Look  at  12.  If  6  is  more  than  4,  then  (when  I  say  'Go')  cross  out  the  number  5  unless  5  is  more 
than  7,  in  which  case  draw  a  line  under  the  number  6. — GO !"     (Allow  not  over  10  seconds.) 

"During  the  rest  of  this  examination  don't  turn  any  page  forward  or  backward  unless  you  are  told  to.  Now  turn  over 
the  page  to  test  2." 

Test  1,  form  7. 

1.  "Attention!  'Attention! '  always  means  'Pencils  upl'  Look  at  tha  circles  at  1.  When  I  say 'Go' (but  not 
before)  make  a  figure  1  in  the  first  circle  and  also  a  cross  in  the  third  circle. — GO  ! "    (Allow  not  over  5  seconds.) 

2.  "Attention  !  Look  at  2,  where  the  circles  have  numbers  in  them.  When  I  say  'Go'  draw  a  line  from  circle  3 
to  circle  6  that  will  pass  above  circle  4  and  below  circle  5. — GO  ! "     (Allow  not  over  5  seconds.) 

3.  "Attention  !  Look  at  the  square  and  triangle  at  3.  When  I  say  'Go'  make  a  figure  1  in  the  space  which  is  in 
the  triangle  but  not  in  the  square,  and  also  make  a  cross  in  the  space  which  is  in  the  triangle  and  in  the  square. — GO  ! " 
(Allow  not  over  10  seconds.) 

4.  "Attention  !  Look  at  4.  When  I  say  'Go'  make  a  figure  1  in  the  space  which  is  in  the  square  butnot  in  the 
circle  or  triangle,  and  also  make  a  figure  2  in  the  space  which  is  in  the  circle  and  triangle,  but  not  in  the  square. — 
GO!"     (Allow  not  over  10  seconds.) 

(N.  B. — Examiner:  In  reading  5,  don't  pause  at  the  word  circle  as  if  ending  a  sentence.) 

5.  "Attention  !  Look  at  5.  If  a  battleship  is  larger  than  a  submarine,  then  (when  I  say  'Go')  put  a  cross  in  the 
third  circle;  if  not,  draw  a  line  under  the  word  NO. — GO  ! "    (Allow  not  over  10  seconds.) 

6.  "Attention!  Look  at  6.  When  I  say 'Go' put  in  the  first  circle  the  right  answer  to  the  question:  'How  many 
months  has  a  year? '  In  the  third  circle  do  nothing,  but  in  the  fourth  circle  put  any  number  that  is  a  wrong  answer 
to  the  question  that  you  just  answered  correctly. — GO  ! "     (Allow  not  over  10  seconds.) 

7.  "Attention!  Lookat7.  When  I  say  'Go  'cross  out  the  letter  just  before  E  and  also  draw  a  line  under  the  second 
letter  before  H. — GO  ! "    (Allow  not  over  10  seconds.) 

8.  "Attention  !  Look  at  8.  Notice  the  three  circles  and  the  three  words.  When  I  say  'Go'  make  in  the  first 
circle  the  first  letter  of  the  first  word;  in  the  second  circle  the  second  letter  of  the  second  word,  and  in  the  third  circle 
the  last  letter  of  the  last  word. — GO  ! "     (Allow  not  over  10  seconds.) 

9.  "Attention!  Look  at  9.  When  I  say  'Go'  cross  out  each  number  that  is  more  than  40  but  less  than  50. — GO!" 
(Allow  not  over  15  seconds.) 

10.  "Attention!  Look  at  10.  Notice  that  the  drawing  is  divided  into  five  parts.  When  I  say 'Go' put  a  4  or  a  5 
in  each  of  the  two  smallest  parts  and  any  number  between  6  and  9  in  the  part  next  in  size  to  the  largest  part. — GO  ! " 
(Allow  not  over  15  seconds.) 

11.  "Attention!  Look  at  11.  When  I  say 'Go 'draw  a  line  through  every  even  number  that  is  not  in  a  circle  and 
also  through  every  odd  number  that  is  in  a  circle  with  a  letter. — GO  ! "     (Allow  not  over  25  seconds.) 

12.  "Attention!  Look  at  12.  If  5  is  more  than  3,  then  (when  I  say 'Go')  cross  out  the  number  4  unless  4  is  more 
than  6,  in  which  case  draw  a  line  under  the  number  5. — GO  ! "    (Allow  not  over  10  seconds.) 

"During  the  rest  of  this  examination  don't  turn  any  page  forward  or  backward  unless  you  are  told  to.  Now  turn 
over  the  page  to  test  2." 


No.i.]  PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  ARMY.  159 

Test  1,  form  8. 

1.  "Attention  !  'Attention'  always  means  'Pencils  up!'  Look  at  the  circles  at  1.  When  I  say  'Go'  (but  not 
before)  make  a  figure  2  in  the  second  circle  and  also  a  cross  in  the  third  circle. — GO  ! "     (Allow  not  over  5  seconds.) 

2.  "Attention  !  Look  at  2,  where  the  circles  have  numbers  in  them.  When  I  say  'Go'  draw  a  line  from  circle  1 
to  circle  4  that  will  pass  beloic  circle  2  and  above  circle  3. — GO  ! "     (Allow  not  over  5  seconds.) 

3.  "Attention  !  Look  at  the  square  and  triangle  at  3.  When  I  say  'Go '  make  a  figure  1  in  the  space  which  is  in 
the  square  but  not  in  the  triangle,  and  also  make  a  cross  in  the  space  which  is  in  the  triangle  and  in  the  square. — GO  1 " 
(Allow  not  over  10  seconds.) 

4.  "Attention  !  Look  at  4.  When  I  say  'Go'  make  a  figure  2  in  the  space  which  is  in  the  circle  but  not  in  the 
triangle  or  square,  and  also  make  a  figure  3  in  the  space  which  is  in  the  triangle  and  circle,  but  not  in  the  square. — 
GO!"     (Allow  not  over  10  seconds.) 

(N.  B.— Examiner:  In  reading  5,  don't  pause  at  the  word  circle  as  if  ending  a  sentence.) 

5.  "Attention  !  Look  at  5.  If  taps  sound  in  the  evening,  then  (when  I  say  'Go')  put  a  cross  in  the  first  circle;  if 
not,  draw  a  line  under  the  word  NO.— GO  !"     (Allow  not  over  10  seconds.) 

C.  "Attention  !  Look  at  6.  When  I  say  'Go'  put  in  the  first  circle  the  right  answer  to  the  question:  'How  many 
months  has  a  year? '  In  the  second  circle  do  nothing,  but  in  the  fifth  circle  put  any  number  that  is  a  wrong  answer  to 
the  question  that  you  just  answered  correctly. — GO  ! "    (Allow  not  over  10  seconds.) 

7.  "Attention!  Look  at  7.  When  I  say  'Go'  cross  out  the  letter  just  after  P  and  also  draw  a  line  under  the  second 
letter  after  I. — GO  1"    (Allow  not  over  10  seconds.) 

8.  "Attention!  Look  at  8.  liotice  the  three  circles  and  the  three  words.  When  I  say  'Go  'make  in  the  first  circle 
the  last  letter  of  the  first  word;  in  the  second  circle  the  middle  letter  of  the  second  word  and  in  the  third  circle  the  first 
letter  of  the  third  word. — GO  ! "     (Allow  not  over  10  seconds.) 

9.  "Attention!  Look  at  9.  When  I  say  'Go'  cross  out  each  number  that  is  more  than  50  but  less  than  60. — GO!" 
(Allow  not  over  15  seconds.) 

10.  "Attention!  Look  at  10.  Notice  that  the  drawing  is  divided  into  five  parts.  When  I  say 'Go' put  a  4  or  a  5 
in  each  of  the  two  largest  parts  and  any  number  between  6  and  9  in  the  part  next  in  size  to  the  smallest  part. — GO  !" 
(Allow  not  over  15  seconds.) 

11.  "Attention  !  Look  at  11.  When  I  say  'Go'  draw  a  line  through  every  odd  number  that  is  notin  a  square, 
and  also  through  every  odd  number  that  is  in  a  square  with  a  letter. — GO  ! "     (Allow  not  over  25  seconds.) 

12.  "Attention  I  Look  at  12.  If  4  is  more  than  2,  then  (when  I  say  'Go')  cross  out  the  number  3  unless  3  is  more 
than  5,  in  which  case  draw  a  line  under  the  number  4. — GO  ! "     (Allow  not  over  10  seconds.) 

"During  the  rest  of  this  examination  don't  turn  any  page  forward  or  backward  unless  you  are  told  to.    Now  turn 

over  the  page  to  test  2." 

Test  1,  form  9. 

1.  "Attention!  'Attention'  always  means  'Pencils  up!'  Look  at  the  circles  at  1.  When  I  say 'Go,' but  not 
before,  make  a  cross  in  the  first  circle  and  also  a  figure  1  in  the  last  circle. — GO  !"    (Allow  not  over  5  seconds.) 

2.  "Attention  !  Look  at  2,  where  the  circles  have  numbers  in  them.  When  I  say 'Go 'draw  a  line  from  circle  2 
to  circle  5  that  will  pass  below  circle  3  and  above  circle  4.— GO  "  !    (Allow  not  over  5  seconds.) 

3.  "Attention  !  Look  at  the  square  and  triangle  at  3.  When  I  say 'Go'make  a  figure  2  in  the  space  which  is  in 
the  triangle  but  not  in  the  square,  and  also  make  a  figure  3  in  the  space  which  is  in  the  square  and  in  the  triangle. — 
GO!"     (Allow  not  over  10  seconds.) 

4.  "Attention !  Look  at  4.  When  I  say  '  Go '  make  a  figure  2  in  the  space  which  is  in  the  triangle  but  not  in  the 
circle  or  square,  and  also  make  a  figure  3  in  the  space  which  is  in  the  square  and  circle,  but  not  in  the  triangle. — GO ! " 
(Allow  not  over  10  seconds.) 

(N.  B. — Examiner:  In  reading  5,  don't  pause  at  the  word  circle  as  if  ending  a  sentence.) 

5.  "Attention  !  Look  at  5.  If  a  captain  is  superior  to  a  corporal,  then  (when  I  say  "Go')  put  a  cross  in  the  second 
circle;  if  not,  draw  a  line  under  the  word  NO. — GO ! "     (Allow  not  over  10  seconds.) 

6.  "Attention!  LookatO.  When  I  say 'Go 'put  in  the  third  circle  the  right  answer  to  the  question:  'Howmany 
months  has  a  year? '  In  the  fourth  circle  do  nothing,  but  in  the  fifth  circle  put  any  number  that  is  a  wrong  answer  to 
the  question  that  you  just  answered  correctly. — GO ! "    (Allow  not  over  10  seconds.) 

7.  "Attention!  Lookat7.  When  I  say  'Go  'cross  out  the  letter  just  after  G  and  also  draw  aline  under  the  second 
latter  after  H. — GO ! "    (Allow  not  over  10  seconds.) 

8.  "Attention !  LookatS.  Notice  the  three  circles  and  the  three  words.  When  I  say  'Go  'make  in  the  first  circle 
the  third  letter  of  the  first  word ;  in  the  second  circle  the  first  letter  of  the  second  word,  and  in  the  third  circle  the  first 
letter  of  the  third  word. — GO  ! "     (Allow  not  over  10  seconds.) 

9.  "  Attention !  Look  at  9.  When  I  say '  Go '  cross  out  each  number  that  is  more  than  GO  but  less  than  70. — GO  ! " 
(Allow  not  over  15  seconds.) 

10.  "Attention  I  Look  at  10.  Notice  that  the  drawing  is  divided  into  five  parts.  When  I  say 'Go'put  a  2  or  a  3 
in  each  of  the  two  largest  parts  and  any  number  between  6  and  9  in  the  part  next  in  size  to  the  smallest  part. — GO ! " 
(Allow  not  over  15  seconds.) 

11.  "Attention!  Look  at  11.  When  I  say 'Go 'draw  aline  through  every  even  number  that  is  not  in  the  square, 
and  also  through  every  odd  number  that  is  in  a  square  with  a,  letter. — GO  !"     (Allow  not  over  25  seconds.) 


160  MEMOIRS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES.  [vol.xv, 

12.  "Attention!  Look  at  12.  If  3  is  more  than  1,  then  (when  I  say  'Go')  cross  out  the  number  2  unless  2  is  more 
than  4,  in  which  case  draw  a  line  under  the  number  3. — GO !"    (Allow  not  over  10  seconds.) 

' '  During  the  rest  of  this  examination  don't  turn  any  page  forward  or  backward  unless  you  are  told  to.  Now  turn 
over  the  page  to  test  2." 

Test  2,  arithmetical  problems. 

"Attention!  Look  at  the  directions  at  the  top  of  the  page  while  Ireadthem.  '  Get  the  answers  to  these  examples 
as  quickly  as  you  can.  Use  the  side  of  this  page  to  figure  on  if  you  need  to.'  I  will  say  stop  at  the  end  of  five  min- 
utes. You  may  not  be  able  to  finish  all  of  them,  but  do  as  many  as  you  can  in  the  time  allowed.  The  two  samples 
are  already  answered  correctly. — Ready — GO ! " 

After  5  minutes,  say  "STOP !    Turn  over  the  page  to  test  3." 

Test  3,  practical  judgment. 

"Attention !     Look  at  the  directions  at  the  top  of  the  page  while  I  read  them. 
"'This  is  a  test  of  common  sense.     Below  are  sixteen  questions.     Three  answers  are  given  to  each  question.    You  are 
to  look  at  the  answers  carefully;  then  make  a  cross  in  the  square  before  the  best  answer  to  each  question,  as  in  the 
sample : 

"  Why  do  we  use  stoves?    Because 

□  they  look  well 

S  they  keep  us  warm 

□  they  are  black 

"Here  the  second  answer  is  the  best  one  and  is  marked  with  a  cross. 

"Begin  with  No.  1  and  keep  on  until  time  is  called.  '—Ready — GO!"  After  1£  minutes,  say  "STOP!  Turn 
over  the  page  to  test  4." 

Test  4,  synonym — antonym. 

"Attention!     Look  at  the  directions  at  the  top  of  the  page  while  I  read  them."     (Examiner  reads  slowly.) 
" '  If  the  two  words  of  a  pair  mean  the  same  or  nearly  the  same,  draw  a  line  under  same.     If  they  mean  the  opposite 

or  nearly  the  opposite,  draw  a  line  under  opposite.     If  you  can  not  be  sure,  guess.    The  two  samples  are  already  marked 

as  they  should  be.  '—Ready — GO ! " 

After  H  minutes,  say  "STOP !     Turn  over  the  page  to  test  5."    (Pause.)    "Now  you  have  to  turn  your  books 

around  this  way."     (Examiner  illustrates  the  necessary  rotation.) 

Test  5,  disarranged  sentences. 

"Attention  !    Look  at  the  directions  at  the  top  of  the  page  while  I  read  them."     (Examiner  reads  slowly.) 

"'The  words  a  eats  cow  grass  in  that  order  are  mixed  up  and  don't  make  a  sentence;  but  they  would  make  a  sen- 
tence if  put  in  the  right  order:  a  cow  eats  grass,  and  this  statement  is  true. 

"Again,  the  words  horses  feathers  have  all  would  make  a  sentence  if  put  in  the  order  all  horses  have  feathers,  but  this 
statement  is  false. 

' '  Below  are  24  mixed  sentences.  Some  of  them  are  true  and  some  are  false.  When  I  say '  Go, '  take  these  sentences 
one  at  a  time.  Think  what  each  would  say  if  the  words  were  straightened  out,  but  don't  write  them  yourself.  Then, 
if  what  it  would  say  is  true  draw  aline  under  the  word  'true;'  if  what  it  would  say  is  false,  draw  aline  under  the  word 
'false.'  If  you  can  not  be  sure,  guess.  The  two  samples  are  already  marked  as  they  should  be.  Begin  with  No.  1 
and  work  right  down  the  page  until  time  is  called.' — Ready — GO  1" 

After  2  minutes,  say  "STOP!    Turn  over  the  page  to  test  6." 

Test  6,  number  scries  completion. 

(N.  B. — Examiner:  Give  these  instructions  very  slowly.) 

"Attention!  Look  at  the  first  sample  row  of  figures  at  the  top  of  the  page — 2,  4,  6,  8,  10,  12;  the  two  numbers  that 
should  come  next  are,  of  course,  14,  16. 

"Look  at  the  second  sample — 9,  8,  7,  6,  5,  4:  the  two  numbers  that  should  come  next  are  3,  2. 

"Look  at  the  third  sample — 2,  2,  3,  3,  4,  4;  the  two  numbers  that  should  come  next  are  5,  5. 

"Now  look  at  the  fourth  sample — 1,  7,  2,  7,  3,  7;  the  next  two  numbers  would,  of  course,  be  4,  7. 

"Look  at  each  row  of  numbers  below,  and  on  the  two  dotted  lines  write  the  two  numbers  that  should  come  next. — 
Ready— GO!" 

After  3  minutes,  say  "STOP!    Turn  over  the  page  to  test  7." 

Test  7,  analogies. 

"Attention!   Look  at  the  first  sample  at  the  top  of  the  page:  Sky — blue  :  :  grass — table,  green,  warm,  big. 
"Notice  the  four  words  in  heavy  type.     One  of  them — green — is  underlined.     Grass  is  green  just  as  the  sky  is  blue. 
"Look  at  the  second  sample:  Fish — swims  :  :  man — paper,  time,  walls,  girl. 
"Here  the  word  walks  is  underlined.     A  man  walks  and  a  fish  swims. 
"Look  at  the  third  sample:  Day — night  :  :  white — red,  black,  clear,  pure. 


no.  i.]  PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  ARMY.  161 

"Here  the  word  black  is  underlined  because  black  is  the  opposite  of  white  just  as  night  is  the  opposite  of  day. 

"In  each  of  the  lines  below  the  first  two  words  are  related  to  each  other  in  some  way.  What  you  are  to  do  in  each 
line  is  to  see  what  the  relation  is  between  the  first  two  words,  and  underline  the  word  in  heavy  type  that  is  related  in 
the  same  way  to  the  third  word.  Begin  with  No.  1  and  mark  as  many  sets  as  you  can  before  time  is  called. — Ready— 
GO!" 

After  3  minutes,  say  "STOP!   Turn  over  the  page  to  test  8." 

Test  8,  information. 

"Attention!   Look  at  the  directions  at  the  top  of  the  page  while  I  read  them."     (Examiner  reads  slowly.) 

"  'Notice  the  sample  sentence:  People  hear  with  the — eyes — ears — nose — mouth.  The  correct  word  is  ears,  because 
it  makes  the  truest  sentence.  In  each  of  the  sentences  below  you  have  four  choices  for  the  last  word.  Only  one  of 
them  is  correct.  In  each  sentence  draw  a  line  under  the  one  of  these  four  words  which  makes  the  truest  sentence.  If 
you  can  not  be  sure,  guess.     The  two  samples  are  already  marked  as  they  should  be.' — Ready — GO!" 

After  4  minutes,  say  "STOP!  Turn  over  the  page  to  test  1  again.  In  the  upper  right  hand  corner,  where  it  says 
'Group  No.  — ,'  put  the  number  101"  (or  102,  103,  etc.,  according  to  the  number  of  this  group  in  the  examiner's  series 
of  groups). 

Have  all  examination  booklets  and  pencils  collected  immediately  and  before  the  men  are  allowed  to  leave  their 
seats.  Before  dismissing  the  group,  the  number  of  booklets  collected  should  be  carefully  checked  with  the  number 
of  men  present  and  the  number  of  booklets  issued. 

2.    DIRECTIONS   FOR   SCORING. 

General  rules. 

1.  Each  item  is  scored  either  right  or  wrong.     No  part  credits  are  given. 

2.  In  general,  items  evidently  corrected  stand  as  corrected. 

3.  In  tests  where  the  score  is  "  number  right,"  only  wrong  items  need  be  checked  in  scoring.  In  tests  4  and  5, 
where  the  score  is  "right  minus  wrong,"  wrong  and  omitted  items  must  be  separately  checked. 

4.  Indicate  the  last  item  attempted  by  drawing  a  long  line  under  that  item  and  out  into  the  margin. 

5.  Enter  the  score  for  each  test  in  lower  right-hand  corner  of  the  test  page  and  encircle  it.  When  the  test  has 
been  re-scored,  a  check  mark  (vO  may  be  made  beside  the  circle. 

6.  Red  or  blue  pencil  increases  accuracy  of  scoring. 

Test  1. 
(Score  is  number  right.) 

1.  No  credit  is  given  for  any  item  in  which  more  is  done  than  the  instructions  require. 

2.  In  an  item  where  something  is  to  be  written  "in"  a  given  space,  give  credit  if  a  mark  crosses  a  line  from  haste 
or  awkwardness;  give  no  credit  if  the  position  is  really  ambiguous. 

3.  Where  something  is  to  be  underlined  or  crossed  out,  give  credit  if  two  or  three  underlinings  are  made  in  the 
required  place,  and  give  credit  for  any  method  of  crossing  out. 

4.  Item  2. — The  pencil  line  must  begin  and  end  either  on  the  circumference  or  within  the  circles  indicated.  It 
may  touch  the  intermediate  circles,  but  must  not  cut  through  them. 

5.  Item.  6. — In  the  circle  marked  "not  12"  there  must  be  some  number  which  is  not  12,  such  as  5,  0,  27. 

6.  Item  9. — The  proper  numbers  must  be  crossed  out  to  receive  credit. 

7.  Item  10. — In  Form  5,  "2"  alone  and  "3"  alone,  but  not  "2  or  3,"  in  each  of  the  two  largest  parts;  "5"  alone 
and  "6"  alone,  but  not  "5  or  6,"  in  the  next  to  the  smallest  part,  are  correct.     Similarly  for  other  forms. 

8.  Item  11. — The  lines  must  cross,  or  at  least  touch,  the  proper  numbers;  they  may  or  may  not  cut  the  accompany- 
ing letters.    Mere  indications  of  the  square,  triangle,  etc.,  is  not  sufficient. 

9.  Item  12. — Underlining  in  place  of  crossing  out  is  wrong. 

Test  2. 
(Score  is  number  right.) 

1.  Answer  may  be  written  on  dotted  line  or  elsewhere  near  its  problem. 

2.  If  two  answers  are  given  to  any  problem,  count  as  wrong. 

3.  If  it  seems  clear  that,  by  a  slip,  one  answer  has  been  put  in  the  wrong  brackets,  and  the  next  answers  are  all 
thus  misplaced,  give  credit  for  the  answers  that  are  right  even  if  misplaced. 

4.  Omission  of  dollar  sign  is  permissible. 

5.  Omission  of  decimal  point  is  permissible  in  items  2,  9,  13,  and  14.  Fraction  may  be  expressed  as  decimal  in 
item  15. 

Test  S. 
(Score  is  number  right.) 

1.  Any  clear  method  of  indicating  answer  is  given  full  credit — underlining,  checking,  etc. 

2.  If  two  answers  are  marked,  count  as  wrong  unless  one  is  clearly  indicated  as  final. 


162 


MEMOIRS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES. 


[Vol.  XV, 


Test  4- 
(Score  is  number  right  minus  number  wrong.) 

1.  Any  clear  method  of  indicating  answer  is  given  credit. 

2.  When  both  "same"  and  "opposite"  are  underlined,  counts  as  omitted,  not  as  wrong. 

3.  If  only  "same"  is  underlined  right  down  the  column,  score  for  the  test  is  zero.     Similarly  if  "opposite''  is 
underlined  right  down  the  column. 

Test  5. 
(Score  is  number  right  minus  number  wrong.) 
Same  rules  as  for  test  4. 

Test  6. 
(Score  is  number  right.) 

1.  If  only  one  number  is  written,  give  no  credit. 

2.  If  only  one  of  the  numbers  is  right,  give  no  credit. 

3.  If  four  numbers  are  written,  as  frequently  happens  with  certain  items  (i.  e.,  33,  11  instead  of  3,  3),  give  full 

credit. 

Test  7. 
(Score  is  number  right.) 

1.  Any  clear  indication  other  than  underlining  receives  full  credit. 

2.  Underlining  of  any  of  the  first  three  words  of  an  item  does  not  remove  credit. 

3.  If  two  or  more  of  the  last  four  words  are  marked,  give  no  credit. 


(Score  is  number  right.) 
Same  rules  as  for  test  7. 


Test  8. 


3.    TOTAL   SCORE   AND    RATING. 


The  result  of  examination  alpha  is  expressed  in  a  total  score  which  is  the  sum  of  the  raw  scores  of  the  several 
tests.    The  raw  scores  are  obtained  as  follows: 


Test. 

Method  of 
scoring. 

Maximum 
raw  score. 

1 

R 

R 

R 
R-W 
R-W 

R 

R 

R 

12 
20 
16 
40 
24 
20 
40 
40 

2...                    

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

S 

Total 

212 

Letter  ratings  are  assigned  on  examination  alpha  as  follows: 


Rating. 

Score. 

A   

135-212 
105-134 
75-104 
45-  74 
25-  44 
15-  24 
0-  14 

B 

C+ 

c_. ..:;:. ;: 

C- 

D                

D    i 

1  Recalled  for  further  examination. 

All  ratings  above  D—  are  entered  and  reported  at  once.  Men  whose  scores  are  below  D  are  recalled  for  exam- 
ination beta.     Ratings  of  D—  may  not  be  given  in  alpha,  unless  recall  of  the  men  for  beta  is  impossible. 

IV.  Group  Examination  Beta. 
l.  directions  for  setting  up  apparatus. 

Beta  materials  are  shipped  in  three  packages. 

1.  Blackboard  frame. 

2.  Blackboard  chart. 

3.  (a)  Cardboard  pieces  for  test  7;  (6)  patterns  for  constructing  cubes  for  test  2. 

The  blackboard  frame  consists  of  8  fitted  sections,  2  uprights  which  carry  2  rollers  and  4  crossbars  which  are  attached 
to  the  small  crosspieces  of  the  uprights  The  blackboard  should  be  set  up  so  that  the  ends  of  the  rollers  to  which  the 
crank  may  be  fitted  come  on  the  right-hand  side.  A  piece  of  beaver  board  30  by  40  inches  should  be  nailed  to  the 
crossbars  so  as  to  give  a  rigid  writing  surface.     This  must  be  procured  in  the  camps. 

The  blackboard  chart  is  a  continuous  roll  27  feet  long.  Care  should  be  used  in  attaching  chart  to  rollers  so  that  it 
will  wind  evenly.  The  chart  must  be  kept  as  clean  as  possible  at  all  times.  The  painting  should  be  gone  over  from 
time  to  time  with  a  white  gloss  paint. 


no.i.]  PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  ARMY.  163 

The  -patterns  for  constructing  cubes  for  test  2  should  be  drawn  on  heavy  cardboard  on  a  scale  such  that  the  constructed 
model  will  appear  to  be  made  from  3-inch  cubes.  All  cube  edges,  either  real  or  imaginary,  should  be  bordered  in  lines 
J-inch  thick  painted  with  india  ink.  The  models  should  be  cut  on  the  full  lines  and  folded  on  the  dotted  lines  as  indi- 
cated in  the  patterns  furnished.  For  these  cube  models  a  sloping  shelf  should  be  so  arranged  that  the  perspective 
from  the  center  of  the  room  will  be  the  same  as  that  of  the  models  represented  on  the  blackboard. 

Chalk,  eraser,  pointer,  and  a  curtain  for  covering  beta  apparatus  are  also  necessary. 

2.    PROCEDURE. 

It  is  most  important  that  examination  beta  be  given  in  a  genial  manner.  The  subjects  who  take  this  examina- 
tion sometimes  sulk  and  refuse  to  work.  Examiner  and  his  assistants  will  find  it  necessary  to  fill  out  most  of  the 
headings  for  the  men  before  the  examination  begins.  The  time  required  for  this  preparatory  work  may  be  used  to 
advantage  in  making  the  men  feel  at  ease.  As  the  demonstration  preparatory  to  each  test  requires  some  time,  the 
"pencils  up"  command  is  omitted  in  examination  beta.  The  examiner's  platform  should  be  so  high  that  he  can  readily 
see  whether  or  not  the  subjects  are  working.  Great  care  should  be  taken  to  prevent  the  overanxious  from  beginning 
work  before  the  command  "Go." 

Seating  conditions  should  be  such  that  subjects  can  not  copy  from  one  another  and  the  rule  that  copying  shall 
not  be  allowed  should  be  enforced  strictly.  The  blackboard  should  at  all  times  be  kept  clean  so  that  the  visual  condi- 
tions may  be  excellent  and  constant.  The  blackboard  figures  for  test  1  should  be  exposed  when  the  subjects  enter 
the  examining  room.  As  soon  as  a  test  has  been  demonstrated  and  the  men  have  been  told  to  go  ahead,  the  blackboard  should 
be  covered  and  kept  covered  until  time  is  called.  It  should  not  be  turned  to  the  next  test  until  the  men  have  been  ordered 
to  stop  work  on  a  given  test.     Care  should  be  taken  to  have  the  physical  conditions  of  examination  reasonably  uniform. 

With  the  exception  of  the  brief  introductory  statements  and  a  few  orders,  instructions  are  to  be  given  throughout 
by  means  of  gestures  instead  of  words.  These  gestures  accompany  the  samples  and  demonstrations  and  should  be 
animated  and  emphatic. 

It  is  absolutely  necessary  that  directions  be  followed  closely  and  procedure  kept  uniform  and  definite.  Varia- 
ations  of  procedure  are  more  likely  to  occur  in  beta  than  in  alpha,  and  there  is  serious  risk  that  if  allowed  they  will 
lessen  the  value  of  results.  Examiner  should  especially  guard  against  using  more  or  fewer  gestures  or  words  for  one 
group  than  for  another.  Oral  language  should  be  rigidly  limited  to  the  words  and  phrases  given  in  the  procedure  for 
the  different  tests. 

Whether  the  men  get  the  idea  of  the  test  and  enter  into  it  with  the  proper  spirit  will  depend  chiefly  on  the  skill 
with  which  the  examiner,  the  demonstrator,  and  the  orderlies  carry  out  their  respective  parts.  Examiner  and  demon- 
strator especially  should  be  selected  with  the  greatest  care.  An  examiner  who  succeeds  admirably  in  giving  alpha 
may  prove  to  be  entirely  unadapted  for  beta.  Both  examiner  and  demonstrator  must  be  adept  in  the  use  of  gesture 
language.  In  the  selection  of  a  demonstrator  the  personnel  office  should  be  consulted .  One  camp  has  had  great  success 
with  a  "window  seller"  as  demonstrator.  Actors  should  also  be  considered  for  the  work.  The  orderlies  should  be  able 
to  keep  the  subjects  at  work  without  antagonizing  them  and  to  keep  them  encouraged  without  actually  helping  them. 

The  demonstrator  should  have  the  single  task  of  doing  before  the  group  just  what  the  group  is  later  to  do  with  the  exami- 
nation blanks.  The  blackboard  is  his  beta  blank.  Before  examination  beta  can  be  given  satisfactorily  the  demon- 
strator must  be  letter  perfect  in  his  part.  Both  examiner  and  demonstrator  must  be  very  careful  to  stand  at  the  side 
of  the  blackboard  in  order  not  to  hide  the  drawings. 

As  soon  as  the  men  of  a  group  have  been  properly  seated,  pencils  should  be  distributed  and  also  examination  blanks 
with  test  8  up.  While  this  is  being  done  examiner  should  say  "Here  are  some  papers.  You  must  not  open  them  or 
turn  them  over  until  you  are  told  to."    Holding  up  beta  blank,  examiner  continues: 

"In  the  place  where  it  says  name,  write  your  name;  print  it  if  you  can.  (Pause.)  Fill  out  the  rest  of  the  blank 
about  your  age,  schooling,  etc.,  as  well  as  you  can.  If  you  have  any  trouble  we  will  help  you."  (The  instructions 
given  under  segregation  may  be  used  for  filling  out  the  beta  blank.)  Examiner  should  announce  the  group  number 
and  see  that  it  as  well  as  the  other  necessary  information  is  supplied.  Before  the  examination  proceeds  each  paper 
should  be  inspected  in  order  to  make  sure  that  it  is  satisfactorily  completed. 

After  the  initial  information  has  been  obtained,  examiner  makes  the  following  introductory  remarks: 

"Attention.  Watch  this  man  (pointing  to  demonstrator).  He  (pointing  to  demonstrator  again)  is  going  to  do  here 
(tapping  blackboard  with  pointer),  what  you  (pointing  to  different  members  of  group)  are  to  do  on  your  papers  (here 
examiner  points  to  several  papers  that  lie  before  men  in  the  group,  picks  up  one,  holds  it  next  to  the  blackboard, 
returns  the  paper,  points  to  demonstrator  and  the  blackboard  in  succession,  then  to  the  men  and  their  papers).  Ask 
no  questions.     Wait  till  I  say  'Go  ahead!'  " 

In  general,  when  instructing  the  group  to  turn  from  test  to  test,  examiner  holds  up  a  beta  blank  before  group  and 
follows  his  own  instructions  as  he  gives  them.  As  soon  as  he  has  turned  to  desired  test  or  page  he  says,  "This  is  test 
X  here;  look! "  (pointing  to  the  page). 

To  suggest  to  the  group  the  necessity  of  working  rapidly  the  demonstrator,  after  proceeding  very  deliberately 
with  the  early  samples  of  each  test,  hurries,  as  soon  as  he  has  worked  out  the  last  sample  problem 

(1)  to  record  his  response  as  fast  as  he  can, 

(2)  then  to  catch  examiner's  eyes  for  approval,  and, 

(3)  finally,  to  slip  away  from  blackboard,  drawing  curtain  as  he  does  so. 


164  MEMOIRS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES.  ivol.xv, 

After  the  personal  data  called  for  on  page  1  of  blank  have  been  gathered  and  recorded,  the  orderlies'  vocabulary  in 
beta  is  rigidly  restricted  to  the  following  words,  or  their  literal  equivalents  in  Italian,  Russian,  etc.:  Yes,  No,  Sure, 
Good,  Quick,  How  many?  Same,  Fix  it.  Under  no  circumstances  may  substitutional  explanations  or  directions  be 
given. 

Test  1,  maze. 

"Now  turn  your  papers  over.  This  is  test  1  here  (pointing  to  page  of  record  blank).  Look."  After  all  have  found 
the  page,  examiner  continues,  "Don't  make  any  marks  till  I  say  'Go  ahead.'  Now  watch."  After  touching  both 
arrows,  examiner  traces  through  first  maze  with  pointer  and  then  motions  the  demonstrator  to  go  ahead.  Demonstrator 
traces  path  through  first  maze  with  crayon,  slowly  and  hesitatingly.  Examiner  then  traces  second  maze  and  motions 
to  demonstrator  to  go  ahead.  Demonstrator  makes  one  mistake  by  going  into  the  blind  alley  at  upper  left-hand  corner 
of  maze.  Examiner  apparently  does  not  notice  what  demonstrator  is  doing  until  he  crosses  line  at  end  of  alley;  then 
examiner  shakes  hishead  vigorously,  says  "No— no,"  takes  demonstrator's  hand  and  traces  back  to  the  placewhere  he 
may  start  right  again.  Demonstrator  traces  rest  of  maze  so  as  to  indicate  an  attempt  at  haste,  hesitating  only  at 
ambiguous  points.  Examiner  says  "Good."  Then  holding  up  blank,  "Look  here,"  and  draws  an  imaginary  line 
across  the  page  from  left  to  right  for  every  maze  on  the  page.  Then,  "All  right.  Go  ahead.  Do  it  (pointing  to  men 
and  then  to  books).  Hurry  up."  The  idea  of  working  fast  must  be  impressed  on  the  men  during  the  maze  test. 
Examiner  and  orderlies  walk  around  the  room,  motioning  to  men  who  are  not  working,  and  saying,  "Do  it,  do  it,  hurry 
up,  quick."     At  the  end  of  2  minutes  examiner  says,  "Stop!    Turn  over  the  page  to  test  2." 

Test  2,  cube  analysis. 

" This  is  test  2  here.  Look."  After  everyone  has  found  the  page — ■" Now  watch."  The  order  of  procedure  is  as 
follows: 

(1)  Examiner  points  to  the  three-cube  model  on  the  blackboard,  making  a  rotary  movement  of  the  pointer  to 
embrace  the  entire  picture. 

(2)  With  similar  motion  he  points  to  the  three-cube  model  on  shelf. 

(3)  Examiner  points  next  to  picture  on  blackboard  and  asks,  "How  much?" 

(4)  Examiner  turns  to  cube  model  and  counts  aloud,  putting  up  his  fingers  while  so  doing,  and  encouraging  the 
men  to  count  with  him. 

(5)  Examiner  tabs  each  cube  on  the  blackboard  and  motions  to  demonstrator,  asking  him  "How  much?" 

(6)  Demonstrator  (pointing)  counts  cubes  on  blackboard  silently  and  writes  the  figure  3  in  proper  place. 
In  the  second  sample  of  this  test,  when  examiner  counts  cubes  of  model  he 

(1)  counts  the  three  exposed  cubes; 

(2)  touches  the  unexposed  cube  with  pointer;  and 

(3)  without  removing  pointer  turns  model,  so  that  hidden  cube  comes  into  view  of  group.     In  other  respects 

procedure  with  second  and  third  samples  is  the  same  as  with  first. 

In  counting  the  12-cube  model,  examiner  (1)  counts  the  top  row  of  cubes  in  the  model  (left  to  right),  (2)  counts 
the  exposed  bottom  row  (right  to  left),  (3)  taps  with  pointer  the  end  cube  of  hidden  row,  (4)  turns  the  entire  model 
around  and  completes  his  counting.  Examiner  then  holds  model  in  same  plane  as  drawing  and  counts  (in  the  same 
order  as  above)  the  cubes  on  blackboard,  counting  lines  between  front  and  top  row  as  representing  the  hidden  row. 
He  then  asks  demonstrator  "How  much?  "  Demonstrator  counts  the  cubes  on  blackboard  (pointing  but  not  speaking) 
and  writes  the  response. 

Throughout  the  demonstration  the  counting  is  done  deliberately,  not  more  rapidly  than  one  cube  per  second. 

At  end  of  demonstration  examiner  points  to  page  and  says,  "All  right.  Go  ahead."  At  the  end  of  2 J  minutes  he 
says,  "Stop!     Look  at  me  and  don't  turn  the  page." 

Test  3,  X-0  series. 

"This  is  test  3  here.  Look."  After  everyone  has  found  the  page — "Now  watch."  Examiner  first  points  to  the 
blank  rectangles  at  the  end,  then  traces  each  "O"  in  chart,  then  traces  outline  of  "OV  in  remaining  spaces.  Demon- 
strator, at  a  gesture,  draws  them  in.  Examiner  then  traces  first  "X  "  in  next  sample,  moves  to  next  "X  "  by  tracing 
the  arc  of  an  imaginary  semicircle  joining  the  two,  and  in  the  same  manner  traces  each  "X,"  moving  over  an  arc  to 
the  next.  He  then  traces  outlines  of  "X's"  in  the  proper  blank  spaces,  moving  over  the  imaginary  arc  in  each  case, 
and  motions  to  demonstrator  to  draw  them  in.  Demonstrator,  at  a  gesture,  fills  in  remaining  problems  very  slowly, 
standing  well  to  the  right  of  the  blackboard  and  writing  with  his  left  hand.  Examiner  points  to  page  and  says,  "All 
right.     Go  ahead.     Hurry  up! "     At  end  of  1}  minutes  he  says,  "Stop!    Turn  over  the  page  to  test  4." 

Test  4,  digit-symbol. 

"This  is  test  4  here.  Look."  After  everyone  has  found  the  page —  "Now  watch."  Examiner  points  to  first 
digit  of  key  on  blackboard  and  then  points  to  the  symbol  under  it.  Same  for  all  nine  digits  in  key.  Examiner  then 
(1)  points  to  first  digit  of  sample,  (2)  to  the  empty  space  below  digit,  (3)  points  to  corresponding  digit  of  key,  (4)  points 
to  proper  symbol  under  digit  in  key,  and  (5)  traces  the  outline  of  the  proper  symbol  in  the  blank  space  under  the  digit 
in  the  sample.  Same  for  first  five  samples.  Demonstrator,  at  a  gesture,  fills  in  all  the  samples,  working  as  follows: 
(1)  Touches  the  number  in  the  first  sample  with  index  finger  of  right  hand;  (2)  holding  finger  there,  finds  with  index 
finger  of  left  hand  the  corresponding  number  in  key;  (3)  drops  index  finger  of  left  hand  to  symbol  for  number  found; 
(4)  holding  left  hand  in  this  position  writes  appropriate  symbol  in  the  lower  half  of  the  sample. 


Memoirs  National  Academy  of  Sciences  XV. 


Parti,  PI.  15. 


TE5T2 


TE5T3 

00000 

X    X    X    X .         ~] 

ooxooxooxT 

xxxoxoxxxox 

GROUP   EXAMINATION    BETA,  BLACKBOARD    DEMONSTRATIONS,  TESTS   1    TO  4. 


Memoirs  National  Academy  of  Sciences  XV. 


Part  I,  PI.  16. 


TE5T5 

62 

6  2 

5  9 

56 

327 

3  2  7 

249 

249 

15  3  6 

1536 

3745 

3745 

450  1  0 

4500  1 

620  1  9 

6  2019 

GROUP   EXAMINATION    BETA,  BLACKBOARD    DEMONSTRATIONS,  TESTS   5  TO  8. 


no.i.]  PSYCHOLOG  CAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  ARMY.  165 

Similarly  with  the  other  samples.  While  working,  demonstrator  should  stand  as  far  aa  possible  to  the  left,  doing 
all  the  samples  from  this  side. 

At  the  end  of  the  demonstration  examiner  says,  "Look  here!"  and  points  to  key  on  page,  repeating  the  gestures 
used  in  pointing  on  the  blackboard  at  the  beginning  of  the  demonstration.  Then,  "All  right.  Go  ahead.  Hurry  up!" 
Orderlies  point  out  key  to  men  who  are  at  a  loss  to  find  it.  At  the  end  of  two  minutes,  examiner  says,  "Stop!  But 
don't  turn  the  page." 

Test  5,  number  checking. 

"This  is  test  5  here.  Look."  After  everyone  has  found  the  page,  "Now  watch."  In  this  demonstration  ex- 
aminer must  try  to  get  "Yes"  or  "No"  responses  from  the  group.  If  the  wrong  response  is  volunteered  by  the  group, 
examiner  points  to  digits  again  and  gives  right  response,  "Yes"  or  "No"  as  the  case  may  be.  Examiner  points  to 
first  digit  of  first  number  in  left  column,  then  to  first  digit,  first  number,  in  right  column,  then  to  second  digit,  first  number, 
in  left  column  and  second  digit,  first  number,  in  right  column,  nods  head,  says ' '  Yes' '  and  makes  an  imaginary  cross  at  end 
number  in  right  column.  Motions  to  demonstrator,  who  makes  an  "X"  there.  Examiner  does  the  same  for  second 
line  of  figures,  but  here  he  indicates  clearly  by  shaking  head  and  saying  "No" — that  certain  digits  are  not  identical. 
Examiner  repeats  for  three  more  sets  and  after  each,  looks  at  group,  says,  "Yes?"  in  questioning  tone  and  waits  for  them 
to  say  "Yes"  or  "No."  He  repeats  correct  reply  with  satisfaction.  Demonstrator  checks  each  after  group  has 
responded,  or  at  signal  from  examiner  if  group  does  not  respond.  Demonstrator  then  works  out  remaining  items, 
pointing  from  column  to  column  and  working  deliberately.  Examiner  summarizes  demonstrator's  work  by  pointing 
to  the  whole  numbers  in  each  set  and  saying  "Yes"  (indicating  X)  or  "No;"  if  "No,"  he  shows  again  where  numbers 
are  unlike.  Examiner  then  points  to  page  and  says  "All  right.  Go  ahead.  Hurry  up!"  At  the  end  of  3  minutes 
examiner  says  "Stop.    Turn  over  the  page  to  test  G." 

Test  6,  pictorial  completion. 

"This  is  test  6  here.  Look.  A  lot  of  pictures."  After  everyone  has  found  the  place,  "Now  watch."  Examiner 
points  to  hand  and  says  to  demonstrator,  "Fix  it."  Demonstrator  does  nothing,  but  looks  puzzled.  Examiner  points 
to  the  picture  of  the  hand,  and  then  to  the  place  where  the  finger  is  missing  and  says  to  demonstrator,  "Fix  it;  fix  it." 
Demonstrator  then  draws  in  finger.  Examiner  says,  "That's  right."  Examiner  then  points  to  fish  and  place  for  eye 
and  says,  "Fix  it."  After  demonstrator  has  drawn  missing  eye,  examiner  points  to  each  of  the  four  remaining  draw- 
ings and  says,  "Fix  them  all."  Demonstrator  works  samples  out  slowly  and  with  apparent  effort.  When  the 
samples  are  finished  examiner  says,  "All  right.  Go  ahead.  Hurry  up!"  During  the  course  of  this  test  the 
orderlies  walk  around  the  room  and  locate  individuals  who  are  doing  nothing,  point  to  their  pages  and  say,  "Fix  it. 
Fix  them,"  trying  to  set  everyone  working.  At  the  end  of  3  minutes  examiner  says,  "Stop!  But  don't  turn  over 
the  page." 

Test  7,  geometrical  construction. 

"This  is  test  7  here.  Look."  After  everyone  has  found  the  page,  "Now  watch."  Examiner  points  to  the  first 
figure  on  blackboard.  He  then  takes  the  two  pieces  of  cardboard,  fits  them  on  to  the  similar  drawings  on  black- 
board to  show  that  they  correspond  and  puts  them  together  in  the  square  on  blackboard  to  show  that  they  fill  it.  Then, 
after  running  his  finger  over  the  line  of  intersection  of  the  parts,  examiner  removes  the  pieces  and  signals  the  demon- 
strator, who  draws  solution  in  the  square  on  blackboard.  The  same  procedure  is  repeated  for  the  second  and  third 
sample.     Demonstrator  works  out  fourth  sample,  after  much  study,  "pointing  from  the  square  to  the  forms. 

Demonstrator  first  draws  two  small  squares  in  the  upper  half  of  the  large  square,  then  the  two  triangles  in  the 
remaining  rectangle.  Each  small  figure  is  drawn  in  by  tracing  its  entire  circumference,  not  merely  the  necessary 
dividing  lines.  While  drawing  each  small  figure  in  the  large  square,  demonstrator  points  with  index  finger  of  left  hand 
to  the  corresponding  small  figure  at  left  of  square,  taking  care  not  to  obstruct  the  view.  At  the  end  of  the  demonstration 
examiner  holds  up  blank,  points  to  each  square  on  the  page  and  says,  "All  right.  Go  ahead.  Hurry  up!"  At  the 
end  of  2£  minutes,  "Stop!     Turn  over  the  page."     Papers  are  then  collected  immediately. 

3.    DIRECTIONS   FOR   SCORING. 

General  rules. 

1.  In  general,  items  evidently  corrected  stand  as  corrected.     The  only  exception  to  this  rule  is  in  the  maze  test. 

2.  In  tests  where  the  score  is  number  right,  only  wrong  items  need  be  checked  in  scoring.  In  test  5,  where  the  score 
is  right  minus  wrong,  wrong  and  omitted  items  must  be  separately  checked. 

3.  Enter  the  score  for  each  test  in  lower  right-hand  corner  oi  the  test  page  and  encircle  it.  When  the  test  has  been 
rescored  a  check  may  be  made  beside  the  circle. 

4.  Red  or  blue  pencil  increases  accuracy  of  scoring. 

Test  1. 

1.  One-half  point  for  each  correctly  completed  half  of  maze.  A  half  maze  is  correct  if  drawn  line  does  not  cross  any 
line  of  maze  (except  through  awkwardness)  nor  an  imaginary  straight  line  across  the  opening  of  a  wrong  passage. 

2.  Allow  much  leeway  in  the  cutting  of  corners. 

3.  Spur  running  into  any  blind  passage  counts  wrong  for  that  half-item,  even  though  erased. 

4.  When  two  lines  are  drawn,  one  straight  across  the  page,  the  other  correct,  full  credit  is  given. 


166 


MEMOIRS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES. 


[Vol.  XV, 


Score  is  number  right. 


Test  2. 
Tests. 


1.  Score  is  number  right. 

2.  Any  incomplete  item  receives  no  credit. 

3.  Count  any  item  correct  if  intended  plan  is  carried  out. 
between  the  crosses  of  items  2  and  4  in  first  part  of  line,  etc. 


Disregard  additional  unnecessary  marks,  such  as  circles 


Test  4. 


1.  Score  is  one-third  of  number  of  correct  symbols. 

2.  Use  leniency  in  judging  form  of  symbol. 

3.  Credit  symbol  for  2  even  though  reversed. 

Teat  5. 

1.  Score  is  right  minus  wrong  (number  of  items  checked  that  should  be  checked  minus  number  of  items  checked 
that  should  not  be  checked). 

2.  If  other  clear  indication  is  used  instead  of  crosses,  give  credit. 

3.  If  numbers  which  should  not  be  checked  are  marked  by  some  other  sign  than  is  used  to  check  similar  pairs, 
count  as  though  not  marked. 

4.  If  all  items  are  checked,  the  score  for  the  test  is  zero. 

Test  6. 

1.  Score  is  number  right. 

2.  Allow  much  awkwardness  in  drawing.     Writing  in  name  of  missing  part  or  any  way  of  indicating  it  receives 
credit,  if  idea  is  clear. 

3.  Additional  parts  do  not  make  item  wrong,  if  proper  missing  part  is  also  inserted. 

4.  Rules  for  individual  items: 

Item  4. — Any  spoon  at  any  angle  in  right  hand  receives  credit.     Left  hand,  or  unattached  spoon,  no  credit. 

Item  5. — Chimney  must  be  in  right  place.     No  credit  for  smoke. 

Item  6. — Another  ear  on  same  side  as  first  receives  no  credit. 

Item  8. — Plain  square,  cross,  etc.,  in  proper  location  for  stamp,  receives  credit. 

Item  10. — Missing  part  is  the  rivet.     Line  of  " ear "  may  b    omitted. 

Item  13. — Missing  part  is  leg. 

Item  15. — Ball  should  be  drawn  in  hand  of  man.     If  represented  in  hand  of  woman,  or  in  motion,  no  credit. 

Item  16. — Single  line  indicating  net  receives  credit. 

Item  IS. — Any  representation  intended  for  horn,  pointing  in  any  direction,  receives  credit. 

Item  19. — Hand  and  powder  puff  must  be  put  on  proper  side. 

Item  tO. — Diamond  is  the  missing  part.     Failure  to  complete  hilt  on  sword  is  not  an  error. 

Test  7. 

1.  Score  is  number  right. 

2.  Allow  considerable  awkwardness  in  drawing. 

3.  Extra  subdivisions,  if  not  erased,  make  item  wrong. 

4.  Rules  for  individual  items. 

Item  1. — Line  of  division  may  be  slightly  distant  from  true  center,  and  need  not  be  straight. 
Item  S. — Lines  of  semicircumference  must  start  from  or  near  corners  of  square. 
Item  4- — Line  must  not  start  from  corner. 


4.    TOTAL   SCORE   AND  RATING. 

The  result  of  examination  beta  is  expressed  as  a  "total  score,"  which  is  the  sum  of  the  raw  scores  of  the  several 
tests.     The  raw  scores  are  obtained  as  follows: 


Test. 


Total. 


Method  of  scoring. 


Half  point  for  each  half  maze. 

Number  right 

Number  right 

One-third  of  number  right 

Right  minus  wrong 

Number  right 

Number  right 


Maximum 
score. 


5 
16 

12 
30 
25 
20 
10 


no.  i.]  PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  ARMY. 

Letter  ratings  are  assigned  on  examination  beta  as  follows: 


167 


Rating. 

Scores. 

A 

100-118 
90-  99 
80-89 
65-  79 
45-  64 
20-  44 
0-  19 

B 

C+ 

C 

C— 

D 

D-i 

1  Recalled  (or  individual  examination. 

All  ratings  above  D—  are  entered  and  reported  at  once.  Men  whose  scores  fall  below  D  are  recalled  for  individual 
examination. 

Ratings  of  D  —  may  not  be  given  in  examination  beta,  unless  recall  of  the  men  for  individual  examination  is 
impossible. 

V.     Individual  Examinations. 

1.      GENERAL    DIRECTIONS. 

Purpose. — The  main  purpose  of  the  individual  examination  is  to  secure  a  more  accurate  measurement  of  the 
mental  ability  of  those  who  have  made  D  —  in  alpha  or  beta,  or  in  both .  By  the  personal  contact  it  allows  it  should 
also  yield  valuable  supplementary  information  of  a  kind  which  can  not  be  brought  out  by  a  group  examination.  All 
the  kinds  of  information  secured  should  be  considered  in  connection  with  recommendation  concerning  a  man. 

The  subjects. — Men  who  are  likely  to  be  summoned  for  individual  examination  fall  into  three  classes — literates, 
illiterates,  and  non-English  speaHng.  Since  the  procedure  of  examination  varies  importantly  with  the  class,  the  first 
task  of  the  examiner  is  to  assign  the  man  who  has  reported  for  individual  examination  to  his  proper  category.  The 
following  definitions  will  assist  in  the  process  of  classifying: 

Literates. — Those  who  have  been  allowed  to  take  alpha  may  ordinarily  be  considered  literate  for  purpose  of 
individual  examination.  Subjects  who  have  not  taken  alpha  may  be  considered  literate  if  they  have  completed  the 
third  grade  (or  its  equivalent)  in  an  American  school.  Examiner  should  question  subject  regarding  his  opportunities 
for  schooling,  and  if  necessary  may  test  his  ability  to  read  and  write  English . 

Illiterates  are  those  who  do  not  meet  the  above  requirements,  but  who  understand  and  speak  English  fairly  well. 
The  subject  may  be  highly  literate  in  some  language  but  illiterate  in  English .  Such  are  to  be  classed  as  illiterate  for  the 
present  purpose. 

Non-English-speaking  subjects  are  those  who,  whether  foreign  bom  or  American  born,  are  unable  to  understand 
or  speak  English  sufficiently  well  to  take  an  oral  examination  given  in  English .  The  majority  of  such  subjects  are  for- 
eigners, but  many  foreigners  belong  in  either  the  literate  or  the  illiterate  class  instead  of  in  the  non-English  speaking. 

Choice  of  examination. — Literates  should  be  examined  by  means  of  the  Point  Scale  or  Stanford-Binet  scale  according 
to  availability  of  materials  and  preference  of  the  examiner.  Usually  it  will  not  be  necessary  to  give  a  literate  subject 
further  examination,  but  if  the  examiner  is  in  doubt  as  to  proper  rating  and  recommendation  concerning  subject,  he 
should ,  after  completing  examination  by  the  one  or  the  other  of  these  scales,  supplement  his  observations  by  giving  such 
performance  tests  as  seem  desirable. 

Illiterates  should  be  examined  by  means  of  one  or  more  of  the  following  systematic  procedures:  (a)  the  Point 
Scale  as  adapted  for  illiterates;  (b)  the  Stanford-Binet  scale  as  adapted  for  illiterates;  (c)  the  Performance  Scale  with  oral 
instructions.  In  certain  instances  it  may  be  obviously  desirable  or  necessary  to  use  the  Performance  Scale  in  addition 
to  the  one  or  the  other  adapted  scale.  As  a  rule  it  should  be  unnecessary  to  use  other  than  either  the  Point  Scale  or 
Stanford-Binet  (complete  or  adapted)  in  the  case  of  a  subject  who  has  attended  an  American  school  as  much  as  four  or 
five  years.  Inability  to  read  and  write  after  that  amount  of  schooling  nearly  always  indicates  grave  mental  inferiorty, 
and  should  not  be  considered  an  excuse  for  failure  on  such  tests  as  writing  from  dictation,  counting  backward,  making 
change,  etc.  Those  who  are  illiterate  from  complete  lack  of  educational  opportunity  should  be  given  the  performance 
scale. 

Non-English-speaking  subjects  can  be  examined  safely  only  by  means  of  the  Performance  Scale  with  non-verbal 
instructions.  Those  subjects  who  understand  English  slightly  may  profit  by  the  use  of  such  words  as  "no,"  "yes,"  etc. 
For  this  reason  words  may  be  Used  by  the  examiner  to  supplement  his  gestures,  but  they  must  not  be  depended  upon 
as  a  means  of  conveying  the  idea  of  what  is  to  be  done  in  a  given  test. 

The  duration  and  extent  of  an  individual  examination  should  depend  upon  the  nature  of  the  case  and  should  vary 
with  the  information  necessary  for  safe  report  and  recommendation.  In  some  instances  only  a  few  tests  need  be  given, 
in  others,  even  a  prolonged  examination  may  leave  the  examiner  in  doubt  concerning  suitable  recommendation,  and 
may  force  him  to  appeal  to  company  commander  or  others  for  supplementary  information.  Unless  conditions  render 
haste  imperative,  the  examiner  should  obtain  a  definite  intelligence  rating  for  each  subject  in  terms  of  mental  age. 

Condensed  instructions  for  administering  the  Point  Scale  and  the  Stanford-Binet  scale  are  printed  in  this  guide 
for  the  convenience  of  examiners,  but  these  instructions  can  be  used  safely  only  on  the  basis  of  thorough  knowledge 
of  the  detailed  descriptions  of  these  two  scales  which  are  available  in  book  form.  The  Performance  Scale  is  fully 
described  in  this  guide,  since  its  constituent  parts  and  their  standardization  are  newly  chosen  and  especially  adapted  for 
army  use. 


168  MEMOIRS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES.  [vol.xv, 

It  is  the  task  of  the  psychological  examiner  to  obtain  reliable  intelligence  ratings  and  to  make  recommendations 
based  thereupon.  Where  serious  mental  peculiarties  or  psychopathic  conditions  are  discovered,  full  report  should  be 
made  and  the  subject  promptly  referred  to  the  psychiatrist  with  such  information  as  the  psychological  examination 
has  supplied. 

The  examiner' s  recommendations. — As  a  result  of  careful  psychological  examination,  the  examiner  may  conclude, 
(1)  that  the  subject  should  be  assigned  or  returned  to  appropriate  military  organization  for  regular  training;  (2)  that  he 
should  be  assigned  or  transferred  to  the  Development  Battalion  or  to  a  service  organization  in  which  simple  forms  of 
manual  labor  are  the  chief  requirement;  (3)  that  he  should  be  recommended  to  the  psychiatrist  for  discharge  by  reason 
of  intellectual  deficiency ;  (4)  that  he  should  be  referred  to  the  psychiatrist  for  further  examination  because  of  peculiari- 
ties of  behavior  or  definite  psychopathic  tendencies. 

It  is  impossible  to  state  with  safety  the  particular  degree  of  intellectual  deficiency  which  justifies  recommenda- 
tion for  discharge.  Other  factors  than  intelligence  contribute  to  a  man's  serviceableness  in  the  Army.  These  must 
be  taken  into  account.  If  the  officers  who  are  attempting  to  train  a  man  are  satisfied  with  his  responses,  the  indica- 
tions are  that  he  should  not  be  discharged,  even  if  very  inferior  in  intelligence.  In  general,  subjects  whose  mental  age  is 
below  eight  should  be  seriously  considered  for  discharge  or  Development  Battalion.  Those  \chose  mental  ages  range  from 
eight  to  ten  should  be  considered  for  use  in  special  service  organizations  or  for  assignment  to  Development  Battalion.  AH 
others,  except  those  whose  psychotic  symptoms  would  cause  their  immediate  reference  to  the  neuropsychiatric  ex- 
aminer, should  be  assigned  to  regular  training  organizations. 

Grade  E  shall  be  given  to  all  men  who  are  recommended  by  the  examiner  for  discharge,  Development  Battalion, 
or  service  organizations,  and  to  such  men  only.  All  men  whose  intelligence  is  deemed  satisfactory  for  regular  military 
duty  shall  be  given  rating  of  D—  or  higher. 

In  this  connection  too  great  emphasis  can  not  be  laid  upon  the  use  of  common  sense  as  well  as  technical  skill  and 
information  by  the  psychological  examiner.  While  doing  his  utmost  to  obtain  reliable  measurement  of  mental  traits, 
he  should  be  quick  to  observe  indications  of  qualities  of  physique,  temperament,  and  character  which  are  important 
in  the  soldier. 

2.    POINT   SCALE    EXAMINATION, 
(a)   PROCEDURE.' 

Test  1,  xsthetic  comparison  and  judgment. 

Expose  first  only  pair  (a)  of  test  1,  trial  l;2  next  pair  (6);  and  last  pair  (c),  saying  each  time,  "  Which  is  the  prettier 
of  these  two  faces?"  If  prettier  is  unintelligible,  ask  "  Which  do  you  like  the  better?"  Record  judgment  (+  or  — )  each 
time.     If  there  have  been  any  correct  judgments,  repeat  the  procedure  with  trial  2. 

Credit  1  point  for  each  pair,  if  both  judgments  have  been  correct.     Total  possible  credits,  3. 

Test  2,  perception  and  comparison  of  pictures  (missing  parts). 

Present  card  (test  2,  a)  asking  simply,  "  What  is  missing  in  this  picture  of  a  woman?"  If  subject  responds  "hands" 
or  "arms,"  pass  on  to  the  next  part  of  the  test,  but  if  instead  he  says  "hat,"  ask  "  What  else?"  If  again  he  replies 
incorrectly,  consider  the  attempt  a  failure  and  pass  on  to  card  6,  c,  d.  With  the  faces  (c)  and  (d)  covered,  present  face 
(6)  asking,  "  What  is  missing  in  this  face?"  If  subject  replies  "an  ear,"  ask  "  What  else?"  Similarly  present  (c)  and 
(<f),  giving  two  chances  and  no  more. 

Credit  1  point  for  each  correct  response.     Total  possible  credits,  4. 

Test  3,  comparison  of  lines  and  iveights. 

(a)  Present  the  lines  on  card  (test  3,  a)  with  the  longer  one  above,  saying,  "  Which  is  the  longer  of  these  two  lines?" 
If  the  answer  is  incorrect,  proceed  no  farther;  if  correct,  remove  the  card  from  view,  turn  it  upside  down,  and  present 
it  with  the  longer  line  below.  (6)  Next  place  before  subject  the  3  and  12  gram  weights,  about  5  centimeters  apart, 
saying,  "I  wish  you  to  tell  me  which  is  the  heavier  of  these  two  blocks."  If  subject  merely  chooses  a  weight  by  pointing, 
ask  "How  do  you  know?"  and  if  hestill  hesitates  to  touch  them,  say,  "  You  may  touch  them  if  you  icish  to."  If  subject 
responds  correctly  by  lifting  the  weights  and  selecting  the  heavier  one,  reverse  the  blocks  in  position  and  give  a  second 
trial,     (c)  Same  procedure,  with  6  and  15  gram  weights. 

Credit  1  point  for  (a)  if  both  judgments  have  been  correct.     Similarly  for  (6)  and  (c).     Total  possible  credits,  3. 

Test  4,  memory  span  for  digits. 

Digits  used:  (a) 

First  set 374 

Second  set 581 

Say,  " Listen,  and  repeat  exactly  what  I  say."  Then  read  distinctly  and  at  the  rate  of  two  per  second,  in  a  per- 
fectly monotonous  tone,  the  following  digits,  "3,  7,  4"  and  pause  for  response.  If  subject  fails  to  grasp  the  idea  and 
makes  no  response,  tell  him  again  to  listen  carefully  and  to  say  just  what  you  say.  Then  present  again  the  same  set 
of  digits.  If  subject  repeats  them  correctly,  pass  on  to  the  first  set  of  four  digits  given  under  (b).  If  he  fails  to  repeat 
correctly  the  first  set  of  three  digist,  he  is  given  the  second  set  "5,  8,  1."    If  subject  fails  in  this  trial,  the  test  is  dis- 

i  The  following  condensed  directions  for  point  scale  examination  should  be  supplemented  by  reference  to  Yerkes,  Bridges  and  Hardwick,  "A 
Point  Scale  for  Measuring  Mental  Ability,"  Warwick  and  York,  Baltimore. 
1  See  material  for  point  scale  examination. 


(b) 

(c) 

(d) 

(«) 

2947 

35871 

491572 

2749385 

6135 

92736 

516283 

6195847 

No.i.]  PSYCHOLOGICAL  EXAMINING  IN  THE  UNITED  STATES  ARMY.  169 

continued;  if  he  succeeds,  proceed  to  the  next  larger  group  of  digits.     Similarly  for  (6),  (c),  (d),  and  (e).    Only  in 
(a)  is  a  second  trial  allowed  with  the  first  set. 

Credit  (a),  (6),  (e),  (d),  and  (e)  1  point  each  for  correct  reproduction  of  either  set.     Total  possible  credits,  5. 

Test  5,  counting  backward. 

(a)  Say,  "I  wish  you  to  count  backward  from  20  to  1,  like  this:  25,  24,  23,  22,  21."  At  this  point  pause  and  wait 
for  subject  to  continue  counting.  (6)  If  he  is  unable  to  make  a  start,  examiner  should  himself  continue  "20,  19,  18, 
17,  16  "  and  pause  again  for  subject  to  take  up  the  counting,  (c)  If  once  more  subject  fails  to  make  a  start,  examiner 
should  continue  "15,  14,  13,  12,  11"  and  again  pause,  (d)  If  subject  is  still  unable  to  respond,  examiner  should 
count  "10,  9,  8,  7,  6" — and  once  more  pause. 

If  subject  takes  up  the  counting  at  20  and  counts  without  mistake  to  1  in  about  30  seconds,  4  points  credit  should 
be  given.  If  he  makes  a  single  mistake  (reversal  or  omission)  he  should  be  asked  to  repeat,  and  if  the  mistake  is 
corrected,  full  credit  should  be  given;  if  it  is  not  corrected  he  should  be  credited  for  counting  from  the  next  multiple 
of  five  below  his  mistake.  The  credit  for  counting  correctly  from  15  to  1  is  3  points;  from  10  to  1,  2  points;  from  5  to  1, 
1  point.     The  time  limit  for  (6),  (c),  and  (d)  is  also  30  seconds.     Total  possible  credits,  4. 

Test  6,  repetition  of  sentences. 

Say,  "Listen  carefully  andrepeatjust  what  I  say."  Be  sure  subject  is  attending  then  read  (a)  slowly  and  distinctly. 
If  subject  makes  no  response,  repeat.  Whether  or  not  subject  succeeds  with  (a)  on  second  trial,  proceed  to  (o).  When- 
ever further  failure  occurs  discontinue  the  test. 

Credit  1  point  each  for  (a)  and  (6),  2  points  each  for  (c)  and  (d)  repeated  correctly,  or  with  only  an  error  due  to  an 
evident  misunderstanding  of  a  word.     Total  possible  credits,  6. 

Test  7,  description  of  pictures. 

Show  card  (test  7,  a)  saying,  "Please  look  at  this  picture  and  tell  me  about  it."    Similarly  for  (6)  and  (c). 
Credit  1  point  each  for  (a),  (6),  and  (c)  for  enumeration;  2  points  each  for  description,  whether  or  not  accompanied 
by  enumeration;  3  points  each  for  interpretation,  whether  or  not  accompanied  by  description.     Total  possible  credits,  9. 

Test  8,  arranging  weights. 

Place  3,  6,  9,  12,  and  15-gram  weights  on  table  before  subject  and  say,  "These  little  blocks  are  all  the  same  size,  but 
they  weigh  different  amounts.  Some  are  heavier  and  some  are  lighter.  I  wish  you  to  place  the  heaviest  one  here;  and  next  to 
it,  here,  the  one  which  is  just  a  little  less  heavy;  and  then  here,  the  one  which  is  a  little  less  heavy  than  that;  and  then  the  one  which 
is  still  a  little  less  heavy;  and  finally,  here,  the  lightest  one  of  all."  While  speaking,  point  to  the  place  on  the  table  where 
each  block  belongs.  It  is  essential  to  give  this  explicit  form  of  directions  to  very  inferior  subjects,  but  usually  examiner 
need  only  say,  "I  wish  you  to  arrange  these  blocks  in  order  of  weight,  beginning  with  the  heaviest  one,  here,  and  placing  the 
lightest  one  here,  at  the  opposite  end  of  the  series."  If  first  arrangement  is  not  correct,  give  second  trial,  cautioning  sub- 
ject to  be  careful  and  not  to  hurry  too  much. 

Credit  2  points  for  one  entirely  correct  arrangement;  1  point,  if  in  either  the  first  or  second  trial  the  arrangement 
is  correct  except  for  the  interchange  of  two  consecutive  blocks.    Total  possible  credits,  2. 

Test  9,  comparison  of  objects. 

Say,  "  You  know  what  an  apple  is?  You  know  what  a  banana  isf  Tell  me  how  they  are  different  from  one  another." 
Same  procedure  for  wood  and  glass,  and  paper  and  cloth.  If  only  one  point  of  difference  is  given,  say,  "What  other 
differences  are  there?" 

Credit  1  point  for  one  correct  point  of  difference,  2  points  for  two  or  more  correct  points  of  difference  in  each  pair. 
Total  possible  credits,  6. 

Test  10,  definitions  of  concrete  terms. 

Say,  (a)  "What  is  a  spoon?"  (b)  "What  is  a  chair?"  and  similarly  for  horse  and  baby. 

Credit  1  point  for  definition  in  terms  of  use,  and  2  points  for  definitions  in  terms  superior  to  use.  (See  book.) 
Total  possible  credits,  8. 

Test  11,  resistance  to  suggestion. 

Show  subject  successively  cards  (a),  (6),  and  (c)  with  longer  line  always  on  subject's  right,  saying,  "Which  is  the 
longer  of  these  two  lines?"  Follow  immediately  with  cards  (rf),  (e),  and  (/),  changing  form  of  question  to  "And  of 
these?"    Record  each  judgment. 

Credit  1  point  each  for  response  of  "  equal "  or  "left"  to  (d),  (e),  and  (J),  provided  only  there  has  been  no  incorrect 
response  to  (a),  (6),  or  (c).    Total  possible  credits,  3. 

Test  12,  copying  square  and  diamond. 

Place  card  (test  12,  a)  directly  in  front  of  subject  and  say,  indicating  back  of  record  sheet,  "Please  draw  with  your 
pencil  a  figure  just  like  the  one  before  you."     Same  for  card  (b). 

Credit  for  square,  2  points  for  any  figure  which  shows  approximate  equality  of  both  lines  and  angles  (see  scoring 
card  type  a),  and  1  point  for  figure  showing  approximate  equality  of  angles  but  not  of  lines  or  of  lines  but  not  of  angles 
(types  6  and  c);  for  diamond,  2  points  for  any  figure  which  shows  approximate  equality  of  both  pairs  of  opposite  angles 
(see  scoring  card,  type  a),  and  1  point  for  figure  showing  approximate  equality  of  only  one  pair  of  opposite  angles  (type 
b);  no  credit  for  anything  indistinguishable  from  a  square  or  unidentifiable  readily  as  a  diamond  (type  c).  Total  pos- 
sible credits,  4. 

121435°— 21 12 


170  MEMOIRS  NATIONAL  ACADEMY  OF  SCIENCES.  [vol.xv, 

Test  13,  free  association. 

Say,  "I  wish  you  to  say  all  the  words  that  you  can  think  of  in  three  minutes.  When  I  say  'Ready,'  you  begin,  and  say 
as  many  words  as  you  can  before  I  tell  you  to  stop.  Say  such  words  as  pin,  table,  grass,  trees,  clouds,  horse,  dog,  brook.  All 
ready.  Begin."  If  subject  stops,  as  if  assuming  that  enough  words  had  been  given,  at  the  end  of  a  half  minute  say, 
"Go  on,  please."    Repeat  this,  if  necessary,  at  the  end  of  each  half  minute  for  the  whole  period. 

Credit  for  words  or  phrases  (except  for  repetitions)  as  follows:  1  point  for  30-44  Words;  2  points  for  45-59  words; 
3  points  for  60-74;  4  points  for  75  and  upward.     Total  possible  credits,  4. 

Test  14,  use  of  three  given  words  in  one  sentence. 

On  the  back  of  the  record  sheet  write  plainly  the  words,  Boston,  money,  river.  Show  them  to  subject,  read  them 
over  twice,  and  say,  "I wish  you  to  make  one  sentence  in  which  the  three  words  Boston,  money,  andriver  are  used."  Make 
sure  that  subject  understands  the  three  words,  knows  what  is  meant  by  a  sentence,  and  grasps  the  fact  that  one,  not 
two  or  more  sentences,  is  required.  It  is  especially  necessary  to  emphasize  that  the  three  words  are  to  be  used  along 
with  other  words  in  making  one  good  sentence.  The  sentence  may  either  be  written,  or  given  orally  and  recorded  by 
examiner. 

Credit  4  points  for  the  three  words  used  in  one  sentence;  2  points  if  they  are  used  in  two  separate  sentences  or  in 
sentences  very  loosely  connected.     Total  possible  credits,  4. 

Test  15,  comprehension  of  questions. 

Read  each  question  slowly  and  distinctly,  twice  if  necessary.     If  subject  fails  to  respond,  he  should  be  encouraged. 
(a(  If  you  were  going  away  and  missed  your  train,  lohat  would  you  do? 

(b)  If  some  one  has  been  unkind  to  you  and  says  he  is  sorry,  what  should  you  do? 

(c)  Why  should  you  judge  a  person  by  ivhat  he  does  rather  than  by  what  he  says?  ■  - 

(d)  Why  do  we  more  readily  forgive  an  unkind  act  done  in  anger  than  one  done  without  anger? 

Credit  2  points  each  for  satisfactory  answer.  Half  credit  may  sometimes  be  given  (see  book).  Total  possible 
Credits,  8. 

Test  16,  drawing  designs  from  memory. 

Say  to  subject,  "I  am  going  to  show  you  two  drawings.  After  you  have  looked  at  them,  I  shall  take  them  away  and  ask 
you  to  draw  both  of  them  from  memory.  You  must  look  at  them  carefully,  because  you  will  see  them  for  only  fifteen  seconds, 
and  that  is  a  very  short  time." 

Credit  2  points  for  each  correct  reproduction.  Irregularity  of  line  is  disregarded.  Credit  1  point  for  imperfect 
reproductions,  such  as  those  in  which  the  rectangle  is  placed  in  center  of  prism,  or  small  squares  of  (b)  turned  outward 
instead  of  inward  (see  scoring  cards).    Total  possible  credits,  4. 

Test  17,  criticisms  of  absurd  statements. 

Say,  "I  am  going  to  read  some  sentences  to  you.  In  each  one  of  them  there  is  something  foolish  or  absurd.  (Make  sure 
that  subject  understands  what  is  meant  by 'foolish' or  by 'absurd.')  Listen  carefully  and  tell  me  each  time  what  it  is 
that  is  foolish."    Read  each  question  slowly  and  distinctly,  twice  if  necessary,  and  ask,  "  Now,  what  is  foolish  about  that?" 

(a)  We  met  a  finely  dressed  gentleman.  He  was  walking  along  the  street  with  his  hands  in  his  pockets  and  swinging  his 
cane. 

(b)  An  unlucky  bicycle  rider  fell  on  his  head  and  was  instantly  killed;  they  took  him  to  the  hospital  and  fear  that  he  can  not 
get  well. 

(c)  A  little  boy  said:  "I  have  three  brothers,  Paul,  Ernest,  and  myself." 

(d)  At  the  crossroads  was  a  guidepost  with  the  following  directions:  "Boston,  three  miles  and  a  half:  if  you  can't  read, 
inquire  at  the  blacksmith  shop." 

(«)  It  has  been  found  that  the  last  car  of  a  train  is  damaged  most  in  case  of  accident.  It  would  therefore  be  better  to  leave 
off  the  last  car. 

Credit  1  point  for  each  satisfactory  response;  no  partial  credits  allowed.     Total  possible  credits,  5. 

Test  IS,  construction  of  sentences. 

Show  subject  card  (test  18,  a)  and  say,  "  You  see  these  words.  Read  them  to  me,  please."  Be  sure  subject  recognizes 
the  words,  then  continue.  ' '  Now,  please  arrange  them  so  that  they  make  sense.  Make  one  good  senten